Browsing by Subject "HYDROXYAPATITE"

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  • Suetake, Mizuki; Nakano, Yuriko; Furuki, Genki; Ikehara, Ryohei; Komiya, Tatsuki; Kurihara, Eitaro; Morooka, Kazuya; Yamasaki, Shinya; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Horie, Kenji; Takehara, Mami; Law, Gareth T.W.; Bower, William; Grambow, Bernd; Ewing, Rodney C.; Utsunomiya, Satoshi (2019)
    To understand the chemical durability of highly radioactive cesium-rich microparticles (CsMPs) released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in March 2011, we have, for the first time, performed systematic dissolution experiments with CsMPs isolated from Fukushima soils (one sample with 108 Bq and one sample with 57.8 Bq of Cs-137) using three types of solutions: simulated lung fluid, ultrapure water, and artificial sea water, at 25 and 37 degrees C for 1-63 days. The Cs-137 was released rapidly within three days and then steady-state dissolution was achieved for each solution type. The steady-state Cs-137 release rate at 25 degrees C was determined to be 4.7 x 10(3), 1.3 x 10(3), and 1.3 x 10(3) Bq . m(-2)s(-1) for simulated lung fluid, ultrapure water, and artificial sea water, respectively. This indicates that the simulated lung fluid promotes the dissolution of CsMPs. The dissolution of CsMPs is similar to that of Si-based glass and is affected by the surface moisture conditions. In addition, the Cs release from the CsMPs is constrained by the rate-limiting dissolution of silicate matrix. Based on our results, CsMPs with similar to 2 Bq, which can be potentially inhaled and deposited in the alveolar region, are completely dissolved after >35 years. Further, CsMPs could remain in the environment for several decades; as such, CsMPs are important factors contributing to the long-term impacts of radioactive Cs in the environment. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Butler, Don H.; Koivisto, Satu Mirjami; Brumfeld, Vlad; Shahack-Gross, Ruth (2019)
    Salmonid resources currently foster socioeconomic prosperity in several nations, yet their importance to many ancient circumpolar societies is poorly understood due to insufficient fish bone preservation at archaeological sites. As a result, there are serious gaps in our knowledge concerning the antiquity of northern salmonid fisheries and their impacts on shaping biodiversity, hunter-gatherer adaptations, and human-ecological networks. The interdisciplinary study presented here demonstrates that calcium-magnesium phosphate minerals formed in burned salmonid bones can preserve at ancient northern sites, thus informing on the early utilization of these resources despite the absence of morphologically classifiable bones. The minerals whitlockite and beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were identified in rare morphologically classifiable Atlantic salmonid bones from three Mid-Holocene sites in Finland. Large amounts of beta magnesium tricalcium phosphate were also experimentally formed by burning modern Atlantic salmonid and brown trout bones. Our results demonstrate the value of these minerals as proxies for ancient northern salmonid fishing. Specifically, the whitlockite mineral was discovered in hearth sediments from the 5,600 year old Yli-Ii Kierikinkangas site on the Iijoki River in northern Finland. Our fine sieving and mineralogical analyses of these sediments, along with zooarchaeological identification of recovered bone fragments, have confirmed for the first time that the people living at this village did incorporate salmonids into their economies, thus providing new evidence for early estuary/riverine fisheries in northern Finland.
  • Jutila, Eveliina; Koivunen, Risto; Kiiski, Iiro; Bollström, Roger; Sikanen, Tiina; Gane, Patrick (2018)
    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) is a superfamily of enzymes in charge of elimination of the majority of clinically used drugs and other xenobiotics. This study focuses on the development of a rapid microfluidic lateral flow assay to study human phase I metabolism reactions mediated by CYP2A6 isoenzyme, the major detoxification route for many known carcinogens and drugs, with coumarin 7-hydroxylation, as the prototype model reaction. Assay fabrication utilizes custom-designed porous functionalized calcium carbonate (FCC) coatings and inkjet-printed fluid barriers. All materials used are novel and carefully chosen to preserve biocompatibility. The design comprises separate zones for reaction, separation and detection, and an absorbent pad to keep the assay wet for extended periods (up to 10 min) even when heated to physiological temperature. The concept enables CYP assays to be made at lower cost than conventional well-plate assays, while providing increased selectivity at equally high speed, owing to the possibility for simultaneous chromatographic separation of the reaction products from the reactants on the FCC coating. The developed concept provides a viable rapid prediction of the interaction risks related to metabolic clearance of drugs and other xenobiotics, and exemplifies a novel coating technology illustrating the opportunity to broaden application functionality.
  • Pihlman, Hanna; Keränen, Pauli; Paakinaho, Kaarlo; Linden, Jere; Hannula, Markus; Manninen, Iida-Kaisa; Hyttinen, Jari; Manninen, Mikko; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi (2018)
    The advantages of synthetic bone graft substitutes over autogenous bone grafts include abundant graft volume, lack of complications related to the graft harvesting, and shorter operation and recovery times for the patient. We studied a new synthetic supercritical CO2 -processed porous composite scaffold of -tricalcium phosphate and poly(L-lactide-co-caprolactone) copolymer as a bone graft substitute in a rabbit calvarial defect. Bilateral 12mm diameter critical size calvarial defects were successfully created in 18 rabbits. The right defect was filled with a scaffold moistened with bone marrow aspirate, and the other was an empty control. The material was assessed for applicability during surgery. The follow-up times were 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Radiographic and micro-CT studies and histopathological analysis were used to evaluate new bone formation, tissue ingrowth, and biocompatibility. The scaffold was easy to shape and handle during the surgery, and the bone-scaffold contact was tight when visually evaluated after the implantation. The material showed good biocompatibility and its porosity enabled rapid invasion of vasculature and full thickness mesenchymal tissue ingrowth already at four weeks. By 24 weeks, full thickness bone ingrowth within the scaffold and along the dura was generally seen. In contrast, the empty defect had only a thin layer of new bone at 24 weeks. The radiodensity of the material was similar to the density of the intact bone. In conclusion, the new porous scaffold material, composed of microgranular -TCP bound into the polymer matrix, proved to be a promising osteoconductive bone graft substitute with excellent handling properties [GRAPHICS]