Browsing by Subject "HUNTINGTONS-DISEASE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Wu, Ying-Chieh; Sonninen, Tuuli-Maria; Peltonen, Sanni; Koistinaho, Jari; Lehtonen, Sarka (2021)
    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the delivery of oxygen and important nutrients to the brain through active and passive transport and prevents neurotoxins from entering the brain. It also has a clearance function and removes carbon dioxide and toxic metabolites from the central nervous system (CNS). Several drugs are unable to cross the BBB and enter the CNS, adding complexity to drug screens targeting brain disorders. A well-functioning BBB is essential for maintaining healthy brain tissue, and a malfunction of the BBB, linked to its permeability, results in toxins and immune cells entering the CNS. This impairment is associated with a variety of neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Here, we summarize current knowledge about the BBB in neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, we focus on recent progress of using human-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived models to study the BBB. We review the potential of novel stem cell-based platforms in modeling the BBB and address advances and key challenges of using stem cell technology in modeling the human BBB. Finally, we highlight future directions in this area.
  • Kaivola, Karri; Kiviharju, Anna; Jansson, Lilja; Rantalainen, Ville; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strandberg, Timo E.; Laaksovirta, Hannu; Renton, Alan E; Traynor, Bryan J.; Myllykangas, Liisa; Tienari, Pentti (2019)
    The hexanucleotide repeat expansion in C9orf72 is a common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia and also rarely found in other psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. Alleles with >30 repeats are often considered an expansion, but the pathogenic repeat length threshold is still unclear. It is also unclear whether intermediate repeat length alleles (often defined either as 7-30 or 20-30 repeats) have clinically significant effects. We determined the C9orf72 repeat length distribution in 3142 older Finns (aged 60-104 years). The longest nonexpanded allele was 45 repeats. We found 7-45 repeats in 1036/3142 (33%) individuals, 20-45 repeats in 56/3142 (1.8%), 30-45 repeats in 12/3142 (0.38%), and expansion (>45 repeats) in 6/3142 (0.19%). There was no apparent clustering of neurodegenerative or psychiatric diseases in individuals with 30-45 repeats indicating that 30-45 repeats are not pathogenic. None of the 6 expansion carriers had a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia but 4 had a diagnosis of a neurodegenerative or psychiatric disease. Intermediate length alleles (categorized as 7-45 and 20-45 repeats) did not associate with Alzheimer's disease or cognitive impairment. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Seifert, Tina; Malo, Marcus; Kokkola, Tarja; Engen, Karin; Friden-Saxin, Maria; Wallen, Erik A. A.; Lahtela-Kakkonen, Maija; Jarho, Elina M.; Luthman, Kristina (2014)
  • Konovalova, Julia; Gerasymchuk, Dmytro; Parkkinen, Ilmari; Chmielarz, Piotr; Domanskyi, Andrii (2019)
    MicroRNAs are post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, crucial for neuronal differentiation, survival, and activity. Age-related dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis increases neuronal vulnerability to cellular stress and may contribute to the development and progression of neurodegenerative diseases. All major neurodegenerative disorders are also associated with oxidative stress, which is widely recognized as a potential target for protective therapies. Albeit often considered separately, microRNA networks and oxidative stress are inextricably entwined in neurodegenerative processes. Oxidative stress affects expression levels of multiple microRNAs and, conversely, microRNAs regulate many genes involved in an oxidative stress response. Both oxidative stress and microRNA regulatory networks also influence other processes linked to neurodegeneration, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, deregulation of proteostasis, and increased neuroinflammation, which ultimately lead to neuronal death. Modulating the levels of a relatively small number of microRNAs may therefore alleviate pathological oxidative damage and have neuroprotective activity. Here, we review the role of individual microRNAs in oxidative stress and related pathways in four neurodegenerative conditions: Alzheimer's (AD), Parkinson's (PD), Huntington's (HD) disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also discuss the problems associated with the use of oversimplified cellular models and highlight perspectives of studying microRNA regulation and oxidative stress in human stem cell-derived neurons.
  • Tuominen, S; Juvonen, V.; Amberla, K; Jolma, T; Rinne, JO; Tuisku, S; Kurki, T; Marttila, R; Pöyhönen, M; Savontaus, ML; Viitanen, M; Kalimo, H (2001)
    Background and Purpose-CADASIL is an autosomal dominant arteriopathy, characterized by multiple brain infarcts, cognitive decline, and finally dementia, which is caused by mutations in Notch3 gene encoding a Notch3 receptor protein. We describe the clinical, neuropsychological, imaging, genetic, and skin biopsy findings in a CADASIL patient homozygous for the C475T mutation resulting in R133C amino acid substitution, in comparison to 9 age-matched heterozygous patients with the same mutation. Methods-The patients were examined clinically and neuropsychologically and with MRI and positron emission tomography for assessment of cerebral blood flow. The gene defect was analyzed by sequencing the products of polymerase chain reaction of exons 3 and 4 of the Notch3 gene. Dermal arteries were analyzed electron microscopically. Results-The homozygous patient had his first-ever stroke at age 28 years. This is markedly earlier than the average, but the patient's heterozygous son had his first transient ischemic attack-like episode at the same age and another heterozygous patient had his first-ever stroke when only 2 years older. He was neuropsychologically more severely deteriorated than all but 1 of the heterozygous patients. These 2 patients had the most severe (confluent grade D) white matter MRI changes. Positron emission tomography showed markedly reduced cerebral blood flow. Skin biopsy revealed profuse deposits of granular osmiophilic material. The progression of disease in the homozygous case was, however, slower than in the most severely affected heterozygous patient. Conclusions-Our homozygous patient's phenotype is within the clinical spectrum of CADASIL, although at its severe end. Thus, CADASIL may follow the classic definition of a dominant disease, according to which the heterozygous and homozygous patients are clinically indistinguishable.
  • Vesikansa, Aino (2018)
    The complex structure and highly variable gene expression profile of the brain makes it among the most challenging fields to study in both basic and translational biological research. Most of the brain diseases are multifactorial and despite the rapidly increasing genomic data, molecular pathways and causal links between genes and central nervous system (CNS) diseases are largely unknown. The advent of an easy and flexible CRISPR-Cas genome editing technology has rapidly revolutionized the field of functional genomics and opened unprecedented possibilities to dissect the mechanisms of CNS disease. CRISPR-Cas allows a plenitude of applications for both gene-focused and genome-wide approaches, ranging from original "gene scissors" making permanent modifications in the genome to the regulation of gene expression and epigenetics. CRISPR technology provides a unique opportunity to establish new cellular and animal models of CNS diseases and holds potential for breakthroughs in the CNS research and drug development.