Browsing by Subject "HUMAN-PAPILLOMAVIRUS"

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  • Lundberg, Marie; Renkonen, Suvi; Haglund, Caj; Mattila, Petri S.; Leivo, Ilmo; Hagstrom, Jaana; Makitie, Antti A. (2016)
    Conclusions BMI-1 is an upstream repressor of tumor suppressor p16 and their inverse expression patterns have been linked with patient survival in OPSCC. In this material only p16 remained a relevant prognostic marker in OPSCC. Objectives HNSCC tumors carry variable phenotypes and clinical outcomes depending on their anatomical location. In OPSCC, expression of tumor suppressor p16 is used as a surrogate marker of HPV infection and has prognostic value. There are no good prognostic biomarkers for HNSCC tumors of other anatomical locations. Aim To study the expression patterns of p16 and BMI-1 in not only oropharyngeal but also oral, hypopharyngeal, and laryngeal squamous cell carcinomas and to clarify their putative connections with clinical parameters, survival, and each other. Method Hospital records on 130 patients (59 OPSCC, 18 OSCC, 20 HPSCC, and 33 LSCC) diagnosed between 1997-2008 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, were reviewed. BMI-1 and p16 expressions were studied by immunohistochemistry. Results Sixty-eight per cent of OPSCC expressed p16 and expression correlated with lower age, lower T- and higher N-category, and with improved OS and DFS. BMI-1 expression was most prevalent in OPSCC and LSCC, but had no clinical correlations. No correlation between p16 and BMI-1 expression was found.
  • Dickinson, Amy; Saraswat, Mayank; Syrjänen, Stina; Tohmola, Tiialotta; Silén, Robert; Randén-Brady, Reija; Carpén, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Mattila, Petri; Mäkitie, Antti; Joenväärä, Sakari; Silén, Suvi (2020)
    Background The surrogate immunohistochemical marker, p16INK4a, is used in clinical practice to determine the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) status of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC). With a specificity of 83%, this will misclassify some patients compared with direct HPV testing. Patients who are p16INK4a-positive but HPV DNA-negative, or RNA-negative, may be unsuitable for treatment de-escalation aimed at reducing treatment-related side effects. We aimed to identify cost-effective serum markers to improve decision making for patients at risk of misclassification by p16INK4a alone. Methods Serum proteins from pre-treatment samples of 36 patients with OPSCC were identified and quantified using label-free mass spectrometry-based proteomics. HPV-status was determined using p16INK4a/HPV DNA and E6/E7 mRNA. Serum protein expressions were compared between groups of patients according to HPV status, using the unpaired t-test with a Benjamini-Hochberg correction. ROC curves (AUC) were calculated with SPSS (v25). Results Of 174 serum proteins identified, complement component C7 (C7), apolipoprotein F (ApoF) and galectin-3-Binding Protein (LGALS3BP) significantly differed between HPV-positive and -negative tumors (AUC ranging from 0.84–0.87). ApoF levels were more than twice as high in the E6/E7 mRNA HPV-positive group than HPV-negative. Conclusions Serum C7, ApoF and LGALS3BP levels discriminate between HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC. Further studies are needed to validate these host immunity-related proteins as markers for HPV-associated OPSCC.
