Browsing by Subject "HUMAN IMPACT"

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  • Charman, D. J.; Beilman, D. W.; Blaauw, M.; Booth, R. K.; Brewer, S.; Chambers, F. M.; Christen, J. A.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Jackson, S. T.; Korhola, A.; Mauquoy, D.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Prentice, I. C.; van der Linden, M.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Yu, Z. C.; Alm, J.; Bauer, I. E.; Corish, Y. M. C.; Garneau, M.; Hohl, V.; Huang, Y.; Karofeld, E.; Le Roux, G.; Loisel, J.; Moschen, R.; Nichols, J. E.; Nieminen, T. M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Phadtare, N. R.; Rausch, N.; Sillasoo, Ue; Swindles, G. T.; Tuittila, E-S.; Ukonmaanaho, L.; Valiranta, M.; van Bellen, S.; van Geel, B.; Vitt, D. H.; Zhao, Y. (2013)
  • Andersen, Jesper H.; Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Dromph, Karsten; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Josefson, Alf B.; Norkko, Alf; Villnäs, Anna; Murray, Ciaran (2017)
    Much of the Baltic Sea is currently classified as 'affected by eutrophication'. The causes for this are twofold. First, current levels of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) from human activities exceed the natural processing capacity with an accumulation of nutrients in the Baltic Sea over the last 50-100 years. Secondly, the Baltic Sea is naturally susceptible to nutrient enrichment due to a combination of long retention times and stratification restricting ventilation of deep waters. Here, based on a unique data set collated from research activities and long-term monitoring programs, we report on the temporal and spatial trends of eutrophication status for the open Baltic Sea over a 112-year period using the HELCOM Eutrophication Assessment Tool (HEAT 3.0). Further, we analyse variation in the confidence of the eutrophication status assessment based on a systematic quantitative approach using coefficients of variation in the observations. The classifications in our assessment indicate that the first signs of eutrophication emerged in the mid-1950s and the central parts of the Baltic Sea changed from being unaffected by eutrophication to being affected. We document improvements in eutrophication status that are direct consequences of long-term efforts to reduce the inputs of nutrients. The reductions in both nitrogen and phosphorus loads have led to large-scale alleviation of eutrophication and to a healthier Baltic Sea. Reduced confidence in our assessment is seen more recently due to reductions in the scope of monitoring programs. Our study sets a baseline for implementation of the ecosystem-based management strategies and policies currently in place including the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directives and the HELCOM Baltic Sea Action Plan.
  • Lyra, Christina; Sinkko, Hanna-Mari; Rantanen, Matias; Paulin, Lars; Kotilainen, Aarno (2013)
  • Alenius, Teija; Marquer, Laurent; Molinari, Chiara; Heikkilä, Maija; Ojala, Antti (2021)
    Understanding about regional versus local changes in vegetation is critical in answering archaeological questions, in particular at a time when humans are assumed to have caused higher disturbances at local scales rather than regional scales; this is the case during the Neolithic. The aim of this paper is to assess the impact of Neolithic land use on regional and local vegetation dynamics, plant composition and disturbance processes (e.g. fire) in eastern Fennoscandia. We apply the Landscape Reconstruction Algorithm (LRA) to high-resolution pollen records from three lacustrine sediment cores that cover the Neolithic period. We calculate changes in vegetation composition and the rate of plant compositional change. Fire dynamics are estimated as an indicator of land use, although fire can result from both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Our results show that during the Early Neolithic, changes were mainly driven by natural and climate-induced factors and vegetation composition and fire activity were similar at both regional and local scales. From ca. 4000bconwards, trends in vegetation and fire dynamics start to differ between regional and local scales. This is due to local land uses that are overshadowed at the regional scale by climate-induced factors. The use of the LOVE model in pollen analyses is therefore very useful to highlight local land uses that are not visible by using REVEALS.
  • Davis, Basil A. S.; Chevalier, Manuel; Sommer, Philipp; Carter, Vachel A.; Finsinger, Walter; Mauri, Achille; Phelps, Leanne N.; Zanon, Marco; Abegglen, Roman; Akesson, Christine M.; Alba-Sanchez, Francisca; Anderson, R. Scott; Antipina, Tatiana G.; Atanassova, Juliana R.; Beer, Ruth; Belyanina, Nina I.; Blyakharchuk, Tatiana A.; Borisova, Olga K.; Bozilova, Elissaveta; Bukreeva, Galina; Bunting, M. Jane; Clo, Eleonora; Colombaroli, Daniele; Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Desprat, Stephanie; Di Rita, Federico; Djamali, Morteza; Edwards, Kevin J.; Fall, Patricia L.; Feurdean, Angelica; Fletcher, William; Florenzano, Assunta; Furlanetto, Giulia; Gaceur, Emna; Galimov, Arsenii T.; Galka, Mariusz; Garcia-Moreiras, Iria; Giesecke, Thomas; Grindean, Roxana; Guido, Maria A.; Gvozdeva, Irina G.; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Hjelle, Kari L.; Ivanov, Sergey; Jahns, Susanne; Jankovska, Vlasta; Jimenez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Karpinska-Kolaczek, Monika; Kitaba, Ikuko; Kolaczek, Piotr; Lapteva, Elena G.; Latalowa, Malgorzata; Lebreton, Vincent; Leroy, Suzanne; Leydet, Michelle; Lopatina, Darya A.; Antonio Lopez-Saez, Jose; Lotter, Andre F.; Magri, Donatella; Marinova, Elena; Matthias, Isabelle; Mavridou, Anastasia; Mercuri, Anna Maria; Manuel Mesa-Fernandez, Jose; Mikishin, Yuri A.; Milecka, Krystyna; Montanari, Carlo; Morales-Molino, Cesar; Mrotzek, Almut; Munoz Sobrino, Castor; Naidina, Olga D.; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Novenko, Elena Y.; Panajiotidis, Sampson; Panova, Nata K.; Papadopoulou, Maria; Pardoe, Heather S.; Pedziszewska, Anna; Petrenko, Tatiana I.; Ramos-Roman, Maria J.; Ravazzi, Cesare; Rosch, Manfred; Ryabogina, Natalia; Sabariego Ruiz, Silvia; Salonen, J. Sakari; Sapelko, Tatyana V.; Schofield, James E.; Seppa, Heikki; Shumilovskikh, Lyudmila; Stivrins, Normunds; Stojakowits, Philipp; Svitavska, Helena Svobodova; Swieta-Musznicka, Joanna; Tantau, Ioan; Tinner, Willy; Tobolski, Kazimierz; Tonkov, Spassimir; Tsakiridou, Margarita; Valsecchi, Verushka; Zanina, Oksana G.; Zimny, Marcelina (2020)
    The Eurasian (nee European) Modern Pollen Database (EMPD) was established in 2013 to provide a public database of high-quality modern pollen surface samples to help support studies of past climate, land cover, and land use using fossil pollen. The EMPD is part of, and complementary to, the European Pollen Database (EPD) which contains data on fossil pollen found in Late Quaternary sedimentary archives throughout the Eurasian region. The EPD is in turn part of the rapidly growing Neotoma database, which is now the primary home for global palaeoecological data. This paper describes version 2 of the EMPD in which the number of samples held in the database has been increased by 60% from 4826 to 8134. Much of the improvement in data coverage has come from northern Asia, and the database has consequently been renamed the Eurasian Modern Pollen Database to reflect this geographical enlargement. The EMPD can be viewed online using a dedicated map-based viewer at https://empd2.github.io and downloaded in a variety of file formats at https://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.909130 (Chevalier et al., 2019).