Browsing by Subject "HYDROGEL"

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  • Viidik, Laura; Seera, Dagmar; Antikainen, Osmo; Kogermann, Karin; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Laidmäe, Ivo (2019)
    Printing technologies combined with a computer-aided design (CAD) have found an increasing number of uses in pharmaceutical applications. In extrusion-based printing, the material is forced through a nozzle to form a three-dimensional (3D) structure pre-designed by CAD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3D-printability of biocompatible aqueous poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) gels and to investigate the effects of three formulation parameters on the 3D printing process. The impact of PEO concentration (gel viscosity), printing head speed and printing plate temperature was investigated at three different levels using a full factorial experimental design. The aqueous PEO gels were printed with a bench-top extrusion-based 3D printing system at an ambient room temperature. The viscosity measurements confirmed that the aqueous PEO gels follow a shear-thinning behaviour suitable for extrusion-based printing. Heating the printing plate allowed the gel to dry faster resulting in more precise printing outcome. With the non-heated plate, the gel formed a dumbbell-shaped grid instead of straight lines. Higher concentration and more viscous PEO gels formed the best structured 3D-printed lattices. In conclusion, the accuracy and precision of extrusion-based 3D printing of aqueous PEO gels is highly dependent on the formulation (PEO concentration) and printing parameters (printing head speed, plate temperature). By optimizing these critical process parameters, PEO may be suitable for printing novel drug delivery systems.
  • Zhang, Liucheng; Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Liying; Mao, Xiyuan; An, Ning; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Jinxiong; Deng, Lianfu; Zhang, Yuguang; Sun, Xiaoming; Santos, Hélder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2020)
    The development of science and technology often drew lessons from natural phenomena. Herein, inspired by drying-driven curling of apple peels, hydrogel-based micro-scaled hollow tubules (MHTs) are proposed for biomimicking microvessels, which promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. MHTs with various pipeline structures are fabricated using hydrogel in corresponding shapes, such as Y-branches, anastomosis rings, and triangle loops. Adjustable diameters can be achieved by altering the concentration and cross-linking time of the hydrogel. Based on this rationale, biomimetic microvessels with diameters of 50-500 mu m are cultivated in vitro by coculture of MHTs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. In vivo studies show their excellent performance to promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. In conclusion, the present work proposes and validifies a biomimetic 3D self-forming method for the fabrication of biomimetic vessels and microvascular scaffolds with high biocompatibility and stability based on hydrogel materials, such as gelatin and hyaluronic acid.
  • Hahn, Lukas; Kessler, Larissa; Polzin, Lando; Fritze, Lars; Forster, Stefan; Helten, Holger; Luxenhofer, Robert (2021)
    Thermoresponsive polymers are frequently involved in the development of materials for various applications. Here, polymers containing poly(2- benzhydryl-2-oxazine) (pBhOzi) repeating units are described for the first time. The homopolymer pBhOzi and an ABA type amphiphile comprising two flanking hydrophilic A blocks of poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (pMeOx) and the hydrophobic aromatic pBhOzi central B block (pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx) are synthesized and the latter is shown to exhibit inverse thermogelling properties at concentrations of 20 wt.% in water. This behavior stands in contrast to a homologue ABA amphiphile consisting of a central poly(2-benzhydryl-2-oxazoline) block (pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx). No inverse thermogelling is observed with this polymer even at 25 wt.%. For 25 wt.% pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx, a surprisingly high storage modulus of approximate to 22 kPa and high values for the yield and flow points of 480 Pa and 1.3 kPa are obtained. Exceeding the yield point, pronounced shear thinning is observed. Interestingly, only little difference between self-assemblies of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx and pMeOx-b-pBhOx-b-pMeOx is observed by dynamic light scattering while transmission electron microscopy images suggest that the micelles of pMeOx-b-pBhOzi-b-pMeOx interact through their hydrophilic coronas, which is probably decisive for the gel formation. Overall, this study introduces new building blocks for poly(2-oxazoline) and poly(2-oxazine)-based self-assemblies, but additional studies will be needed to unravel the exact mechanism.
  • Ajdary, Rubina; Huan, Siqi; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Xiang, Wenchao; Grande, Rafael; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2019)
    Nanocellulose has been demonstrated as a suitable material for cell culturing, given its similarity to extracellular matrices. Taking advantage of the shear thinning behavior, nanocellulose suits three-dimensional (3D) printing into scaffolds that support cell attachment and proliferation. Here, we propose aqueous suspensions of acetylated nanocellulose of a low degree of substitution for direct ink writing (DM). This benefits from the heterogeneous acetylation of precursor cellulosic fibers, which eases their deconstruction and confers the characteristics required for extrusion in DIW. Accordingly, the morphology of related 3D printed architectures and their performance during drying and rewetting as well as interactions with living cells are compared with those produced from typical unmodified and TEMPO-oxidized nanocelluloses. We find that a significantly lower concentration of acetylated nanofibrils is needed to obtain bioinks of similar performance, affording more porous structures. Together with their high surface charge and axial aspect, acetylated nanocellulose produces dimensionally stable monolithic scaffolds that support drying and rewetting, required for packaging and sterilization. Considering their potential uses in cardiac devices, we discuss the interactions of the scaffolds with cardiac myoblast cells. Attachment, proliferation, and viability for 21 days are demonstrated. Overall, the performance of acetylated nanocellulose bioinks opens the possibility for reliable and scaleup fabrication of scaffolds appropriate for studies on cellular processes and for tissue engineering.