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Tolvanen, Tuomas Aleksi; Carpén, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Grenman, Reidar; Jouhi, Lauri; Sorsa, Timo; Lehtonen, Sanna; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the expression pattern of toll-like receptors (TLRs), in comparison between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative tumors differs. TLRs control innate immune responses by activating, among others, the nuclear factor-κΒ (NF-κΒ) signaling pathway. Elevated NF-κΒ activity is detectable in several cancers and regulates cancer development and progression. We studied TLR5 expression in 143 unselected consecutive OPSCC tumors, and its relation to HPV-DNA and p16 status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcome, and studied TLR5 stimulation and consecutive NF-κB cascade activation in vitro in two human OPSCC cell lines and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat). Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries, and TLR5 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Flagellin served to stimulate TLR5 in cultured cells, followed by analysis of the activity of the NF-κB signaling cascade with In-Cell Western for IκΒ and p-IκΒ. High TLR5 expression was associated with poor disease-specific survival in HPV-positive OPSCC, which typically shows low TLR5 immunoexpression. High TLR5 immunoexpression was more common in HPV-negative OPSCC, known for its less-favorable prognosis. In vitro, we detected NF-κΒ cascade activation in the HPV-positive OPSCC cell line and in HaCat cells, but not in the HPV-negative OPSCC cell line. Our results suggest that elevated TLR5 immunoexpression may be related to reduced NF-κΒ activity in HPV-negative OPSCC. The possible prognosis-worsening mechanisms among these high-risk OPSCC patients however, require further evaluation.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Halme, Elina; Irjala, Heikki; Saarilahti, Kauko; Koivunen, Petri; Pukkila, Matti; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Lindholm, Paula; Hirvikoski, Pasi; Vaittinen, Samuli; Ellonen, Anna; Tikanto, Jukka; Blomster, Henry; Laranne, Jussi; Grenman, Reidar; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo (2018)
    Background: Treatment for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has changed, as the proportion of human papilloma virus (HPV)-related disease has increased. We evaluated nationwide information on its management and outcome during the treatment paradigm change period.Methods: We included all patients diagnosed and treated for OPSCC at the five Finnish university hospitals from 2000 to 2009. Patient records and pathology registries provided the clinicopathological data. p16 staining was performed on primary tumor samples of patients who had received treatment with curative intent.Results: A total of 674 patients were diagnosed and treated for OPSCC and the incidence increased along the study period. Of the evaluable tumors 58.5% were p16-positive and the number of p16-positive tumors increased along the years. The treatment was given with curative intent for 600 patients and it was completed in 564. Of them, 47.9% underwent primary surgery and 52.1% received definitive oncological treatment. Also, the treatment protocol changed towards a more oncological approach. Among patients treated with curative intent the five-year overall, disease-specific and disease-free survival rates were 60.1, 71.5 and 57.0%. In multivariate analysis, p16-positivity seemed to relate to reduced disease mortality in lateral and anterior-wall disease. Depending on primary tumor localization, also sex, classes T3-4, presence of regional metastasis and radiotherapy modality had an association with disease mortality.Conclusion: The incidence of p16-positive OPSCC and delivery of definitive oncological treatment increased in Finland during the study period. An improved survival outcome compared with the previous nationwide investigation was observed in this subset of patients.
  • Carpen, Timo; Syrjänen, Stina; Jouhi, Lauri; Randen-Brady, Reija; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    Background The etiological role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is confirmed. However, the role of other oncoviruses in OPSCC is unknown. Materials and methods A total of 158 consecutive OPSCC patients treated with curative intent were included. DNA extracted from tumor sections was used to detect Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), HPV, and the following polyomaviruses: John Cunningham virus (JCV), Simian virus 40 (SV40), and BK virus (BKV) with PCR. In addition, p16 expression was studied by immunohistochemistry, and EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) transcripts were localized by in situ hybridization. The effect of viral status on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) was analyzed. Results A total of 94/158 samples (59.5%) were HPV-positive, 29.1% contained BKV DNA, 20.3% EBV DNA, 13.9% JCV DNA, and 0.6% SV40 DNA. EBER was expressed only in stromal lymphocytes adjacent to the tumor and correlated with HPV positivity (p = 0.026). p16 expression associated only with HPV. None of the three polyomaviruses had an impact on survival. Patients with EBER-positive but HPV-negative OPSCC had significantly poorer OS and DFS than those with HPV-positive OPSCC and slightly worse prognosis compared with the patients with EBER-negative and HPV-negative OPSCC. Conclusion Polyomaviruses are detectable in OPSCC but seem to have no impact on survival, whereas HPV was the strongest viral prognostic factor. EBER expression, as a sign of latent EBV infection, may have prognostic impact among patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. EBER analysis may identify a new subgroup of OPSCCs unrelated to HPV.
  • Mohamed, Hesham; Aro, Katri; Jouhi, Lauri; Makitie, Antti; Remes, Satu; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Hagstrom, Jaana (2018)
    Hormone receptors play an important role in many types of cancers. Alongside factors associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, hormonal receptors may impact the tumorigenesis of oropharyngeal cancer. This study consists of 199 consecutive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) patients diagnosed and treated with a curative intent. We examined androgen (AR), estrogen (ER; both alpha and beta), and progesterone receptor (PR) expressions using immunohistochemistry comparing tumor and patient characteristics. AR was expressed in 16%, PR in 27% and ER-beta in 63% of the tumors. HPV- and p16-positive tumors expressed more AR and less PR than their negative counterparts. High PR expression was associated with poor disease-specific and locoregional recurrence-free survival. AR, PR, and ER-beta are expressed in OPSCC, and AR and PR expressions are associated with HPV and p16 status. Furthermore, PR appears to have prognostic significance. This may allow us to investigate the role of anti-hormone receptors in the treatment of OPSCC.
  • Nieminen, Markus; Atula, Timo; Bäck, Leif; Mäkitie, Antti; Jouhi, Lauri; Aro, Katri (2020)
    The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)–associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is increasing. Patients with HPV-associated and HPV-unassociated OPSCC differ in many aspects, which may also impact their diagnostic and management timelines. This study aims at studying the patient, primary health care (PHC) and specialist-care (SC) delays and possible differences between these two patient groups in seeking medical care.
  • Mroueh, Rayan; Tanskanen, Tomas; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Salo, Tuula; Malila, Nea; Mäkitie, Antti; Pitkäniemi, Janne (2020)
    Background Reported patterns of familial aggregation of head and neck cancer (HNC) vary greatly, with many studies hampered by the limited number of subjects. Methods Altogether 923 early-onset ( Results Of all early-onset HNC families, only 21 (2.3%) had familial HNC cancers at any age and less than five familial early onset HNC cancers among first-degree relatives. The cumulative risk of HNC for siblings by age 60 (0.52%) was at population level (0.33%). No increased familial risk of early-onset HNC could be discerned in family members (SIR 2.68, 95% CI 0.32-9.68 for first-degree relatives). Conclusions Our study indicates that the cumulative and relative familial risk of early-onset HNC is modest in the Finnish population and, at most, only a minor proportion of early-onset HNCs are due solely to inherited genetic mutations.
  • Li, Xinjun; Koskinen, Anni I.; Hemminki, Otto; Försti, Asta; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina; Hemminki, Kari (2021)
    Simple Summary Head and neck cancers are cancers that arise between the mouth and larynx. Risk factors for these include smoking, alcohol, human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and family history. Because families can be identified for the whole Swedish population, we wanted to analyzed familial risks for HNC with same and different cancers among first-degree relatives. When a parent or sibling was diagnosed with HNC, other family members had a two-fold risk of being diagnosed with HNC, but the risk was higher when specific types of HNC, such as oral or nasopharyngeal cancers, were analyzed. Husbands of wives with cervical cancer had an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer which may be related to shared HPV infection. In the Swedish population with low smoking levels, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, emphasizing the need for sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination. Background: Head and neck cancers (HNCs) encompass a heterogeneous group of cancers between the mouth and larynx. Familial clustering in HNCs has been described, but how it influences individual sites and to which extent known risk factors, such as human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, may contribute is not well established. Patients/methods: We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate familial risks for HNC with same (concordant) and different (discordant) cancers among first-degree relatives using data from the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1958 to 2018. Results: Incidence for male and female oropharyngeal cancer increased close to four-fold in the past 39 years. Familial HNC was found in 3.4% of the study population, with an overall familial SIR of 1.78. Patients with concordant nasopharyngeal cancer showed a high risk of 23.97, followed by hypopharyngeal cancer (5.43). The husbands of wives with cervical cancer had an increased risk of oropharyngeal cancer. Discussion/Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal cancers lacked associations with lifestyle or HPV associated cancers, suggesting a role for germline genetics, which was also true for the high-risk families of three HNC patients. In the Swedish population with low smoking levels, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, emphasizing the need for sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination.
