Browsing by Subject "HYPOTHALAMUS"

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  • Kavalakatt, Sina; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Madhu, Dhanya; Devarajan, Sriraman; Warsame, Samia; AlKandari, Hessa; AlMahdi, Maria; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Al-Mulla, Fahd; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Abubaker, Jehad; Tiss, Ali (2022)
    Objective The corticotropin-releasing factor neuropeptides (corticotropin-releasing hormone [CRH] and urocortin [UCN]-1,2,3) and spexin contribute to the regulation of energy balance and inhibit food intake in mammals. However, the status of these neuropeptides in children with overweight has yet to be elucidated. This study investigated the effect of increased body weight on the circulating levels of these neuropeptides. Methods A total of 120 children with a mean age of 12 years were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were collected to assess the circulating levels of neuropeptides and were correlated with various anthropometric, clinical, and metabolic markers. Results Plasma levels of UCNs were altered in children with overweight but less so in those with obesity. Furthermore, the expression pattern of UCN1 was opposite to that of UCN2 and UCN3, which suggests a compensatory effect. However, no significant effect of overweight and obesity was observed on CRH and spexin levels. Finally, UCN3 independently associated with circulating zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein and UCN2 levels, whereas UCN1 was strongly predicted by TNF alpha levels. Conclusions Significant changes in neuropeptide levels were primarily observed in children with overweight and were attenuated with increased obesity. This suggests the presence of a compensatory mechanism for neuropeptides to curb the progression of obesity.
  • Summanen, Milla; Back, Susanne; Voipio, Juha; Kaila, Kai (2018)
    Mammalian birth is accompanied by a period of obligatory asphyxia, which consists of hypoxia (drop in blood O-2 levels) and hypercapnia (elevation of blood CO2 levels). Prolonged, complicated birth can extend the asphyxic period, leading to a pathophysiological situation, and in humans, to the diagnosis of clinical birth asphyxia, the main cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The neuroendocrine component of birth asphyxia, in particular the increase in circulating levels of arginine vasopressin (AVP), has been extensively studied in humans. Here we show for the first time that normal rat birth is also accompanied by an AVP surge, and that the fetal AVP surge is further enhanced in a model of birth asphyxia, based on exposing 6-day old rat pups to a gas mixture containing 4% O-2 and 20% CO2 for 45 min. Instead of AVP, which is highly unstable with a short plasma half-life, we measured the levels of copeptin, the C-terminal part of prepro-AVP that is biochemically much more stable. In our animal model, the bulk of AVP/copeptin release occurred at the beginning of asphyxia (mean 7.8 nM after 15 min of asphyxia), but some release was still ongoing even 90 min after the end of the 45 min experimental asphyxia (mean 1.2 nM). Notably, the highest copeptin levels were measured after hypoxia alone (mean 14.1 nM at 45 min), whereas copeptin levels were low during hypercapnia alone (mean 2.7 nM at 45 min), indicating that the hypoxia component of asphyxia is responsible for the increase in AVP/copeptin release. Alternating the O-2 level between 5 and 9% (CO2 at 20%) with 5 min intervals to mimic intermittent asphyxia during prolonged labor resulted in a slower but quantitatively similar rise in copeptin (peak of 8.3 nM at 30 min). Finally, we demonstrate that our rat model satisfies the standard acid-base criteria for birth asphyxia diagnosis, namely a drop in blood pH below 7.0 and the formation of a negative base excess exceeding -11.2 mmol/l. The mechanistic insights from our work validate the use of the present rodent model in preclinical work on birth asphyxia.