Browsing by Subject "HYPERPLASIA"

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  • Hellquist, Henrik; Ferlito, Alfio; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Thompson, Lester D. R.; Bishop, Justin A.; Agaimy, Abbas; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Gnepp, Douglas R.; Willems, Stefan M.; Slootweg, Pieter J.; Rinaldo, Alessandra (2020)
    During the last 60 years numerous significant attempts have been made to achieve a widely acceptable terminology and histological grading for laryngeal squamous intraepithelial lesions. While dysplasia was included in the pathology of the uterine cervix already in 1953, the term dysplasia was accepted in laryngeal pathology first after the Toronto Centennial Conference on Laryngeal Cancer in 1974. In 1963 Kleinsasser proposed a three-tier classification, and in 1971 Kambic and Lenart proposed a four-tier classification. Since then, four editions of the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification have been proposed (1978, 1991, 2005 and 2017). Several terms such as squamous intraepithelial neoplasia (SIN) and laryngeal intraepithelial neoplasia (LIN) are now being abandoned and replaced by squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL). The essential change between the 2005 and 2017 WHO classifications is the attempt to induce a simplification from a four- to a two-tier system. The current WHO classification (2017) thus recommends the use of a two-tier system with reasonably clear histopathological criteria for the two groups: low-grade and high-grade dysplasia. Problems with interobserver variability apart, subjectivities and uncertainties remain, but to a lesser degree. Ongoing and additional molecular studies may help to clarify underlying events that will increase our understanding and possibly can facilitate our attempts to obtain an even better classification. The classification needs to be easier for the general pathologist to perform and easier for the clinician to interpret. These two objectives are equally important to provide each patient the best personalised treatment available for squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • Björkman, P.; Weselius, E. -M.; Kokkonen, T.; Rauta, V.; Alback, A.; Venermo, M. (2019)
    Background and Aims: Stenosis due to intimal hyperplasia and restenosis after initially successful percutaneous angioplasty are common reasons for failing arteriovenous fistulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of drug-coated balloons in the treatment of arteriovenous fistula stenosis. Design: Single-center, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Block randomized by sealed envelope 1:1. Materials and Methods: A total of 39 patients with primary or recurrent stenosis in a failing native arteriovenous fistulas were randomized to drug-coated balloon (n=19) or standard balloon angioplasty (n=20). Follow-up was 1year. Primary outcome measure was target lesion revascularization. Results: In all, 36 stenoses were analyzed; three patients were excluded due to technical failure after randomization. A total of 88.9% (16/18) in the drug-coated balloon group was revascularized or occluded within 1year, compared to 22.2% (4/18) of the stenoses in the balloon angioplasty group (relative risk for drug-coated balloon 7.09). Mean time-to- target lesion revascularization was 110 and 193days after the drug-coated balloon and balloon angioplasty, respectively (p=0.06). Conclusions: With 1-year follow-up, the target lesion revascularization-free survival after drug-coated balloon-treatment was clearly worse. The reason for this remains unknown, but it may be due to differences in the biological response to paclitaxel in the venous arteriovenous fistula-wall compared to its antiproliferative effect in the arterial wall after drug-coated balloon treatment of atherosclerotic occlusive lesions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03036241
  • Paajanen, Juuso; Laaksonen, Sanna; Kettunen, Eeva; Ilonen, Ilkka; Vehmas, Tapio; Salo, Jarmo; Räsänen, Jari; Sutinen, Eva; Ollila, Hely; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Myllärniemi, Marjukka; Wolff, Henrik (2020)
    Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) of the pleura is a rare and aggressive disease, where the long-term survival (LTS) rate is low. The epithelioid subtype is the most prevalent form of DMM with the best prognosis. In order to study prognostic histopathologic factors associated with extended survival in epithelioid DMM, we examined 43 tumors from patients with survival over five years (long-term survivals [LTS]) and compared the findings with 84 tumors from a reference group with average survival (RG). We analyzed the tumors considering previously published histopathological prognostic features and attempted to identify additional morphological features predictive of extended survival. Most of the LTS tumors presented with nuclear grade I (n = 34,90%) and a tubulopapillary growth pattern (n = 30,70%). One LTS tumor had necrosis. In contrast, nuclear grade II (n = 49,61%) and solid growth pattern (n = 59,70%) were more frequent in RG, and necrosis was present in 16 (19%) tumors. We also evaluated the association of asbestos lung tissue fiber burden quantified from autopsy samples with histopathological features and found that elevated asbestos fiber was associated with higher nuclear grade (p <0.001) and the presence of necrosis (p = 0.021). In univariate survival analysis, we identified the following three novel morphological features associated with survival: exophytic polypoid growth pattern, tumor density, and single mesothelium layered tubular structures. After adjustments, low nuclear grade (p <0.001) and presence of exophytic polypoid growth (p = 0.024) were associated with prolonged survival. These results may aid in estimating DMM prognosis.
  • Malmström, Kristiina; Lohi, Jouko; Sajantila, Antti; Jahnsen, Frode L.; Kajosaari, Merja; Sarna, Seppo; Makela, Mika J. (2017)
    Background: Thickening of reticular basement membrane, increased airway smooth muscle mass and eosinophilic inflammation are found in adult fatal asthma. At the present study the histopathology of fatal paediatric and adolescent asthma is evaluated. Methods: Post-mortem lung autopsies from 12 fatal asthma cases and 8 non-asthmatic control subjects were examined. Thickness of reticular basement membrane (RBM) and percentage of airway smooth muscle (ASM%) mass area were measured and inflammatory cells were counted. Patient records were reviewed for clinical history. Results: The age range of the cases was from 0.9 to 19.5 years, eight were males and five had received inhaled corticosteroids. Thickened RBM was detected in majority of the cases without any correlation to treatment delay, age at onset of symptoms or diagnosis. In the large airways ASM was clearly increased in one third of the cases whereas the median ASM% did not differ from that in healthy controls (14.0% vs. 14.0%). In small airways no increase of ASM was found, instead mucous plugs were seen in fatal asthma. The number of eosinophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, macrophages, and B-cells were significantly increased in fatal asthma cases compared with controls and the two latter correlated with the length of the fatal exacerbation. Conclusions: The findings highlight the strong presence of eosinophils and mucous plugs even in small airways in children and adolescents with fatal asthma. Thickened RBM was obvious in majority of the patients. Contrary to our hypothesis, increased ASM% was detected in only one third of the patients.
  • Hominickn, Devon; Silva, Asitha; Khurana, Noor; Liu, Ying; Dechow, Paul C.; Feng, Jian Q.; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Rutkowski, Joseph M.; Alitalo, Kari; Dellinger, Michael T. (2018)
    Patients with Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) have lymphatic vessels in their bones and their bones gradually disappear. Here, we report that mice that overexpress VEGF-C in bone exhibit a phenotype that resembles GSD. To drive VEGF-C expression in bone, we generated Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc double-transgenic mice. In contrast to Osx-tTA mice, Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc mice developed lymphatics in their bones. We found that inhibition of VEGFR3, but not VEGFR2, prevented the formation of bone lymphatics in Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc mice. Radiological and histological analysis revealed that bones from Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc mice were more porous and had more osteoclasts than bones from Osx-tTA mice. Importantly, we found that bone loss in Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc mice could be attenuated by an osteoclast inhibitor. We also discovered that the mutant phenotype of Osx-tTA; TetO-Vegfc mice could be reversed by inhibiting the expression of VEGF-C. Taken together, our results indicate that expression of VEGF-C in bone is sufficient to induce the pathologic hallmarks of GSD in mice.