  • Holopainen, Elina; Vakkilainen, Svetlana; Mäkitie, Outi (2018)
    BackgroundPatients with cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH), a rare metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, manifest severe growth failure, variable immunodeficiency and increased risk of malignancies. The impact of CHH on gynecologic and reproductive health is unknown. Vulnerability to genital infections may predispose CHH patients to prolonged human papillomavirus (HPV) infections potentially leading to cervical, vaginal and vulvar cancer.MethodsWe carried out gynecologic evaluation, pelvic ultrasound and laboratory assessment in 19 women with genetically confirmed CHH. All patients were clinically examined and retrospective data were collected from hospital records.ResultsThe women ranged in age from 19.2 to 70.8years (median 40.8years) and in height from 103 to 150cm (median 123cm). All women had undergone normal pubertal development as assessed by breast development according to Tanner scale and by age of menarche (mean 12.5yrs., range 11-14yrs). Despite significant short stature and potentially small pelvic diameters, a well-developed uterus with fairly normal size and shape was found by pelvic ultrasound in mostof the patients. Ovarian follicle reserve, assessed by ultrasound was normal in relation to age in all premenopausal women it could be assessed (12 cases). Anti-Mullerian hormone was normal in relation to age in 17 women (89%). HPV was detected in 44% (8/18) and three women carried more than one HPV serotype; findings did not associate with immunological parameters. Three patients had a concurrent cell atypia in Pap smear.ConclusionsPubertal development, reproductive hormones and ovarian structure and function were usually normal in women with CHH suggesting fairly normal reproductive health. However, the immunodeficiency characteristic to CHH may predispose the patients to HPV infections. High prevalence of HPV infections detected in this series highlights the importance of careful gynecologic follow up of these patients.
  • Carpen, Timo; Sorsa, Timo; Jouhi, Lauri; Tervahartiala, Taina; Haglund, Caj; Syrjänen, Stina; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Mohamed, Hesham; Mäkitie, Antti; Hagström, Jaana; Mattila, Petri S. (2019)
    Background An emerging subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) is caused by HPV. HPV-positive OPSCC has a better prognosis than HPV-negative OPSCC, but other prognostic markers for these two different diseases are scarce. Our aim was to evaluate serum levels and tumor expression of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and to assess their prognostic role in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC. Materials and methods A total of 90 consecutive OPSCC patients diagnosed and treated with curative intent at the Helsinki University Hospital between 2012 and 2016 were included. Serum samples were prospectively collected. An immunofluorometric assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to determine MMP-8 and TIMP-1 serum concentrations, respectively. HPV status of the tumors was determined using a combination of HPV-DNA genotyping and p16-INK4a immunohistochemistry. The endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Results High TIMP-1 serum levels were strongly and independently associated with poorer OS (adjusted HR 14.7, 95% CI 1.8-117.4, p = 0.011) and DFS (adjusted HR 8.7, 95% CI 1.3-57.1, p = 0.024) among HPV-negative patients; this association was not observed in HPV-positive OPSCC. Although TIMP-1 was immunoexpressed in the majority of the tumor tissue samples, the level of immunoexpression was not associated with prognosis, nor did MMP-8 serum levels. Conclusion Our results indicate that serum TIMP-1 levels may serve as an independent prognostic marker for HPV-negative OPSCC patients.
