Browsing by Subject "Health behavior"

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  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents’ accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations. Methods We gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n = 6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses. Results The Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25–2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07–5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13–1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02–1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26–2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08–2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07–3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37–2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations. Conclusions Unhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Remes, Jouko; Paananen, Markus; Taimela, Simo; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2014)
  • Stenlund, Säde; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Suominen, Sakari (2022)
    Background Previous research on health behavior and subjective well-being has mainly focused on interindividual differences or explored certain domains of health behavior. Good health behavior and subjective well-being at baseline can predict each other after a follow-up. In the present cohort study, we explored the outcomes of change for an individual i.e., how changed health behavior is reflected in subsequent subjective well-being and vice versa. Methods Data (n = 10,855) originates from a population-based Health and Social Support (HeSSup) study on working-age Finns in 2003 and 2012. A composite measure of health behavior included physical activity, dietary habits, alcohol consumption, and smoking status (range 0-4, worst-best) and a composite measure of subjective well-being (with reversed scoring) included three life assessments, i.e., interest, happiness, and ease in life, and perceived loneliness (range 4-20, best-worst). Different multiple linear regression models were used to study how changes in health behavior predict subjective well-being and the opposite, how changes in subjective well-being predict health behavior. Results A positive change in health behavior from 2003 to 2012 predicted better subjective well-being (i.e., on average 0.31 points lower subjective well-being sum score), whereas a negative change predicted poorer subjective well-being (i.e., 0.37 points higher subjective well-being sum score) (both: p < 0.001) compared to those study subjects who had no change in health behavior. Similarly, when a positive and negative change in subjective well-being was studied, these figures were 0.071 points better and 0.072 points worse (both: p < 0.001) health behavior sum score, respectively. When the magnitude of the effect of change was compared to the range of scale of the outcome the effect of health behavior change appeared stronger than that of subjective well-being. Conclusion Changes in health behavior and subjective well-being have long-term effects on the level of the other, the effect of the first being slightly stronger than vice versa. These mutual long-term benefits can be used as a motivator in health promotion on individual and societal levels.
  • Saarinen, Aino I. L.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsa, Taina; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Ravaja, Niklas; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    Background This study investigated (i) whether compassion is associated with blood pressure or hypertension in adulthood and (ii) whether familial risk for hypertension modifies these associations. Method The participants (N = 1112-1293) came from the prospective Young Finns Study. Parental hypertension was assessed in 1983-2007; participants' blood pressure in 2001, 2007, and 2011; hypertension in 2007 and 2011 (participants were aged 30-49 years in 2007-2011); and compassion in 2001. Results High compassion predicted lower levels of diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Additionally, high compassion was related to lower risk for hypertension in adulthood among individuals with no familial risk for hypertension (independently of age, sex, participants' and their parents' socioeconomic factors, and participants' health behaviors). Compassion was not related to hypertension in adulthood among individuals with familial risk for hypertension. Conclusion High compassion predicts lower diastolic and systolic blood pressure in adulthood. Moreover, high compassion may protect against hypertension among individuals without familial risk for hypertension. As our sample consisted of comparatively young participants, our findings provide novel implications for especially early-onset hypertension.
  • Stenlund, Säde; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Suominen, Sakari (2021)
    Background Previous studies have shown positive association between health behavior and life satisfaction, but the studies have mostly been cross-sectional, had follow-up times up to 5 years or focused on only one health behavior domain. The aim of the study was to explore how principal health behavior domains predict life satisfaction as a composite score in a previously unexplored longitudinal setting. Methods The present study tested whether a health behavior sum score (range 0-4) comprising of dietary habits, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity predicted subsequent composite score of life satisfaction (range 4-20). Data included responses from 11,000 working-age Finns who participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) prospective population-based postal survey. Results Protective health behavior in 2003 predicted (p < .001) better life satisfaction 9 years later when sex, age, education, major diseases, and baseline life satisfaction were controlled for. The beta in the linear regression model was - 0.24 (p < .001) corresponding to a difference of 0.96 points in life satisfaction between individuals having the best and worst health behavior. Conclusion Good health behavior has a long-term beneficial impact on subsequent life satisfaction. This knowledge could strengthen the motivation for improvement of health behavior particularly on an individual level but also on a policy level.
