Browsing by Subject "HYPOTHERMIA"

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  • Kirkegaard, Hans; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Pettilä, Ville; Hjort, Jakob; Rasmussen, Bodil Steen; de Haas, Inge; Nielsen, Jorgen Feldbaek; Ilkjaer, Susanne; Kaltoft, Anne; Jeppesen, Anni Norgaard; Grejs, Anders Morten; Duez, Christophe Henri Valdemar; Larsen, Alf Inge; Toome, Valdo; Arus, Urmet; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Storm, Christian; Laitio, Timo; Skrifvars, Markus; Soreide, Eldar (2016)
    Background: The TTH48 trial aims to determine whether prolonged duration (48 hours) of targeted temperature management (TTM) at 33 (+/- 1) degrees C results in better neurological outcomes compared to standard duration (24 hours) after six months in comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. Methods: TTH48 is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, assessor-blinded, randomised, controlled superiority trial of 24 and 48 hours of TTM at 33 (+/- 1) degrees C performed in 355 comatose OHCA patients aged 18 to 80 years who were admitted to ten intensive care units (ICUs) in six Northern European countries. The primary outcome of the study is the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) score observed at six months after cardiac arrest. CPC scores of 1 and 2 are defined as good neurological outcomes, and CPC scores of 3, 4 and 5 are defined as poor neurological outcomes. The secondary outcomes are as follows: mortality within six months after cardiac arrest, CPC at hospital discharge, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score on day 4, length of stay in ICU and at hospital and the presence of any adverse events such as cerebral, circulatory, respiratory, gastrointestinal, renal, metabolic measures, infection or bleeding. With the planned sample size, we have 80% power to detect a 15% improvement in good neurological outcomes at a two-sided statistical significance level of 5%. Discussion: We present a detailed statistical analysis protocol (SAP) that specifies how primary and secondary outcomes should be evaluated. We also predetermine covariates for adjusted analyses and pre-specify sub-groups for sensitivity analyses. This pre-planned SAP will reduce analysis bias and add validity to the findings of this trial on the effect of length of TTM on important clinical outcomes after cardiac arrest.
  • COMACARE Study Groups; Humaloja, Jaana J; Lähde, Marika; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Reinikainen, Matti; Hästbacka, Johanna; Jakkula, Pekka; Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Pettilä, Ville; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus (2022)
    Aim: To determine the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) and tau protein to predict neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We measured plasma concentrations of GFAp and tau of patients included in the previously published COMACARE trial (NCT02698917) on intensive care unit admission and at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA, and compared them to neuron specific enolase (NSE). NSE concentrations were determined already during the original trial. We defined unfavourable outcome as a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of 3-5 six months after OHCA. We determined the prognostic accuracy of GFAp and tau using the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUROC). Results: Overall, 39/112 (35%) patients had unfavourable outcomes. Over time, both markers were evidently higher in the unfavourable outcome group (p < 0.001). At 48 h, the median (interquartile range) GFAp concentration was 1514 (886-4995) in the unfavourable versus 238 (135-463) pg/ ml in the favourable outcome group (p < 0.001). The corresponding tau concentrations were 99.6 (14.5-352) and 3.0 (2.2-4.8) pg/ml (p < 0.001). AUROCs at 48 and 72 h were 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97) and 0.91 (0.85-0.96) for GFAp and 0.93 (0.86-0.99) and 0.95 (0.89-1.00) for tau. Corresponding AUROCs for NSE were 0.86 (0.79-0.94) and 0.90 (0.82-0.97). The difference between the prognostic accuracies of GFAp or tau and NSE were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At 48 and 72 h, serum both GFAp and tau demonstrated excellent accuracy in predicting outcomes after OHCA but were not superior to NSE. Clinical trial registration: NCT02698917 (https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02698917).
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Böhm, Julia K.; Maegele, Marc; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Ripatti, Samuli; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. Methods This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Results Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to - 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Conclusion Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
  • Suominen, Pertti K.; Vahatalo, Raisa (2012)
  • Kivi, Anna; Metsäranta, Marjo; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Haataja, Leena (2022)
    Aim To characterise the spectrum of findings in sequential neurological examinations, general movements (GM) assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of infants with perinatal asphyxia. Methods The prospective cohort study of term infants with perinatal asphyxia treated at Helsinki University Hospital's neonatal units in 2016-2020 used Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and brain MRI at 2 weeks and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) and GM assessment at 3 months of age. Results Analysis included 50 infants: 33 displaying perinatal asphyxia without hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), seven with HIE1 and 10 with HIE2. Of the infants with atypical HNNE findings, 24/25 perinatal asphyxia without HIE cases, 5/6 HIE1 cases and all 10 HIE2 cases showed atypical findings in the HINE. The HINE identified atypical spontaneous movements significantly more often in infants with white matter T2 hyperintensity. Conclusion In this cohort, most infants with perinatal asphyxia, with or without HIE, presented atypical neurological findings in sequential examinations. The profile of neurological findings for children with perinatal asphyxia without HIE resembled that of children with HIE. White matter T2 hyperintensity was associated with atypical spontaneous movements in the HINE and was a frequent MRI finding also in perinatal asphyxia without HIE.
  • Kelen, Dorottya; Andorka, Csilla; Szabo, Mikloa; Alafuzoff, Aleksander; Kaila, Kai; Summanen, Milla (2017)
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the early changes in serial serum levels of copeptin and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) in neonates diagnosed with birth asphyxia, and to determine whether these biomarkers measured in the first 168 hours after birth are predictive of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Copeptin and NSE levels were measured from serum samples collected 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 168 hours after birth from 75 term neonates diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and treated with therapeutic hypothermia for 72 hours. In addition, serum copeptin levels after birth were measured from 10 HIE diagnosed neonates, who were randomized to the normothermic arm of the TOBY cohort. All neonates underwent neurodevelopmental assessment using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-II at two years of age. Copeptin levels were highest at 6 hours after birth and steadily decreased, whereas the highest NSE levels were measured at 24 hours after birth. The biomarker levels correlated with blood-gas parameters (base excess, pH and lactate) at 6 and 12 hours after birth. Copeptin and NSE levels in the early postnatal period were significantly higher in neonates with poor outcome compared to those with favorable outcome at two years of age. Furthermore, in the TOBY cohort, copeptin levels were significantly lower in hypothermic compared to normothermic neonates. To conclude, copeptin and NSE measured in the early postnatal period are potential prognostic biomarkers of long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in term neonates diagnosed with HIE and treated with therapeutic hypothermia.
  • Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Lascarrou, Jean-Baptiste; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
  • Stevenson, Nathan J.; Boylan, Geraldine B.; Hellstrom-Westas, Lena; Vanhatalo, Sampsa (2016)
    Neonatal seizures are common in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clinicians treat these seizures with several anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) to reduce seizures in a neonate. Current AEDs exhibit sub-optimal efficacy and several randomized control trials (RCT) of novel AEDs are planned. The aim of this study was to measure the influence of trial design on the required sample size of a RCT. We used seizure time courses from 41 term neonates with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy to build seizure treatment trial simulations. We used five outcome measures, three AED protocols, eight treatment delays from seizure onset (T-d) and four levels of trial AED efficacy to simulate different RCTs. We performed power calculations for each RCT design and analysed the resultant sample size. We also assessed the rate of false positives, or placebo effect, in typical uncontrolled studies. We found that the false positive rate ranged from 5 to 85% of patients depending on RCT design. For controlled trials, the choice of outcome measure had the largest effect on sample size with median differences of 30.7 fold (IQR: 13.7-40.0) across a range of AED protocols, Td and trial AED efficacy (p