Browsing by Subject "HUMAN PLATELETS"

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  • Kakkola, L.; Denisova, O. V.; Tynell, J.; Viiliainen, J.; Ysenbaert, T.; Matos, R. C.; Nagaraj, A.; Öhman, Tiina; Kuivanen, S.; Paavilainen, H.; Feng, L.; Yadav, B.; Julkunen, I.; Vapalahti, O.; Hukkanen, V.; Stenman, J.; Aittokallio, T.; Verschuren, E. W.; Ojala, P. M.; Nyman, T.; Saelens, X.; Dzeyk, K.; Kainov, D. E. (2013)
  • Castren, Eero; Monteggia, Lisa M. (2021)
    Neurotrophic factors, particularly BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor), have been associated with depression and antidepressant drug action. A variety of preclinical and clinical studies have implicated impaired BDNF signaling through its receptor TrkB (neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2) in the pathophysiology of mood disorders, but many of the initial findings have not been fully supported by more recent meta-analyses, and more both basic and clinical research is needed. In contrast, increased expression and signaling of BDNF has been repeatedly implicated in the mechanisms of both typical and rapid-acting antidepressant drugs, and recent findings have started to elucidate the mechanisms through which antidepressants regulate BDNF signaling. BDNF is a critical regulator of various types of neuronal plasticities in the brain, and plasticity has increasingly been connected with antidepressant action. Although some equivocal data exist, the hypothesis of a connection between neurotrophic factors and neuronal plasticity with mood disorders and antidepressant action has recently been further strengthened by converging evidence from a variety of more recent data reviewed here.
  • Tojkander, Sari; Gateva, Gergana; Husain, Amjad; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Lappalainen, Pekka (2015)
    Adhesion and morphogenesis of many non-muscle cells are guided by contractile actomyosin bundles called ventral stress fibers. While it is well established that stress fibers are mechanosensitive structures, physical mechanisms by which they assemble, align, and mature have remained elusive. Here we show that arcs, which serve as precursors for ventral stress fibers, undergo lateral fusion during their centripetal flow to form thick actomyosin bundles that apply tension to focal adhesions at their ends. Importantly, this myosin II-derived force inhibits vectorial actin polymerization at focal adhesions through AMPK-mediated phosphorylation of VASP, and thereby halts stress fiber elongation and ensures their proper contractility. Stress fiber maturation additionally requires ADF/cofilin-mediated disassembly of non-contractile stress fibers, whereas contractile fibers are protected from severing. Taken together, these data reveal that myosin-derived tension precisely controls both actin filament assembly and disassembly to ensure generation and proper alignment of contractile stress fibers in migrating cells.
  • Merivaara, Arto; Zini, Jacopo; Koivunotko, Elle; Valkonen, Sami; Korhonen, Ossi; Fernandes, Francisco M.; Yliperttula, Marjo (2021)
    Freeze-drying is the most widespread method to preserve protein drugs and vaccines in a dry form facilitating their storage and transportation without the laborious and expensive cold chain. Extending this method for the preservation of natural biomaterials and cells in a dry form would provide similar benefits, but most results in the domain are still below expectations. In this review, rather than consider freeze-drying as a traditional black box we "break it" through a detailed process thinking approach. We discuss freeze-drying from process thinking aspects, introduce the chemical, physical, and mechanical environments important in this process, and present advanced biophotonic process analytical technology. In the end, we review the state of the art in the freezedrying of the biomaterials, extracellular vesicles, and cells. We suggest that the rational design of the experiment and implementation of advanced biophotonic tools are required to successfully preserve the natural biomaterials and cells by freeze-drying. We discuss this change of paradigm with existing literature and elaborate on our perspective based on our new unpublished results.