  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Gluschkoff, Kia; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Rosenström, Tom (2020)
    Objectives Smoking rates have declined with a slower pace among those with psychological distress compared to those without. We examined whether other health behaviors (heavy alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, short sleep duration) showed similar trends associated with sychological distress. We also examined differences by age and birth cohort. Methods Data were from the annually repeated cross-sectional U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) of 1997-2016 (total n = 603,518). Psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Results Psychological distress became more strongly associated with smoking (OR 1.09 per 10 years; 95% CI 1.07, 1.12), physical inactivity (OR 1.08; 1.05, 1.11), and short sleep (OR 1.12; 1.06, 1.18), but less strongly associated with heavy alcohol consumption (OR 0.93; 0.89, 0.98). The associations of smoking and alcohol consumption attenuated with age, whereas the association with physical inactivity strengthened with age. Compared to older birth cohorts, smoking became more strongly associated with psychological distress among younger birth cohorts up to those born in the 1980s. Conclusions The strength of associations between psychological distress and health behaviors may vary by time period, age, and birth cohort.
  • Ropponen, Annina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background To investigate whether the clustering of different health behaviours (i.e. physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption) influences the associations between psychosocial working conditions and disability pension due to different diagnoses. Methods A population-based sample of 24,987 Swedish twins born before 1958 were followed from national registers for disability pension until 2013. Baseline survey data in 1998–2003 were used to assess health behaviours and psychosocial Job Exposure Matrix for job control, job demands and social support. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results During follow-up, 1252 disability pensions due to musculoskeletal disorders (5%), 601 due to mental diagnoses (2%) and 1162 due to other diagnoses (5%) occurred. In the models controlling for covariates, each one-unit increase in job demands was associated with higher (HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.01–1.33) and in job control with lower (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80–0.94) risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders among those with unhealthy behaviours. Among those with healthy behaviours, one-unit increase of social support was associated with a higher risk of disability pension due to mental and due to other diagnoses (HRs 1.29–1.30, 95%CI 1.04–1.63). Conclusions Job control and job demands were associated with the risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders only among those with unhealthy behaviours. Social support was a risk factor for disability pension due to mental or other diagnoses among those with healthy behaviours. Workplaces and occupational health care should acknowledge these simultaneous circumstances in order to prevent disability pension.
  • Ropponen, Annina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Silventoinen, Karri; Svedberg, Pia (2020)
    BackgroundTo investigate whether the clustering of different health behaviours (i.e. physical activity, tobacco use and alcohol consumption) influences the associations between psychosocial working conditions and disability pension due to different diagnoses.MethodsA population-based sample of 24,987 Swedish twins born before 1958 were followed from national registers for disability pension until 2013. Baseline survey data in 1998-2003 were used to assess health behaviours and psychosocial Job Exposure Matrix for job control, job demands and social support. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).ResultsDuring follow-up, 1252 disability pensions due to musculoskeletal disorders (5%), 601 due to mental diagnoses (2%) and 1162 due to other diagnoses (5%) occurred. In the models controlling for covariates, each one-unit increase in job demands was associated with higher (HR 1.16, 95%CI 1.01-1.33) and in job control with lower (HR 0.87, 95%CI 0.80-0.94) risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders among those with unhealthy behaviours. Among those with healthy behaviours, one-unit increase of social support was associated with a higher risk of disability pension due to mental and due to other diagnoses (HRs 1.29-1.30, 95%CI 1.04-1.63).ConclusionsJob control and job demands were associated with the risk of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders only among those with unhealthy behaviours. Social support was a risk factor for disability pension due to mental or other diagnoses among those with healthy behaviours. Workplaces and occupational health care should acknowledge these simultaneous circumstances in order to prevent disability pension.
  • Seilo, Noora; Paldanius, Susanna; Autio, Reija; Kunttu, Kristina; Kaila, Minna (2022)
    Background: General health checks are an established component of preventive health care in many countries. Declining participation rates have raised concerns in health care providers. Understanding the reasons for attendance and non-attendance is necessary to improve the preventive health care system. The aim of this study was to examine health- and study-related factors associated with university entrants' health check attendance. Methods: Since 2009, an electronic health questionnaire (eHQ) has been conducted yearly to all Finnish university entrants by the Finnish Student Health Service (FSHS) to screen students for a general health check. The questionnaire comprises 26 questions about health, health habits and studying. The study population consisted of the 3346 entrants from the 2011-2012 academic year who were referred to a health check based on their eHQ responses. The eHQ data were linked with health check attendance information. Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations between the questionnaire responses and non-attendance of the health check. Results: Male sex (OR 1.6, 95% CI % 1.4-1.9) and low engagement with studies (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) were the variables most strongly associated with non-attendance. Having low state of mind was negatively associated with health check non-attendance thus enhanced the health-check attendance (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). Conclusions: The results suggest that providing health checks in student health care may serve as a way of reaching students with health concerns. However, motivating males and smokers to attend general health checks continue to be a challenge also in a university student population. That low engagement with studies associates with health check non-attendance points to need to improve collaboration between universities and student health care.