  • Tuominen, Heidi; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Salo, Tuula; Rautava, Jaana (2020)
    Background This study was designed to investigate the invasion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive human cervical carcinoma cell lines in human leiomyoma-based extracellular matrices in vitro,and to test the suitability of the model for studying the irradiation effects on the cancer cell invasion. Methods HPV positive cervical carcinoma cell lines SiHa and CaSki, and HPV negative squamous cell carcinoma cell line HSC-3 were used. CaSki cells contain around 600 copies of HPV 16 virus in the genome, whereas SiHa have only 1-2 copies per cell. Cells were analyzed using two different human tumor derived extracellular matrix methods (3D myoma disc model, and Myogel Transwell invasion assay). Cultures were irradiated with 4 Gy. Myoma invasion area and the depth of invasion were measured with ImageJ 1.51j8 software. Statistical analyses were performed with SPSS Statistics (IBM SPSS (R) Statistics 25). Results All cells invaded through Myogel coated Transwell membranes and within myoma discs. In myoma discs, a difference in the invasion depth (p = 0.0001) but not in invasion area (p = 0.310) between the HPV positive cell lines was seen, since SiHa (less HPV) invaded slightly better than CaSki (more HPV). HSC-3 cells (HPV negative) invaded deepest (p = 0.048) than either of the HPV positive cell line cells. No difference was detected in the invasion area (p = 0.892) between HPV positive and HPV negative cells. The ionized radiation significantly reduced the invasion depth of HSC-3 (p = 0.008), SiHa (p = 0.0001) and CaSki (p = 0.005). No significant effect on the invasion area was detected in any of the cell lines. However, a significant difference was observed between SiHa and CaSki in the reduction of the invasion depth after radiation (p = 0.013) as the reduction was greater with SiHa than CaSki. Conclusions Both solid and gelatinous human leiomyoma-based extracellular matrix models were suitable platforms to study the invasion of HPV positive cervical carcinoma cells in vitro. SiHa cells with less HPV copy number cells invaded slightly better and were slightly more sensitive to irradiation than CaSki cells with high HPV copy number. However, there was no drastic differences between the invasion properties of these carcinoma cells.
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Randen-Brady, Reija; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    Objectives: In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), toll-like receptors (TLR) 5 and 7 associate with the tumor's human papilloma virus (HPV) status (Jouhi et al., 2017). TLR 2, on the other hand, has been linked to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and to oral carcinogenesis (Farnebo et al., 2015; Binder Gallimidi et al., 2015). Here we investigated the presence of TLR 2 and 4 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC, and their relationship to opportunistic oral pathogen Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP) immunoexpression, clinical parameters, and patient outcome. Materials and methods: Clinicopathological data of 198 unselected consecutive OPSCC patients came from hospital registries. Immunoexpression of TLRs 2 and 4 we evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and earlier in this patient series we studied immunoexpression of Td-CTLP and HPV DNA, HPV mRNA, and p16 status. Results: Immunoexpression of both TLRs 2 and 4 showed a significant association with HPV-status. Strong expression was associated with HPV-positivity and mild expression with HPV-negativity. Patients with strong TLR 2 immunoexpression in the HPV negative subgroup had significantly poorer 5-year DSS (58%) than did patients with mild TLR 2 expression (77%), and strong TLR 2 immunoexpression remained as an independent factor linked to increased disease mortality in the multivariable setting (P = 0.019). No association existed between TLR 2 or 4 and Td-CTLP expression. Conclusion: Our results support the role of TLR 2 receptor as a possible target for development of therapeutics as earlier proposed (Farnebo et al., 2015). The involvement of Td and other oral pathogens in carcinogenesis of OPSCC, remains open and calls for further study.
