Browsing by Subject "HYPERPNEA"

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  • Burman, Janne; Elenius, Varpu; Lukkarinen, Heikki; Kuusela, Tom; Mäkelä, Mika J.; Kesti, Olli; Väätäinen, Katri; Maunula, Maria; Remes, Sami; Jartti, Tuomas (2020)
    Background and Aim The eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) testing is a diagnostic tool for diagnostics of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction; while the testing has become more common among children, data on the test's feasibility among children remain limited. Our aim was to investigate EVH testing feasibility among children, diagnostic testing cut-off values, and which factors affect testing outcomes. Methods We recruited 134 patients aged 10-16 years with a history of exercise-induced dyspnoea and 100 healthy control children to undergo 6-min EVH testing. Testing feasibility was assessed by the children's ability to achieve >= 70% of the target minute ventilation of 30 times forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1). Bronchoconstriction was assessed as a minimum of 8%, 10%, 12%, 15% or 20% fall in FEV1. Patient characteristics were correlated with EVH outcomes. Results Overall, 98% of the children reached >= 70%, 88% reached >= 80%, 79% reached >= 90% and 62% reached >= 100% of target ventilation in EVH testing; of children with a history of exercise-induced dyspnoea, the decline percentages were as follows: 24% (>= 8% fall), 17% (>= 10% fall), 10% (>= 12% fall), 6% (>= 15% fall) and 5% (>= 20% fall) in FEV1, compared to 11%, 4%, 3%, 1% and 0% among the healthy controls, respectively. Healthy controls and boys performed testing at higher ventilation rates (p <.05). Conclusion Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation testing is feasible among children aged 10-16 years and has diagnostic value in evaluating exercise-induced dyspnoea among children. A minimum 10% fall in FEV1 is a good diagnostic cut-off value. Disease status appears to be important covariates.
  • Päivinen, Marja; Keskinen, Kari; Tikkanen, Heikki (2021)
    Background A special improvement in pulmonary function is found in swimmers. In clinical testing the airway reactivity is observed at certain exercise intensity and target ventilation. However, in highly trained swimmers exercising in water the reactions may not function the same way. The aim was to study the combined effects of the water environment and swimming on pulmonary function and the associations with perceived symptoms. Methods First, 412 competitive swimmers completed questionnaires concerning respiratory symptoms at different swimming intensities. Then, pulmonary function testing was performed in 14 healthy elite swimmers. Spirometry and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were measured on land and in water before and after swimming. While swimming, minute ventilation (VE) tidal volume (VT) and breathing frequency (fb) were measured during competition speed swimming. Results Swimmers reported the most symptoms at competition speed intensity swimming. In the transition from the land into the water swimming body position, the ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced expiratory capacity (FVC) (FEV1/FVC) decreased by a mean (SD) 5.3 % (3) in females and by 2.2 % (5) in males. During competition speed intensity swimming, the minute ventilation (VE) had a mean of 72 and 75 % of calculated maximal voluntary ventilation (cMVV) in females and in males, respectively. Conclusions Spirometry showed sex differences in water compared to land measurements. These differences should be considered when the effects of swimming are observed. During the intensity that triggered the symptoms the most, the VE was approximately 20 % higher than the target ventilations for clinical testing. These findings encourages specific modifications of clinical testing protocols for elite swimmers.