Browsing by Subject "HOSPITALIZATION"

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  • GREAT Global Res Acute Conditions; INI-CRCT Invest Network Initiative; Legrand, Matthieu; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2018)
    Background The interaction between chronic medications on admission and the association between serum potassium level and outcome in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are unknown. Methods Observational intercontinental study of patients admitted with AHF. 15954 patients were included from 12 cohorts in 4 continents. Main outcome was 90-day mortality. Clinical presentation (medication use, hemodynamics, comorbidities), demographic, echocardiographic, and biochemical data on admission were recorded prospectively in each cohort, with prospective adjudication of outcomes. Results Positive and negative linear relationships between 90-day mortality and sK+ above 4.5 mmol/L (hyperkalemia) and below 3.5 mmol/L (hypo-kalemia) were observed. Hazard ratio for death was 1.46 [1.34-1.58] for hyperkalemia and 1.22 [1.06-1.40] for hypokalemia. In a fully adjusted model, only hyperkalemia remained associated with mortality (HR 1.03 [1.02-1.04] for each 0.1 mmol/l change of sK+ above 4.5 mmol/L). Interaction tests revealed that the association between hyperkalemia and outcome was significantly affected by chronic medications. The association between hyperkalemia and mortality was absent for patients treated with beta blockers and in those with preserved renal function. Conclusions In patients with AHF, sK+ > 4.5 mmol/L appears to be associated with 90-day mortality. B-blockers have potentially a protective effect in the setting of hyperkalemia.
  • Bazelier, Marloes T.; Eriksson, Irene; de Vries, Frank; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Raitanen, Jani; Haukka, Jari; Starup-Linde, Jakob; De Bruin, Marie L.; Andersen, Morten (2015)
    PurposeTo identify pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies and to describe data management and data analysis techniques used for combining data. MethodsSystematic literature searches were conducted in PubMed and Embase complemented by a manual literature search. We included pharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies published from 2007 onwards that combined data for a pre-planned common analysis or quantitative synthesis. Information was retrieved about study characteristics, methods used for individual-level analyses and meta-analyses, data management and motivations for performing the study. ResultsWe found 3083 articles by the systematic searches and an additional 176 by the manual search. After full-text screening of 75 articles, 22 were selected for final inclusion. The number of databases used per study ranged from 2 to 17 (median=4.0). Most studies used a cohort design (82%) instead of a case-control design (18%). Logistic regression was most often used for individual-level analyses (41%), followed by Cox regression (23%) and Poisson regression (14%). As meta-analysis method, a majority of the studies combined individual patient data (73%). Six studies performed an aggregate meta-analysis (27%), while a semi-aggregate approach was applied in three studies (14%). Information on central programming or heterogeneity assessment was missing in approximately half of the publications. Most studies were motivated by improving power (86%). ConclusionsPharmacoepidemiological multi-database studies are a well-powered strategy to address safety issues and have increased in popularity. To be able to correctly interpret the results of these studies, it is important to systematically report on database management and analysis techniques, including central programming and heterogeneity testing. (c) 2015 The Authors. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Salonen, Päivi H.; Salonen, Juha H.; Säilä, Hanna; Helminen, Mika; Linna, Miika; Kauppi, Markku J. (2020)
    OBJECTIVES: Children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) may be predisposed to serious pneumonia due to modern disease-modifying anti-rheumatic treatment. In this nationwide retrospective study with clinical data, we describe the pneumonia episodes among children with JIA. METHODS: Patients under 18 years of age with JIA and pneumonia during 1998-2014 were identified in the National Hospital Discharge Register in Finland. Each individual patient record was reviewed, and detailed data on patients with JIA and pneumonia were retrieved, recorded, and analyzed. If the patient was hospitalized or received intravenous antibiotics, the pneumonia was considered serious. RESULTS: There were 157 episodes of pneumonia among 140 children with JIA; 111 episodes (71%) were serious (80% in 1998-2006 and 66% in 2007-2014). The mean age of the patients was 9 years. Forty-eight percent had active JIA and 46% had comorbidities. Disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) were used at the time of 135 episodes (86%): methotrexate (MTX) by 62% and biologic DMARDs (bDMARD) by 30%. There was no significant difference in the use of bDMARDs, MTX and glucocorticoids between the patient groups with serious and non-serious pneumonia episodes. During six of the episodes, intensive care was needed. Two patients (1.3%) died, the remaining ones recovered fully. CONCLUSIONS: Although the incidence of pneumonia and the use of immunosuppressive treatment among children with JIA increased from 1998 to 2014, the proportion of serious pneumonias in these patients decreased. There was no significant difference in the use of anti-rheumatic medication between patients with serious and non-serious pneumonia.Key Points• The incidence of serious pneumonias decreased from 1998 to 2014 among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).• There was no significant difference in the use of the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic medication between JIA patients with serious and non-serious pneumonias.• Active JIA, comorbidities, and combination medication were associated with nearly half of the pneumonias.
