Browsing by Subject "HYDROXYETHYL STARCH"

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  • Vlasov, Hanna; Juvonen, Tatu; Hiippala, Seppo; Suojaranta, Raili; Peltonen, Markku; Schramko, Alexey; Arvonen, Kaapo; Salminen, Ulla-Stina; Kleine Budde, Ilona; Eränen, Tiina; Mazanikov, Maxim; Meinberg, Mihkel; Vähäsilta, Tommi; Wilkman, Erika; Pettilä, Ville; Pesonen, Eero (2020)
    Background In cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), large amounts of fluids are administered. CPB priming with crystalloid solution causes marked hemodilution and fluid extravasation. Colloid solutions may reduce fluid overload because they have a better volume expansion effect than crystalloids. The European Medicines Agency does not recommend the use of hydroxyethyl starch solutions (HES) due to harmful renal effects. Albumin solution does not impair blood coagulation but the findings on kidney function are conflicting. On the other hand, albumin may reduce endothelial glycocalyx destruction and decrease platelet count during CPB. No large randomized, double-blind, clinical trials have compared albumin solution to crystalloid solution in cardiac surgery. Methods/design In this single-center, double-blind, randomized controlled trial comprising 1386 adult cardiac surgery patients, 4% albumin solution will be compared to Ringer's acetate solution in CPB priming and volume replacement up to 3200 mL during surgery and the first 24 h of intensive care unit stay. The primary efficacy outcome is the number of patients with at least one major adverse event (MAE) during 90 postoperative days (all-cause death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure or low output syndrome, resternotomy, stroke, major arrhythmia, major bleeding, infection compromising post-procedural rehabilitation, acute kidney injury). Secondary outcomes are total number of MAEs, incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE; cardiac death, acute myocardial injury, acute heart failure, arrhythmia), amount of each type of blood product transfused (red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, platelets), total fluid balance at the end of the intervention period, total measured blood loss, development of acute kidney injury, days alive without mechanical ventilation in 90 days, days alive outside intensive care unit at 90 days, days alive at home at 90 days, and 90-day mortality. Discussion The findings of this study will provide new evidence regarding efficacy and safety of albumin solution in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB.
  • Lillemae, Kadri; Laine, Antti T.; Schramko, Alexey; Niemi, Tomi T. (2018)
    Background:Albumin and mannitol may interfere with hemostasis, but their coinfluence is unclear. We aimed to determine the effects of albumin alone and in combination with mannitol or Ringer acetate (RAC) on hemostasis in crossover in vitro study.Materials and Methods:From citrated fresh whole blood withdrawn from 10 volunteers, we prepared 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 vol% dilutions of 4% albumin (Alb group). Each sample was thereafter diluted by 15% mannitol (Alb/Man group) or RAC (Alb/RAC group) at a ratio of 9:1. Using thromboelastometry, FibTEM (fibrinogen ROTEM) and ExTEM (extrinsic ROTEM) tests were performed.Results:A 20 vol%, but not 2.5 to 15 vol% dilution of albumin caused a prolonged clot formation time, -angle decrease, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) weakening compared with undiluted sample (P
  • Perner, Anders; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cronhjort, Maria; Darmon, Michael; Jakob, Stephan M.; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2018)
    Hypovolemia is frequent in patients with sepsis and may contribute to worse outcome. The management of these patients is impeded by the low quality of the evidence for many of the specific components of the care. In this paper, we discuss recent advances and controversies in this field and give expert statements for the management of hypovolemia in patients with sepsis including triggers and targets for fluid therapy and volumes and types of fluid to be given. Finally, we point to unanswered questions and suggest a roadmap for future research.
  • Perner, Anders; Prowle, John; Joannidis, Michael; Young, Paul; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Pettilä, Ville (2017)
    Acute kidney injury (AKI) and fluids are closely linked through oliguria, which is a marker of the former and a trigger for administration of the latter. Recent progress in this field has challenged the physiological and clinical rational of using oliguria as a trigger for the administration of fluid and brought attention to the delicate balance between benefits and harms of different aspects of fluid management in critically ill patients, in particular those with AKI. This narrative review addresses various aspects of fluid management in AKI outlining physiological aspects, the effects of crystalloids and colloids on kidney function and the effect of various resuscitation and de-resuscitation strategies on the course and outcome of AKI.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Niiya, Tomohisa; Silvasti-Lundell, Marja; Schramko, Alexey; Hernesniemi, Juha; Randell, Tarja; Niemi, Tomi (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgery in general anesthesia exposes patients to hemodynamic alterations in both the prone and the sitting position. We aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic profile during stroke volume-directed fluid administration in patients undergoing neurosurgery either in the sitting or the prone position. METHODS: In 2 separate prospective trials, 30 patients in prone and 28 patients in sitting position were randomly assigned to receive either Ringer acetate (RAC) or hydroxyethyl starch (HES; 130 kDa/0.4) for optimization of stroke volume. After combining data from these 2 trials, 2-way analysis of variance was performed to compare patients' hemodynamic profile between the 2 positions and to evaluate differences between RAC and HES consumption. RESULTS: To achieve comparable hemodynamics during surgery, a higher mean cumulative dose of RAC than HES was needed (679 mL +/- 390 vs. 455 mL +/- 253; P <0.05). When fluid consumption was adjusted with weight, statistical difference was lost. Fluid administration did not differ between the prone and sitting position. Mean arterial pressure was lower and cardiac index and stroke volume index were higher over time in patients in the sitting position. CONCLUSIONS: The sitting position does not require excess fluid treatment compared with the prone position. HES is slightly more effective than RAC in achieving comparable hemodynamics, but the difference might be explained by patient weight. With goal-directed fluid administration and moderate use of vasoactive drugs, it is possible to achieve stable hemodynamics in both positions.