  • Zhang, Liucheng; Xiang, Yi; Zhang, Hongbo; Cheng, Liying; Mao, Xiyuan; An, Ning; Zhang, Lu; Zhou, Jinxiong; Deng, Lianfu; Zhang, Yuguang; Sun, Xiaoming; Santos, Hélder A.; Cui, Wenguo (2020)
    Inspired by drying‐driven curling of apple peels, hydrogel‐based micro‐scaled hollow tubules are proposed in article number 1903553 by Yuguang Zhang, Xiaoming Sun, Hélder A. Santos, Wenguo Cui, and co‐workers for biomimicking microvessels with diameters of 50–500 μm, which promote microcirculation and improve the survival of random skin flaps. The 3D‐shape‐morphing technique is of great flexibility and potential to lay the foundation for the construction of complex vascular networks, such as Y‐branches, anastomosis rings, and triangle loops.
  • Liu, Zehua; Li, Yunzhan; Li, Wei; Lian, Wenhua; Kemell, Marianna; Hietala, Sami; Figueiredo, Patricia; Li, Li; Mäkilä, Ermei; Ma, Ming; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Liu, Dongfei; Zhang, Hongbo; Deng, Xianming; Santos, Helder A. (2019)
    Here, an oxidation/acid dual-responsive nanohybrids/ark system was produced. The microfluidics-produced nanohybrids endow the system with an orchestrated cascade from wound detection, reactive oxygen species scavenging, drug release to hydrogel formation. The drug release behavior imitates the dynamic wound healing process, thus rendering an enhanced bio-mimetic regeneration.
  • Wang, Ling; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ajdary, Rubina; Xiang, Wenchao; Borghei, Maryam; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2020)
    Partially deacetylated chitin nanofibers (ChNF) were isolated from shell residues derived from crab biomass and used to prepare hydrogels, which were easily transformed into continuous microfibers by wet-spinning. We investigated the effect of ChNF solid content, extrusion rate and coagulant type, which included organic (acetone) and alkaline (NaOH and ammonia) solutions, on wet spinning. The properties of the microfibers and associated phenomena were assessed by tensile strength, quartz crystal microgravimetry, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The as-spun microfibers (14 GPa stiffness) comprised hierarchical structures with fibrils aligned in the lateral direction. The microfibers exhibited a remarkable water sorption capacity (up to 22 g g−1), while being stable in the wet state (50% of dry strength), which warrants consideration as biobased absorbent systems. In addition, according to cell proliferation and viability of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 and mouse bone osteoblast K7M2, the wet-spun ChNF microfibers showed excellent results and can be considered as fully safe for biomedical uses, such as in sutures, wound healing patches and cell culturing.
  • Nugroho, Robertus Wahyu N.; Harjumäki, Riina; Zhang, Xue; Lou, Yan-Ru; Yliperttula, Marjo; Valle-Delgado, Juan Jose; Österberg, Monika (2019)
    Biomaterials of different nature have been and are widely studied for various biomedical applications. In many cases, biomaterial assemblies are designed to mimic biological systems. Although biomaterials have been thoroughly characterized in many aspects, not much quantitative information on the molecular level interactions between different biomaterials is available. That information is very important, on the one hand, to understand the properties of biological systems and, on the other hand, to develop new composite biomaterials for special applications. This work presents a systematic, quantitative analysis of self- and cross-interactions between films of collagen I (Col I), collagen IV (Col IV), laminin (LN-521), and cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), that is, biomaterials of different nature and structure that either exist in biological systems (e.g., extracellular matrices) or have shown potential for 3D cell culture and tissue engineering. Direct surface forces and adhesion between biomaterials-coated spherical micro-particles and flat substrates were measured in phosphate-buffered saline using an atomic force microscope and the colloidal probe technique. Different methods (Langmuir-Schaefer deposition, spin-coating, or adsorption) were applied to completely coat the flat substrates and the spherical micro particles with homogeneous biomaterial films. The adhesion between biomaterials films increased with the time that the films were kept in contact. The strongest adhesion was observed between Col IV films, and between Col IV and LN-521 films after 30 s contact time. In contrast, low adhesion was measured between CNF films, as well as between CNF and LN-521 films. Nevertheless, a good adhesion between CNF and collagen films (especially Col I) was observed. These results increase our understanding of the structure of biological systems and can support the design of new matrices or scaffolds where different biomaterials are combined for diverse biological or medical applications.