  • Rochfort, Andree; Beirne, Sinead; Doran, Gillian; Patton, Patricia; Gensichen, Jochen; Kunnamo, Ilkka; Smith, Susan; Eriksson, Tina; Collins, Claire (2018)
    Background: Patient self-management support is recognised as a key component of chronic care. Education and training for health professionals has been shown in the literature to be associated with better uptake, implementation and effectiveness of self-management programs, however, there is no clear evidence regarding whether this training results in improved health outcomes for patients with chronic conditions. Methods: A systematic review was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines using the Cochrane Library, PubMEd, ERIC, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Web searches, Hand searches and Bibliographies. Articles published from inception to September 1st, 2013 were included. Systematic reviews, Meta-analysis, Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), Controlled clinical trials, Interrupted time series and Controlled before and after studies, which reported on primary care health professionals' continuing education or evidence-based medicine/education on patient self-management for any chronic condition, were included. A minimum of two reviewers participated independently at each stage of review. Results: From 7533 abstracts found, only two papers provided evidence on the effectiveness of self-management education for primary healthcare professionals in terms of measured outcomes in patients. These two articles show improvement in patient outcomes for chronic back pain and diabetes based on RCTs. The educational interventions with health professionals spanned a range of techniques and modalities but both RCTs included a motivational interviewing component. Conclusions: Before and up to 2 years after the incorporation of patient empowerment for self-management into the WONCA Europe definition of general practice, there was a scarcity of high quality evidence showing improved outcomes for patients as a result of educating health professionals in patient self-management of chronic conditions.
  • HoT-PE Investigators; Barco, Stefano; Schmidtmann, Irene; Ageno, Walter; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lankeit, Mareike (2020)
    Aims To investigate the efficacy and safety of early transition from hospital to ambulatory treatment in low-risk acute PE, using the oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban. Methods and results We conducted a prospective multicentre single-arm investigator initiated and academically sponsored management trial in patients with acute low-risk PE (EudraCT Identifier 2013-001657-28). Eligibility criteria included absence of (i) haemodynamic instability, (ii) right ventricular dysfunction or intracardiac thrombi, and (iii) serious comorbidities. Up to two nights of hospital stay were permitted. Rivaroxaban was given at the approved dose for PE for >= 3 months. The primary outcome was symptomatic recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE) or PE-related death within 3 months of enrolment. An interim analysis was planned after the first 525 patients, with prespecified early termination of the study if the null hypothesis could be rejected at the level of alpha = 0.004 ( Conclusion Early discharge and home treatment with rivaroxaban is effective and safe in carefully selected patients with acute low-risk PE. The results of the present trial support the selection of appropriate patients for ambulatory treatment of PE.
  • Licht, Sofie de Fine; Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Holmqvist, Anna Sallfors; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Hasle, Henrik; Winther, Jeanette F.; Olsen, Jorgen H.; ALICCS Study Grp (2017)
    Background Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer. Methods and findings From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden) from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs), absolute excess risks (AERs), and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs) based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years), childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included), when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97). The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156) per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous system (19.1% of all excess hospitalisations), endocrine system (11.1%), digestive organs (10.5%), and respiratory system (10.0%). Survivors of all types of childhood cancer were at increased, persistent risk for subsequent hospitalisation, the highest risks being those of survivors of neuroblastoma (RR: 2.6 [2.4-2.8]; n = 876), hepatic tumours (RR: 2.5 [2.0-3.1]; n = 92), central nervous system tumours (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 6,175), and Hodgkin lymphoma (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 2,027). Survivors spent on average five times as many days in hospital as comparison individuals (SBDR: 4.96 [4.94-4.98]; n = 422,218). The analyses of bed days in hospital included new primary cancers and recurrences. Of the total 422,218 days survivors spent in hospital, 47% (197,596 bed days) were for new primary cancers and recurrences. Our study is likely to underestimate the absolute overall disease burden experienced by survivors, as less severe late effects are missed if they are treated sufficiently in the outpatient setting or in the primary health care system. Conclusions Childhood cancer survivors were at increased long-term risk for diseases requiring inpatient treatment even decades after their initial cancer. Health care providers who do not work in the area of late effects, especially those in primary health care, should be aware of this highly challenged group of patients in order to avoid or postpone hospitalisations by prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatments.
