Browsing by Subject "HYGIENE"

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  • Kettunen, Karoliina; Nevas, Mari; Lunden, Janne (2017)
    We surveyed Finnish local food control officials' opinions about the use and challenges of administrative enforcement measures. Responses to the questionnaire were received from a total of 129 food control officials, covering 72.6% of the 62 local food control units in Finland. In the opinion of 42.7% of the respondents, enforcement measures are not used often enough in their unit to ensure forod safety. Based on our results, large units have better practical tools such as templates for enforcement decisions and guidelines that facilitate the use of enforcement measures than small units, but uncertain practices and a lack of routine appear to impede the use of the measures in many units. Particular challenges highlighted by the officials were related to laboriousness and slowness of the administrative process and reasoning for using enforcement measures. Moreover, impairment of cooperation with the food business operator as a consequence of using enforcement measures was of concern for many officials. The officials assessed the expertise of the head of the unit more positively in the units in which enforcement measures were used than in the units in which enforcement measures were not used, and participation in trainings was the strongest explanatory factor for the use of enforcement measures among the inspectors. Our results indicate that development of operating procedures and provision of specific training on administrative procedure with a practical approach play a key role in strengthening officials' expertise and confidence in using enforcement measures. Moreover, merging the small units with the large ones may promote uniform practices and better capabilities to use enforcement measures in all units. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kujansuu, Eila; Kujansuu, Leena; Paassilta, Marita; Mustonen, Jukka; Vaarala, Outi (2019)
    Background The hygiene hypothesis suggests that a decreased microbial load contributes to an increased risk of allergies. In the Finnish municipality of Nokia, sewage water was accidentally mixed with drinking water for 2 days. We studied the association between exposure and the emergence of allergies in children. Methods Children aged 2-5 years living in the accident area and an age-matched cohort from the control municipality were recruited. Based on the questionnaires, we identified 139 children exposed to the contaminated water and selected age- and sex-matched controls for them (mean age 16.59 months at the time of the accident). Allergic symptoms and diseases were recorded by ISAAC questionnaires and skin prick tests (SPTs) performed 2 and 5 years after the accident. Results SPT positivity at 5 years of follow-up was decreased in the children exposed to the sewage water below 1 year of age (OR 0.311, 95% CI 0.118-0.820; P = 0.019), particularly in children who did not develop gastroenteritis at exposure. In contrast, the children over 1 year of age at the exposure tended more likely to be SPT-positive at 5 years of follow-up (OR 1.997, 95% CI 0.963-4.143; P = 0.070). Conclusions Sewage water exposure during the first year of life, but not later, decreased the risk of IgE sensitization emphasizing the importance of age as a modulator. The modulation of IgE sensitization by the presence of clinical gastroenteritis at the exposure suggests that the nature of microbial load may have importance or alternatively shared host defense mechanisms protect from infection and atopic sensitization.
  • Kaskela, Jenni; Vainio, Annukka; Ollila, Sari; Lundén, Janne (2019)
    Disclosure systems for official food safety inspection results have been introduced in many countries including Finland in order to increase compliance of food business operators (FBOs). Although the disclosure systems are intended to affect FBOs, few studies have been published on FBOs' experiences of these systems. To investigate FBOs' opinions of disclosed food safety inspections in Finland, a questionnaire was distributed in 2016. The questionnaire study also aimed to recognize factors affecting compliance and disagreements about gradings with a special focus on FBOs' risk perception. In total 1277 responses from FBOs in retail (n = 523), service (n = 507) and industry (n = 247) sectors revealed that the majority of FBOs perceived the disclosure to promote correction of non-compliance. However, many FBOs disagreed with the grading of inspection findings. Most common topics of disagreements were maintenance of premises, record-keeping of own-check plan and adequacy and suitability of premises for operations. Logistic regression analysis showed that the likelihood of occurrence of disagreements with grading was higher among those retail and service FBOs with a lower risk perception. Similarly, the occurrence of non-compliance was associated with FBOs' risk perception in all sectors. Thus, FBOs need proper guidance on food safety risks. These results can be used to improve the efficacy of disclosed food safety inspections.
