Browsing by Subject "HUMAN-BRAIN"

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  • Nowak, Kamila; Oron, Anna; Szymaszek, Aneta; Leminen, Miika; Naatanen, Risto; Szelag, Elzbieta (2016)
    The present study investigates age-related changes in duration discrimination in millisecond time domain. We tested young (N = 20, mean age = 24.5, SD = 2.97) and elderly (N = 20, mean age = 65.2, SD = 2.94) subjects using the mismatch negativity (MMN) paradigm. White-noise bursts of two different durations (50 and 10 ms) were presented in two oddball blocks. In one block (Increment Condition), the repetitive sequence of 10 ms standards was interspersed by occasional 50 ms deviants. In the Decrement Condition, the roles of the two stimuli were reversed. We analyzed the P1-N1 complex, MMN and P3a and found the effect of age for all these components. Moreover, the impact of stimulus presentation condition (increment/decrement) was observed for MMN and P3a. Our results confirmed the previous evidence for deteriorated duration discrimination in elderly people. Additionally, we found that this effect may be influenced by procedural factors.
  • Rinne, Teemu; Muers, Ross S.; Salo, Emma; Slater, Heather; Petkov, Christopher I. (2017)
    The cross-species correspondences and differences in how attention modulates brain responses in humans and animal models are poorly understood. We trained 2 monkeys to perform an audio-visual selective attention task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), rewarding them to attend to stimuli in one modality while ignoring those in the other. Monkey fMRI identified regions strongly modulated by auditory or visual attention. Surprisingly, auditory attention-related modulations were much more restricted in monkeys than humans performing the same tasks during fMRI. Further analyses ruled out trivial explanations, suggesting that labile selective-attention performance was associated with inhomogeneous modulations in wide cortical regions in the monkeys. The findings provide initial insights into how audio-visual selective attention modulates the primate brain, identify sources for "lost" attention effects in monkeys, and carry implications for modeling the neurobiology of human cognition with nonhuman animals.
  • Svarcbahs, Reinis; Julku, Ulrika Hannele; Norrbacka, Susanna; Myöhänen, Timo Tapio (2018)
    Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) inhibition by small-molecule inhibitors can reduce alpha-synuclein (aSyn) aggregation, a key player in Parkinson's disease pathology. However, the significance of PREP protein for aSyn aggregation and toxicity is not known. We studied this in vivo by using PREP knock-out mice with viral vector injections of aSyn and PREP. Animal behavior was studied by locomotor activity and cylinder tests, microdialysis and HPLC were used to analyze dopamine levels, and different aSyn forms and loss of dopaminergic neurons were studied by immunostainings. Additionally, PREP knock-out cells were used to characterize the impact of PREP and aSyn on autophagy, proteasomal system and aSyn secretion. PREP knock-out animals were nonresponsive to aSyn-induced unilateral toxicity but combination of PREP and aSyn injections increased aSyn toxicity. Phosphorylated p129, proteinase K resistant aSyn levels and tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells were decreased in aSyn and PREP injected knock-out animals. These changes were accompanied by altered dopamine metabolite levels. PREP knock-out cells showed reduced response to aSyn, while cells were restored to wild-type cell levels after PREP overexpression. Taken together, our data suggests that PREP can enhance aSyn toxicity in vivo.