  • Andersen, Heidi; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Tuomisto, Leena E.; Piirilä, Päivi; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Langhammer, Arnulf; Backman, Helena; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva; Lehtimäki, Lauri; Ilmarinen, Pinja (2021)
    Multimorbidity is an emerging public health priority. This study aims to assess the role of lifestyle and socioeconomic status in the prevalence of multimorbidity and chronic diseases by using two language groups that are part of the same genetic subgroup but differ by daily habits. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2016 with randomly selected population sample with 4173 responders (52.3%) aged 20-69 years in Western Finland. We included 3864 Finnish participants with Swedish (28.1%) or Finnish (71.9%) as a native language. We used a questionnaire to assess participants' chronic diseases and lifestyle. We determined multimorbidity as a disease count >= 2. Finnish speakers were more likely to have a diagnosis of COPD, heart failure, diabetes, reflux disease, chronic kidney failure, and painful conditions than Swedish speakers. The prevalence of multimorbidity was higher for Finnish speakers in the age group of 60-69 years (41.0% vs. 32.0%, p = 0.018) than Swedish speakers. A higher proportion of Finnish speakers smoked, were obese, inactive, and had lower socioeconomic status compared to Swedish speakers. All these factors, in addition to age and female sex, were significant risk factors for multimorbidity. Prevalence of multimorbidity was different in two language groups living in the same area and was associated with differences in lifestyle factors such as smoking, physical inactivity and obesity.
  • Mannisto, Ville; Färkkilä, Martti; Pussinen, Pirkko; Jula, Antti; Männistö, Satu; Lundqvist, Annamari; Valsta, Liisa; Salomaa, Veikko; Perola, Markus; Åberg, Fredrik (2019)
  • Isometsä, Erkki T. (2020)
    Objective Although risk factors for nonfatal suicidal behavior in mood disorders have been vastly investigated, rate and risk factors of suicide deaths are less well known. Extensive health care and other population registers in the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) allow national-level studies of suicide rates and risk factors. This systematic review examined Nordic studies of suicide in mood disorders. Methods National Nordic studies published after 1.1.2000 reporting on suicide mortality or relative risk in diagnosed unipolar depression or bipolar disorder treated in psychiatric settings; temporal variations in suicide risk after discharge, or risk factors for suicide were systematically reviewed. Results Altogether 16 longitudinal studies reported on rate and risk of suicide in depression. They found 2%-8% of psychiatric inpatients with depression to have died by suicide. However, in Finland suicide risk among depressive inpatients halved since the early 1990s. Nine studies investigated suicide risk in bipolar disorder, finding 4%-long term. The relative risk of suicide was consistently found extremely high (SMR > 100) during the first weeks postdischarge, declining steeply over time to approximately SMR of five after five years. Male gender, preceding suicide attempts, high severity of depression and substance abuse were found risk factors for suicide in depression, with only minor gender differences in risk factors, but major differences in lethal methods. Three studies investigated risk factors for suicide in bipolar disorder, finding male gender, preceding suicide attempts, and depressive episodes and psychiatric comorbidity to be associated with risk. Conclusions Overall, of psychiatric inpatients with depressive of bipolar disorders in the Nordic countries, 2%-8% have died by suicide in the last few decades, but current rates may be lower. Suicide risk is approximately similar or somewhat higher among patients with bipolar disorder, risk factor studies of whom are fewer. Risk of suicide is remarkably high immediately after discharge, and higher among males than females, those with preceding suicide attempts, high severity of depression, or concurrent substance abuse. Generalizability of findings from these Nordic studies to other countries need to be investigated, and their methodological limitations understood.
  • Mustonen, Katri; Kauppila, Timo; Rahkonen, Ossi; Kantonen, Jarmo; Raina, Marko; Mäki, Tiina; Pitkälä, Kaisu (2019)
    Objective: It is generally expected that the growth of the older population will lead to an increase in the use of health care services. The aim was to examine the changes in the number of visits made to general practitioners (GP) by the older age groups, and whether such changes were associated with changes in mortality rates. Design and setting: A register-based observational study in a Finnish city where a significant increase in the older population took place from 2003 to 2014. The number of GP visits made by the older population was calculated, the visits per person per year in two-year series, together with respective mortality rates. Subjects: The study population consisted of inhabitants aged 65 years and older (65+) in Vantaa that visited a GP in primary health care. Main outcome measures: The number of GP visits per person per year in the whole older population during the study years. Results: In 2009-2010, there was a sudden drop in GP visits per person in the younger (65-74 years) age groups examined. In the population aged 85+, use of GP visits remained at a fairly constant level. The mortality rate decreased until the year 2008. After that, the positive trend ended and the mortality rate plateaued. Conclusions: Simultaneously with the decline in GP visits per person in the older population, the mortality rate leveled off from its positive trend in 2009-2010. Factors identified being associated with the number of GP consultations were organizational changes in primary health care, economic recession causing retrenchment, and even vaccinations during the swine flu epidemic.