  • Koskinen, Anni I.; Hemminki, Otto; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Kari (2022)
    Background Cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx encompass a heterogeneous group of cancers for which known risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption and human papilloma virus (HPV) infection but their influence is site-specific with HPV mainly influencing oropharyngeal cancer. Their incidence and survival rates are not well known over extended periods of time. Patients/methods Data were obtained for Finnish (FI) and Swedish (SE) patients from the Nordcan database recently updated through 2019. Age-adjusted incidence trends (FI from 1953, SE from 1960) and relative survival rates for years 1970 through 2019 were calculated. Results We observed a prominent increase in oral and oropharyngeal cancers in FI and SE men and women but the trend for oral cancer was interrupted for SE men in 1985 and possibly also for FI and SE women in 2015. The trend changes in male and female oral cancer was confirmed in data for Denmark and Norway. Relative survival for these cancers has improved overall but they differed for one cluster of oral, oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal cancers with 60-70% 5-year survival in the last period and hypopharyngeal cancer with 25% male survival. In all these cancers, survival for old patients was unfavorable. Discussion/conclusion We hypothesize that reduction in smoking prevalence helped to stop the increase in oral cancer especially in men. As the prevalence of smoking is decreasing, HPV is becoming a dominant risk factor, particularly for the increasing oropharyngeal cancer. Prevention needs to emphasize sexual hygiene and HPV vaccination.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Atula, Timo; Mäkitie, Antti; Keski-Santti, Harri (2019)
    PurposeOnly a minority of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) are diagnosed without regional metastasis (cN0). Studies focusing on the management of cN0 neck in OPSCC are scarce.MethodsWe reviewed all OPSCC patients treated at our institution with cN0 neck between 2000 and 2009. The treatment of neck and pattern of regional control was analyzed. Median follow-up was 5years (range 3.5-9.0) or until death.ResultsOf the total 313 OPSCC patients treated within the period, 56 (18%) presented with cN0 neck. Of them, 51 (91%) received completed treatment with curative intent: 46 (90%) underwent elective neck treatment with either neck dissection (chemo)radiotherapy (C)RT (n=23) or (C)RT (n=23). A regional recurrence occurred in three patients (6%) and they all had a p16-negative soft palate midline primary tumor. Two of these patients had received RT on the neck.Conclusions While the overall prognosis of OPSCC is generally favorable and regional recurrences are infrequent, soft palate tumors, that are usually p16 negative, may form an subgroup warranting more aggressive treatment despite the clinical appearance of early stage.
  • Merilainen, Anna-Stiina; Sihto, Harri; Koljonen, Virve (2022)
    Background Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been studied in several malignant and nonmalignant tissues. However, only in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) has the connection to tumorigenesis been established. Previously, eccrine porocarcinoma samples were shown to express MCPyV in the majority of samples. We aimed to examine MCPyV in porocarcinoma and poroma samples using MCC as the reference material. Methods We analyzed 17 porocarcinoma and 50 poroma samples for the presence of MCPyV using LT antigen immunostaining and DNA detection methods. In addition, 180 MCC samples served as controls. Results MCPyV LT antigen immunostaining was detected in 10% of poroma and 18% of porocarcinoma samples; on the other hand, it was present in 65% of MCC samples. MCPyV DNA was detected in only 10% of poroma and porocarcinoma samples compared with 96% of MCC samples. The viral DNA copy number in all MCPyV DNA-positive MCCs was at least 25 times higher than that in porocarcinoma or poroma samples with the highest MCPyV DNA-to-PTPRG ratio. Conclusions The low number of viral DNA copies in poroma and porocarcinoma samples, together with the negative LT expression of MCPyV DNA-positive tumors, indicates that MCPyV is simply a passenger virus rather than an oncogenic driver of porocarcinoma.
  • Int Head & Neck Sci Grp; Civantos, Francisco J.; Vermorken, Jan B.; Shah, Jatin P.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Background Patients with metastases in the lymph nodes of the neck and no obvious primary tumor, neck cancer with unknown primary (NCUP), represent a management challenge. A majority of patients have metastatic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), although other histologies do occur. Methods We comprehensively reviewed the literature, compared available guidelines, and conferred with an international team of experts. Results Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and fine needle aspiration (FNA) under ultrasound guidance increase accuracy of diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), determination of human papilloma virus (HPV) status, by p16 staining or by in situ hybridization (ISH), and next-generation gene sequencing can guide us regarding probable primary sites and tumor biology. Narrow Band Imaging (NBI) has been introduced for the early detection of subtle mucosal lesions. Direct laryngoscopy (DL) and tonsillectomy have long been procedures used in the search for a primary site. More recently, TransOral Robotic Surgery (TORS) or Transoral LASER Microsurgery (TLM) have been introduced for lingual tonsillectomy. Conclusions New technologies have been developed which can better detect, diagnose, and treat occult primary tumors. Decisions regarding therapy are based on the primary tumor site (if discovered) and N stage. Options include neck dissection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy, primary irradiation, or combined chemotherapy with irradiation. The preferred treatment of patients whose primary remains unidentified is controversial.
