Browsing by Subject "HUMAN GUT VIROME"

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  • Lehti, Timo A.; Pajunen, Maria I.; Skog, Maria S.; Finne, Jukka (2017)
    Eukaryotic organisms are continuously exposed to bacteriophages, which are efficient gene transfer agents in bacteria. However, bacteriophages are considered not to pass the eukaryotic cell membrane and enter nonphagocytic cells. Here we report the binding and penetration of Escherichia coli PK1A2 bacteriophage into live eukaryotic neuroblastoma cells in vitro. The phage interacts with cell surface polysialic acid, which shares structural similarity with the bacterial phage receptor. Using fluorescence and electron microscopy, we show that phages are internalized via the endolysosomal route and persist inside the human cells up to one day without affecting cell viability. Phage capsid integrity is lost in lysosomes, and the phage DNA is eventually degraded. We did not detect the entry of phage DNA into the nucleus; however, we speculate that this might occur as a rare event, and propose that this potential mechanism could explain prokaryote-eukaryote gene flow.
  • Draper, L. A.; Ryan, F. J.; Smith, M. K.; Jalanka, J.; Mattila, E.; Arkkila, P.; Ross, R. P.; Satokari, R.; Hill, C. (2018)
    BackgroundFaecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection. Its success is typically attributed to the restoration of a diverse microbiota. Viruses (including bacteriophages) are the most numerically dominant and potentially the most diverse members of the microbiota, but their fate following FMT has not been well studied.ResultsWe studied viral transfer following FMT from 3 donors to 14 patients. Recipient viromes resembled those of their donors for up to 12months. Tracking individual bacteriophage colonisation revealed that engraftment of individual bacteriophages was dependent on specific donor-recipient pairings. Specifically, multiple recipients from a single donor displayed highly individualised virus colonisation patterns.ConclusionsThe impact of viruses on long-term microbial dynamics is a factor that should be reviewed when considering FMT as a therapeutic option.