  • Deshpande, Aniruddha; Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Lindstedt, Paulina A.; Baumann, Mathew M.; Johnson, Kimberly B.; Blacker, Brigette F.; Abbastabar, Hedayat; Abd-Allah, Foad; Abdelalim, Ahmed; Abdollahpour, Ibrahim; Abegaz, Kedir Hussein; Abejie, Ayenew Negesse; Abreu, Lucas Guimaraes; Abrigo, Michael R. M.; Abualhasan, Ahmed; Accrombessi, Manfred Mario Kokou; Adamu, Abdu A.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Adedeji, Isaac Akinkunmi; Adedoyin, Rufus Adesoji; Adekanmbi, Victor; Adetokunboh, Olatunji O.; Adhikari, Tara Ballav; Afarideh, Mohsen; Agudelo-Botero, Marcela; Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ahmadi, Keivan; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Ahmed, Anwar E.; Akalu, Temesgen Yihunie; Akanda, Ali S.; Alahdab, Fares; Al-Aly, Ziyad; Alam, Samiah; Alam, Noore; Alamene, Genet Melak; Alanzi, Turki M.; Albright, James; Albujeer, Ammar; Alcalde-Rabanal, Jacqueline Elizabeth; Alebel, Animut; Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw; Ali, Muhammad; Alijanzadeh, Mehran; Alipour, Vahid; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Almasi, Ali; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Altirkawi, Khalid A.; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson; Alvis-Zakzuk, Nelson J.; Amini, Saeed; Amit, Arianna Maever L.; Amul, Gianna Gayle Herrera; Andrei, Catalina Liliana; Anjomshoa, Mina; Ansariadi, Ansariadi; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Antony, Benny; Antriyandarti, Ernoiz; Arabloo, Jalal; Aref, Hany Mohamed Amin; Aremu, Olatunde; Armoon, Bahram; Arora, Amit; Aryal, Krishna K.; Arzani, Afsaneh; Asadi-Aliabadi, Mehran; Asmelash, Daniel; Atalay, Hagos Tasew; Athari, Seyyede Masoume; Athari, Seyyed Shamsadin; Atre, Sachin R.; Ausloos, Marcel; Awasthi, Shally; Awoke, Nefsu; Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala; Ayano, Getinet; Ayanore, Martin Amogre; Aynalem, Yared Asmare; Azari, Samad; Azman, Andrew S.; Babaee, Ebrahim; Badawi, Alaa; Bagherzadeh, Mojtaba; Bakkannavar, Shankar M.; Balakrishnan, Senthilkumar; Banach, Maciej; Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar; Barac, Aleksandra; Barboza, Miguel A.; Barnighausen, Till Winfried; Basu, Sanjay; Vo Dinh Bay,; Bayati, Mohsen; Bedi, Neeraj; Beheshti, Mahya; Behzadifar, Meysam; Behzadifar, Masoud; Ramirez, Diana Fernanda Bejarano; Bell, Michelle L.; Bennett, Derrick A.; Benzian, Habib; Berbada, Dessalegn Ajema; Bernstein, Robert S.; Bhat, Anusha Ganapati; Bhattacharyya, Krittika; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Bikbov, Boris; Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat; Biswas, Raaj Kishore; Bohlouli, Somayeh; Boufous, Soufiane; Brady, Oliver J.; Briko, Andrey Nikolaevich; Briko, Nikolay Ivanovich; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Brown, Alexandria; Nagaraja, Sharath Burugina; Butt, Zahid A.; Camera, Luis Alberto; Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cano, Jorge; Car, Josip; Cardenas, Rosario; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Castro, Franz; Cerin, Ester; Chalise, Binaya; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Chin, Ken Lee; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Cormier, Natalie Maria; Costa, Vera Marisa; Cromwell, Elizabeth A.; Dadi, Abel Fekadu Fekadu; Dahiru, Tukur; Dahlawi, Saad M. A.; Dandona, Rakhi; Dandona, Lalit; Dang, Anh Kim; Daoud, Farah; Darwesh, Aso Mohammad; Darwish, Amira Hamed; Daryani, Ahmad; Das, Jai K.; Das Gupta, Rajat; Dash, Aditya Prasad; Davila-Cervantes, Claudio Alberto; Weaver, Nicole Davis; De la Hoz, Fernando Pio; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Demissie, Dereje Bayissa; Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam; Denova-Gutierrez, Edgar; Deribe, Kebede; Desalew, Assefa; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Dhillon, Preeti; Dhimal, Meghnath; Dhungana, Govinda Prasad; Diaz, Daniel; Dipeolu, Isaac Oluwafemi; Hoa Thi,; Dolecek, Christiane; Doyle, Kerrie E.; Dubljanin, Eleonora; Duraes, Andre Rodrigues; Edinur, Hisham Atan; Effiong, Andem; Eftekhari, Aziz; El Nahas, Nevine; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; El Tantawi, Maha; Elhabashy, Hala Rashad; El-Jaafary, Shaimaa; El-Khatib, Ziad; Elkout, Hajer; Elsharkawy, Aisha; Enany, Shymaa; Endalew, Daniel Adane; Eshrati, Babak; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Etemadi, Arash; Ezekannagha, Oluchi; Faraon, Emerito Jose A.; Fareed, Mohammad; Faro, Andre; Farzadfar, Farshad; Fasil, Alebachew