Browsing by Subject "HPV VACCINE"

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  • Lehtinen, Matti; Apter, Dan; Eriksson, Tiina; Harjula, Katja; Hokkanen, Mari; Natunen, Kari; Nieminen, Pekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Palmroth, Johanna; Petaja, Tiina; Pukkala, Eero; Vänskä, Simopekka; Cheuvart, Brigitte; Soila, Maaria; Bi, Dan; Struyf, Frank (2021)
    Introduction We conducted a community-randomized trial (NCTBLINDED) in Finland to assess gender-neutral and girls-only vaccination strategies with the AS04-adjuvanted human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 (AS04-HPV-16/18)vaccine. Methods Girls and boys (12-15 years) were invited. We randomized 33 communities (1:1:1 ratio): Arm A: 90% of randomly selected girls and boys received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine and 10% received hepatitis B vaccine (HBV); Arm B: 90% of randomly selected girls received AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine, 10% of girls received HBV, and all boys received HBV; Arm C: all participants received HBV. Effectiveness measurements against prevalence of HPV-16/18 cervical infection were estimated in girls at 18.5 years. The main measures were: (1) overall effectiveness comparing Arms A or B, regardless of vaccination status, vs Arm C; (2) total effectiveness comparing AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccinated girls in pooled Arms A/B vs Arm C; (3) indirect effectiveness (herd effect) comparing girls receiving HBV or unvaccinated in Arm A vs Arm C. Co-primary objectives were overall effectiveness following gender-neutral or girls-only vaccination. Results Of 80,272 adolescents invited, 34,412 were enrolled. Overall effectiveness was 23.8% (95% confidence interval: -19.0, 51.1; P = 0.232) with gender-neutral vaccination. Following girls-only vaccination, overall effectiveness was 49.6% (20.1, 68.2; P = 0.004). Total effectiveness was over 90% regardless of vaccination strategy. No herd effect was found. Immunogenicity of the AS04-HPV-16/18 vaccine was high in both sexes. Conclusions This study illustrates the difficulty in conducting community randomized trials. It is not plausible that vaccinating boys would reduce overall effectiveness, and the apparent lack of herd effect was unexpected given findings from other studies. This analysis was likely confounded by several factors but confirms the vaccine's high total effectiveness as in clinical trials.
  • Joura, Elmar A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Bosch, Francisco X.; Kesic, Vesna; Nieminen, Pekka; Redman, Charles W. E.; Gultekin, Murat (2019)
    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available in Europe since 2006. They have been highly effective in preventing infection and disease caused by the vaccine types. Clinical efficacy data are available for cervical, vulvovaginal and anal precancer and invasive cervical cancer. Disease reduction is best with early vaccination and a coverage of more than 70%. Gender-neutral vaccination provides direct protection for all men and improves the coverage. A good coverage is followed by herd protection of the unvaccinated men and women. School-based programs appear to be most effective; under the age of 15 years, two doses with an interval of 6-12 months are sufficient. From the age of 15 years, the standard regimen with three doses is recommended. A broad catch-up program for young adult women and men improves the effectiveness. The vaccines are also effective in sexually active women and men with previous but cleared infections. Vaccination in addition to local treatment of HPV-related disease appears to reduce recurrent or subsequent HPV-related disease. Combination of HPV vaccination and screening with HPV testing is the most effective approach to prevention of cervical cancer. The screening intervals may increase in the vaccinated cohorts. The upper age limit for vaccination remains to be evaluated, is country specific and depends on cost-effectiveness. The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology and the European Federation for Colposcopy strongly support gender-neutral vaccination programs for children and young adolescents, with a catch-up program for young adults. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Vänskä, Simopekka; Luostarinen, Tapio; Baussano, Iacopo; Apter, Dan; Eriksson, Tiina; Natunen, Kari; Nieminen, Pekka; Paavonen, Jorma; Pimenoff, Ville N; Pukkala, Eero; Söderlund-Strand, Anna; Dubin, Gary; Garnett, Geoff; Dillner, Joakim; Lehtinen, Matti (2020)
    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination of girls with very high (\gt;90\ coverage has the potential to eradicate oncogenic HPVs, but such high coverage is hard to achieve. However, the herd effect (HE) depends both on the HPV type and the vaccination strategy.We randomized 33 Finnish communities into gender-neutral HPV16/18 vaccination, girls-only HPV16/18 vaccination, and hepatitis B virus vaccination arms. In 2007–2010, 11 662 of 20 513 of 40 852 of 39 420 resident boys/girls from 1992 to 1995 birth cohorts consented. In 2010–2014, cervicovaginal samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated girls at age 18.5 years were typed for HPV6/11/16/18/31/33/35/39/45/51/52/56/58/59/66/68. Vaccine efficacy for vaccinated girls, HE for unvaccinated girls, and the protective effectiveness (PE) for all girls were estimated. We extended the community-randomized trial results about vaccination strategy with mathematical modeling to assess HPV eradication.The HE and PE estimates in the 1995 birth cohort for HPV18/31/33 were significant in the gender-neutral arm and 150\% and 40\% stronger than in the girls-only arm. Concordantly, HPV18/31/33 eradication was already predicted in adolescents/young adults in 20 years with 75\% coverage of gender-neutral vaccination. With the 75\% coverage, eventual HPV16 eradication was also predicted, but only with the gender-neutral strategy.Gender-neutral vaccination is superior for eradication of oncogenic HPVs.