  • Louvanto, Karolina; Aro, Karoliina; Nedjai, Belinda; Bützow, Ralf; Jakobsson, Maija; Kalliala, Ilkka; Dillner, Joakim; Nieminen, Pekka; Lorincz, Attila (2020)
    BACKGROUND: There is no baseline prognostic test to ascertain whether cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) will regress or progress. The majority of CIN regress in young women and since local treatments are known to increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes interventions need to be sparing. We investigated the ability of a DNA methylation panel (the S5-classifier) to discriminate between progression and regression among women of childbearing age with untreated CIN grade 2 (CIN2). METHODS: Pyrosequencing methylation and HPV genotyping assays were performed on exfoliated cervical cells from 149 young women with CIN2 in a 2-year cohort study of active surveillance. RESULTS: Twenty-five lesions progressed to CIN grade 3 or worse, 88 regressed to less than CIN grade 1, and 36 lesions persisted as CIN1/2. When cytology, HPV16/18- and HPV16/18/31/33-genotyping, and S5 at baseline were compared to outcomes, S5 was the strongest biomarker associated with regression versus progression. S5 alone or in combination with HPV16/18/31/33-genotyping also showed significantly increased sensitivity versus cytology, comparing regression vs. persistence/progression. With both S5 and cytology tests set at a specificity of 38.6% (95% CI 28.4-49.6) the sensitivity of S5 was significantly higher (83.6%, 95% CI 71.9-91.8) than for cytology (62.3%, 95% CI 49.0-74.4) (p=0.005). The highest area under the curve (AUC) was 0.735 (95% CI 0.621-0.849) in the regression vs. progression outcome with a combination of S5 and cytology, whereas HPV16/18 or HPV16/18/31/33-genotyping did not provide additional prognostic information. CONCLUSIONS: The S5-classifier shows high potential as a prognostic biomarker to identify women with progressive CIN2.
  • Keinänen, Arvi; Marinescu-Gava, Magdalena; Uittamo, Johanna; Hagström, Jaana; Marttila, Emilia; Snäll, Johanna (2020)
    Objectives We assessed the periodontal situation radiologically according to tumour p16 status. Materials and methods Patients with a diagnosis of tonsillar cancer and availability of a digital panoramic radiograph (DPR) during a 5-year period were included in this retrospective study. The predictor variables were periodontal stability, marginal bone loss, marginal bone loss without periodontal stability and total number of teeth. Periodontal status was compared with p16 status, age, gender, smoking and alcohol use. Results Among 115 patients included in the analyses (p16-negative,n = 24; p16-positive,n = 91), smoking (p <.0001), heavy alcohol use (p <.0001) and total number of teeth (p = .0001) were significantly associated with p16 status. Current smoking (OR = 7.3) and heavy alcohol use (OR = 10.1) increased the risk of p16-negative cancer. Conclusions Patients with p16-negative tonsillar carcinoma had less teeth than patients with p16-positive tumours. Other periodontal findings were common in both groups without statistical significance. Heavy alcohol use and smoking were the most important risk factors for p16-negative tonsillar carcinoma.
  • Vento, Seija; Numminen, J.; Kinnunen, I.; Rautiainen, M.; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Hagström, Jaana; Makitie, A. A. (2016)
    The objective of the study was to investigate the nationwide occurrence of sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma in Finland. A retrospective study was conducted at The Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, and Pathology at the five university hospitals in Finland. Data were obtained by searching for sinonasal pleomorphic adenoma cases in the clinical and histopathological registries at these institutions for the past two to four decades. All patients who had had a histologically proven pleomorphic adenoma in the sinonasal area were included as participants. Ten cases with pleomorphic adenoma of the nasal cavity were found. The majority of these tumours originated in the septum, and there were no malignant transformations. Pleomorphic adenomas of the nasal cavity were found to be extremely rare in this nationwide investigation.