Fasil; Fazlzadeh, Mehdi; Feigin, Valery L.; Fekadu, Wubalem; Fentahun, Netsanet; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Flohr, Carsten; Foigt, Nataliya A.; Folayan, Morenike Oluwatoyin; Foroutan, Masoud; Franklin, Richard Charles; Frostad, Joseph Jon; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gad, Mohamed M.; Garcia, Gregory M.; Gatotoh, Augustine Mwangi; Gayesa, Reta Tsegaye; Gebremedhin, Ketema Bizuwork; Geramo, Yilma Chisha Dea; Gesesew, Hailay Abrha; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Ghashghaee, Ahmad; Sherbaf, Farzaneh Ghazi; Gill, Tiffany K.; Gill, Paramjit Singh; Ginindza, Themba G.; Girmay, Alem; Gizaw, Zemichael; Goodridge, Amador; Gopalani, Sameer Vali; Goulart, Barbara Niegia Garcia; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Green, Manfred S.; Gubari, Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen; Gugnani, Harish Chander; Guido, Davide; Guimaraes, Rafael Alves; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rajeev; Gupta, Rahul; Ha, Giang Hai; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Haile, Dessalegn H.; Haile, Michael Tamene; Hall, Brian J.; Hamidi, Samer; Handiso, Demelash Woldeyohannes; Haririan, Hamidreza; Hariyani, Ninuk; Hasaballah, Ahmed; Hasan, Mehedi; Hasanzadeh, Amir; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Hayelom, Desta Haftu; Hegazy, Mohamed; Heibati, Behzad; Heidari, Behnam; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Herteliu, Claudiu; Heydarpour, Fatemeh; de Hidru, Hagos Degefa; Hird, Thomas R.; Chi Linh Hoang,; Hollerich, Gillian; Hoogar, Praveen; Hossain, Naznin; Hosseinzadeh, Mehdi; Househ, Mowafa; Hu, Guoqing; Humayun, Ayesha; Hussain, Syed Ather; Hussen, Mamusha Aman A.; Ibitoye, Segun Emmanuel; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Ilic, Milena D.; Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Iqbal, Usman; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jalali, Amir; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jha, Vivekanand; Ji, John S.; Jonas, Jost B.; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Kabir, Ali; Kabir, Zubair; Kanchan, Tanuj; Karch, Andre; Karki, Surendra; Kasaeian, Amir; Kasahun, Gebremicheal Gebreslassie; Kasaye, Habtamu Kebebe; Kassa, Gebrehiwot G.; Kassa, Getachew Mullu; Kayode, Gbenga A.; Kebede, Mihiretu M.; Keiyoro, Peter Njenga; Ketema, Daniel Bekele; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khalilov, Rovshan; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khan, Junaid; Khan, Nuruzzaman; Khatab, Khaled; Khater, Mona M.; Khater, Amir M.; Khayamzadeh, Maryam; Khazaei, Mohammad; Khosravi, Mohammad Hossein; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Kiadaliri, Ali; Kim, Yun Jin; Kimokoti, Ruth W.; Kisa, Sezer; Kisa, Adnan; Kochhar, Sonali; Kolola, Tufa; Komaki, Hamidreza; Kosen, Soewarta; Koul, Parvaiz A.; Koyanagi, Ai; Krishan, Kewal; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Kugbey, Nuworza; Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, G. Anil; Kumar, Manasi; Kusuma, Dian; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lacey, Ben; Lal, Aparna; Lal, Dharmesh Kumar; Lam, Hilton; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van Charles; Lasrado, Savita; Lebedev, Georgy; Lee, Paul H.; LeGrand, Kate E.; Leili, Mostafa; Lenjebo, Tsegaye Lolaso; Leshargie, Cheru Tesema; Levine, Aubrey J.; Lewycka, Sonia; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Liu, Shiwei; Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.; Lopukhov, Platon D.; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Prasad, D. R. Mahadeshwara; Mahasha, Phetole Walter; Mahotra, Narayan B.; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mamun, Abdullah A.; Manafi, Navid; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Mapoma, Chabila Christopher; Martinez, Gabriel; Martini, Santi; Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlandio; Mathur, Manu Raj; Mayala, Benjamin K.; Mazidi, Mohsen; McAlinden, Colm; Meharie, Birhanu Geta; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Nasab, Entezar Mehrabi; Mehta, Kala M.; Mekonnen, Teferi; Mekonnen, Tefera Chane; Meles, Gebrekiros Gebremichael; Meles, Hagazi Gebre; Memiah, Peter T. N.; Memish, Ziad A.; Mendoza, Walter; Menezes, Ritesh G.; Mereta, Seid Tiku; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Metekiya, Workua Mekonnen; Miazgowski, Bartosz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mohajer, Bahram; Mohammad, Yousef; Mohammad, Dara