  • Maatta, Suvi; Lehto, Reetta; Nislin, Mari; Ray, Carola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva; DAGIS Res Grp (2015)
    Background: Effective interventions that target socioeconomic status (SES) differences to avoid the potential widening of inequalities in health are needed. Children at preschool age is a valuable intervention target since sedentary behaviors, physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and sleep habits, jointly called the energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), are established in early childhood and tend to persist later in life. The interventions are most effective, when they focus on evidence-based factors. One potential factor associated with EBRBs and SES is children's stress regulation, which receives special attention in this study. Based on the socioecological approach, the combinations of multiple levels (e.g. individual, environmental, societal) of analysis and diverse methodologies (e.g. surveys, observations, biological measurements) are used to assess the healthfulness of environments (e.g. social, physical, learning, policy) in preschool and family settings. The intervention aimed to diminish SES differences in EBRBs is then conducted in the preschool setting. Methods/design: The DAGIS study is divided into two phases. The first phase comprises focus group interviews and a cross-sectional survey. Parents and preschool personnel in low SES neighborhoods participated in interviews about children's sedentary behaviors, dietary behaviors, and PA in 2014. In the cross-sectional survey beginning in autumn 2015, preschools will be recruited from a random sample of preschools in 3-5 municipalities in Southern Finland. A total of 800 children will wear an accelerometer for seven days. Children's hair and saliva samples will be taken. Parents and preschool personnel will complete questionnaires on EBRBs, social and physical environments and SES factors. The quality of preschool environment is also observed. In the second phase, an intervention targeting to narrowing SES differences in EBRBs is conducted. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated in randomised controlled trial. The implementation of the intervention will also be evaluated. Conclusion: If effective, this unique preschool-based study will be able to narrow the SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs. This study is anticipated to identify the most important modifiable factors in preschool and family environmental settings associated with children's EBRBs, especially in children from low SES backgrounds.
  • Virtanen, Jorma I.; Vehkalahti, Kimmo I.; Vehkalahti, Miira M. (2015)
    Background: Health behaviors play a major role in the prevention of the most common oral diseases. To investigate health behaviors related to the potential transmission of oral bacteria from mother to child using novel multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). Methods: Mothers (n = 313) with children under three years attending two municipal child health clinics in Finland completed a self-administered questionnaire on health knowledge and behaviors such as sharing a spoon with their child, kissing on the lips, and the mothers' tooth brushing, smoking, age, and level of education. We used MCA to reveal the relationships between the mothers' behaviors and background factors, along with unconditional, binary, multivariable logistic regression models, odds ratios (OR) and their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). Results: Of the mothers, 38 % kissed their child on the lips and 14 % shared a spoon with their child; 11 % believed that oral bacteria cannot be transmitted from mother to child. Two-thirds (68 %) of them reported tooth brushing twice daily, and 80 % were non-smokers. MCA revealed two diverging dimensions of the mothers' behaviors: a 'horizontal' one showing clear evidence of relationships between tooth brushing, smoking, age and education, whereas the 'vertical' one revealed the mothers' habits of kissing the child on the lips and sharing a spoon related to each other. Spoon sharing was related to the kissing on lips (OR 10.3), a higher level of education (OR 3.1), and, inversely, older age (OR 0.1), whereas kissing on lips behavior was inversely related to a higher level of education (OR 0.5). Conclusion: The study revealed two diverging dimensions of the mothers' health behaviors. More emphasis in health education ought to be put to how to avoid bacterial transmission from caregiver to child during feeding.
  • Stenlund, Säde; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Sillanmäki, Lauri; Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Suominen, Sakari (2021)
    The cross-sectional association between measures of subjective well-being (SWB) and various health behaviors is well-established. In this 9-year (2003–2012) follow-up study, we explored how a composite indicator of SWB (range 4–20) with four items (interest, happiness, and ease in life, as well as perceived loneliness) predicts a composite health behavior measure (range 0–4) including dietary habits, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and smoking status. