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  • Nora-Krukle, Zaiga; Vilmane, Anda; Xu, Man; Rasa, Santa; Ziemele, Inga; Silina, Elina; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Gardovska, Dace; Murovska, Modra (2018)
    Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) 1-4 belong to the Parvoviridae family, and they infect the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts in children. We investigated the prevalence of HBoV1-4 DNAs in the blood and stool samples, and of HBoV1-4 IgG and IgM in the plasma samples, of children presenting with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In addition, we identified HBoV co-infections with the five most frequent gastrointestinal pathogens. A total of 83 paired blood and stool samples were collected from children aged five years or less. Infection markers of HBoV1, 2, or 3 (viral DNA in blood and/or stool and/or antibodies) were detected in 61 out of 83 (73.5%) patients. HBoV1, 2, or 3 DNA as a monoinfection was revealed in 18.1%, 2.4%, and 1.2%, respectively, and 21.7% in total. In 56.1% of the HBoV DNA-positive patients, the presence in stool of another virusmost frequently norovirus or rotaviruswas observed. In conclusion, this study, for the first time, illustrates the prevalence and genetic diversity of HBoVs in Latvian children with gastroenteritis, and shows a widespread distribution of these viruses in the community. HBoV1 and 2 are commonly found as single infectious agents in children with AGE, suggesting that the viruses can be as pathogenic by themselves as other enteric agents are.
  • Vuori-Holopainen, Elina; Peltola, Heikki (2001)
    Identification of the etiology of childhood pneumonia is difficult, even in the cases that most likely have bacterial origins. A positive blood culture result is diagnostic but rare (50% of cases (virological tests were rarely done); (2) lung tap is safer than is generally considered; (3) potential pneumothorax is mostly symptomless and resolves spontaneously without impairing recovery; and (4) in comparison with routine diagnostic tools, lung tap offers so many advantages that it warrants reconsideration at centers where personnel have experience in handling potential pneumothorax.