K.; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammed, Shafiu; Mohammed, Jemal Abdu; Mohammed, Hassen; Mohebi, Farnam; Mokdad, Ali H.; Moodley, Yoshan; Moradi, Masoud; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Joo, Mohammad; Moraga, Paula; Morales, Linda; Mosapour, Abbas; Mosser, Jonathan F.; Mouodi, Simin; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Mozaffor, Miliva; Munro, Sandra B.; Muriithi, Moses K.; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Mustafa, Ghulam; Muthupandian, Saravanan; Naderi, Mehdi; Nagarajan, Ahamarshan Jayaraman; Naghavi, Mohsen; Naik, Gurudatta; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Nazari, Javad; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Netsere, Henok Biresaw; Ngunjiri, Josephine W.; Cuong Tat Nguyen,; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen,; Nguyen, QuynhAnh P.; Nigatu, Solomon Gedlu; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nnaji, Chukwudi A.; Nojomi, Marzieh; Norheim, Ole F.; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Oancea, Bogdan; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun; Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola; Onwujekwe, Obinna E.; Ortega-Altamirano, Doris; Osarenotor, Osayomwanbo; Osei, Frank B.; Owolabi, Mayowa O.; Mahesh, P. A.; Padubidri, Jagadish Rao; Pakhale, Smita; Pana, Adrian; Park, Eun-Kee; Patel, Sangram Kishor; Pathak, Ashish; Patle, Ajay; Paulos, Kebreab; Pepito, Veincent Christian Filipino; Perico, Norberto; Pervaiz, Aslam; Pescarini, Julia Moreira; Pesudovs, Konrad; Pham, Hai Quang; Pigott, David M.; Pilgrim, Thomas; Pirsaheb, Meghdad; Poljak, Mario; Pollock, Ian; Postma, Maarten J.; Pourmalek, Farshad; Pourshams, Akram; Prada, Sergio; Preotescu, Liliana; Quintana, Hedley; Rabiee, Navid; Rabiee, Mohammad; Radfar, Amir; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahim, Fakher; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur; Rajati, Fatemeh; Ranabhat, Chhabi Lal; Rao, Puja C.; Rasella, Davide; Rath, Goura Kishor; Rawaf, Salman; Rawal, Lal; Rawasia, Wasiq Faraz; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Renjith, Vishnu; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Riahi, Seyed Mohammad; Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Rickard, Jennifer; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Rubagotti, Enrico; Rubino, Salvatore; Saad, Anas M.; Sabour, Siamak; Sadeghi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Sahar Saeedi; Safari, Yahya; Sagar, Rajesh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Sajadi, S. Mohammad; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Salam, Nasir; Saleem, Ahsan; Salem, Hosni; Salem, Marwa Rashad; Salimi, Yahya; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Santos, Itamar S.; Santric-Milicevic, Milena M.; Sao Jose, Bruno Piassi; Saraswathy, Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Sartorius, Benn; Sathian, Brijesh; Sathish, Thirunavukkarasu; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sayyah, Mehdi; Sbarra, Alyssa N.; Schaeffer, Lauren E.; Schwebel, David C.; Senbeta, Anbissa Muleta; Senthilkumaran, Subramanian; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Servan-Mori, Edson; Shafieesabet, Azadeh; Shaheen, Amira A.; Shahid, Izza; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shalash, Ali S.; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Shannawaz, Mohammed; Sharafi, Kiomars; Sharma, Rajesh; Sheikh, Aziz; Shetty, B. Suresh Kumar; Shiferaw, Wondimeneh Shibabaw; Shigematsu, Mika; Shin, Jae Il; Shiri, Rahman; Shirkoohi, Reza; Shivakumar, K. M.; Si, Si; Siabani, Soraya; Siddiqi, Tariq Jamal; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Singh, Virendra; Singh, Narinder Pal; Singh, Balbir Bagicha Singh; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Singh, Ambrish; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Sisay, Malede Mequanent; Skiadaresi, Eirini; Smith, David L.; Filho, Adauto Martins Soares; Sobhiyeh, Mohammad Reza; Sokhan, Anton; Soriano, Joan B.; Sorrie, Muluken Bekele; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Spurlock, Emma Elizabeth; Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.; Sudaryanto, Agus; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Suleria, Hafiz Ansar Rasul; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabuchi, Takahiro; Tadesse, Degena Bahrey; Tarigan, Ingan Ukur; Taye, Bineyam; Tefera, Yonatal Mesfin; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tekelemedhin, Shishay Wahdey; Tekle, Merhawi Gebremedhin; Temsah, Mohamad-Hani; Tesfay, Berhe Etsay; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Tessema, Zemenu Tadesse; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil Soman; Thomas, Nihal; Thompson, Robert L.; Thomson, Alan J.; Topor-Madry, Roman; Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto; Traini, Eugenio; Bach Xuan Tran,; Khanh Bao Tran,; Ullah, Irfan; Unnikrishnan, Bhaskaran; Usman, Muhammad Shariq; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; Valdez, Pascual R.; Varughese, Santosh; Veisani, Yousef; Violante, Francesco S.; Vollmer, Sebastian; Whawariat, Feleke Gebremeskel; Waheed, Yasir; Wallin, Mitchell Taylor; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wang, Yafeng; Wangdi, Kinley; Weiss, Daniel J.; Weldesamuel, Girmay Teklay; Werkneh, Adhena Ayaliew; Westerman, Ronny; Wiangkham, Taweewat; Wiens, Kirsten E.; Wijeratne, Tissa; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Wolde, Haileab Fekadu; Wondafrash, Dawit Zewdu; Wonde, Tewodros Eshete; Worku, Getasew Taddesse; Yadollahpour, Ali; Jabbari, Seyed Hossein Yahyazadeh; Yamada, Tomohide; Yaseri, Mehdi; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Yeshaneh, Alex; Yilma, Mekdes Tigistu; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yousof, Hebat-Allah Salah A.; Yu, Chuanhua; Yusefzadeh, Hasan; Zadey, Siddhesh; Moghadam, Telma Zahirian; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zandian, Hamed; Zar, Heather J.; Zerfu, Taddese Alemu; Zhang, Yunquan; Ziapour, Arash; Zodpey, Sanjay; Zuniga, Yves Miel H.; Hay, Simon; Reiner, Robert C. (2020)
    Background Universal access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities is an essential human right, recognised in the Sustainable Development Goals as crucial for preventing disease and improving human wellbeing. Comprehensive, high-resolution estimates are important to inform progress towards achieving this goal. We aimed to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of access to drinking water and sanitation facilities. Methods We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from 600 sources across more than 88 low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) to estimate access to drinking water and sanitation facilities on continuous continent-wide surfaces from 2000 to 2017, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. We estimated mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subcategories of facilities for drinking water (piped water on or off premises, other improved facilities, unimproved, and surface water) and sanitation facilities (septic or sewer sanitation, other improved, unimproved, and open defecation) with use of ordinal regression. We also estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths in children younger than 5 years attributed to unsafe facilities and estimated deaths that were averted by increased access to safe facilities in 2017, and analysed geographical inequality in access within LMICs. Findings Across LMICs, access to both piped water and improved water overall increased between 2000 and 2017, with progress varying spatially. For piped water, the safest water facility type, access increased from 40.0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 39.4-40.7) to 50.3% (50.0-50.5), but was lowest in sub-Saharan Africa, where access to piped water was mostly concentrated in urban centres. Access to both sewer or septic sanitation and improved sanitation overall also increased across all LMICs during the study period. For sewer or septic sanitation, access was 46.3% (95% UI 46.1-46.5) in 2017, compared with 28.7% (28.5-29.0) in 2000. Although some units improved access to the safest drinking water or sanitation facilities since 2000, a large absolute number of people continued to not have access in several units with high access to such facilities (>80%) in 2017. More than 253 000 people did not have access to sewer or septic sanitation facilities in the city of Harare, Zimbabwe, despite 88.6% (95% UI 87.2-89.7) access overall. Many units were able to transition from the least safe facilities in 2000 to safe facilities by 2017; for units in which populations primarily practised open defecation in 2000, 686 (95% UI 664-711) of the 1830 (1797-1863) units transitioned to the use of improved sanitation. Geographical disparities in access to improved water across units decreased in 76.1% (95% UI 71.6-80.7) of countries from 2000 to 2017, and in 53.9% (50.6-59.6) of countries for access to improved sanitation, but remained evident subnationally in most countries in 2017. Interpretation Our estimates, combined with geospatial trends in diarrhoeal burden, identify where efforts to increase access to safe drinking water and sanitation facilities are most needed. By highlighting areas with successful approaches or in need of targeted interventions, our estimates can enable precision public health to effectively progress towards universal access to safe water and sanitation. Copyright (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Khami, Mohammad R.; Mohebbi, Simin Z.; Virtanen, Jorma I. (2013)
  • Räisänen, Ismo T.; Umeizudike, Kehinde A.; Pärnänen, Pirjo; Heikkilä, Pia; Tervahartiala, Taina; Nwhator, Solomon O.; Grigoriadis, Andreas; Sakellari, Dimitra; Sorsa, Timo (2020)
    Periodontal disease is a chronic multifactorial infectious and inflammatory disease associated with several chronic systemic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease and so on. These same systemic diseases have been associated with severe COVID-19 infections. Several recent studies have suggested hypotheses for the potential association between periodontal disease and severe COVID-19. Periodontal disease is also one of the most prevalent diseases globally. All this supports the importance of good oral health, also in the COVID-19 era. Thus, new strategies and approaches to identify patients at risk of periodontal disease could be beneficial to enhance secondary prevention, especially if targeted to COVID-19 risk groups. Diagnostic biomarkers for periodontal disease have been researched extensively. Potential biomarkers in oral fluid with currently available rapid non-invasive point-of-care technology, such as aMMP-8, could help to extend screening and identification of patients at risk for periodontal disease also to situations and places where professional dental expertise and equipment are limited or unavailable. i.e., nursing and care homes, and rural and distant places. The oral fluid point-of-care technologies could also be useful in the hands of medical professionals (diabetes, CVD, etc.) to identify patients at risk for undiagnosed periodontal disease and to refer them to a dentist for examination and evaluation. Finally, if there is a causality between periodontal disease and severe COVID-19 infections, these point-of-care oral fluid biomarker technologies could possibly also help in the assessment of the risk of deterioration and complications.
  • Hui, Nan; Parajuli, Anirudra; Puhakka, Riikka; Grönroos, Mira; Roslund, Marja; Vari, Heli; Selonen, Ville A. O.; Yan, Guoyang; Siter, Nathan; Nurminen, Noora; Oikarinen, Sami; Laitinen, Olli; Rajaniemi, Juho; Hyöty, Heikki; Sinkkonen, Aki (2019)
    An agricultural environment and exposure to diverse environmental microbiota has been suggested to confer protection against immune-mediated disorders. As an agricultural environment may have a protective role, it is crucial to determine whether the limiting factors in the transfer of environmental microbiota indoors are the same in the agricultural and urban environments. We explored how sampling month, garden diversity and animal ownership affected the indoor-transfer of environmental microbial community. We collected litter from standardized doormats used for 2 weeks in June and August 2015 and February 2016 and identified bacterial phylotypes using 16S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In February, the diversity and richness of the whole bacterial community and the relative abundance of environment-associated taxa were reduced, whereas human-associated taxa and genera containing opportunistic pathogens were enriched in the doormats. In summer, the relative abundances of several taxa associated previously with beneficial health effects were higher, particularly in agricultural areas. Surprisingly, the importance of vegetation on doormat microbiota was more observable in February, which may have resulted from snow cover that prevented contact with microbes in soil. Animal ownership increased the prevalence of genera Bacteroides and Acinetobacter in rural doormats. These findings underline the roles of season, living environment and lifestyle in the temporal variations in the environmental microbial community carried indoors. As reduced contact with diverse microbiota is a potential reason for immune system dysfunction, the results may have important implications in the etiology of immune-mediated, non-communicable diseases.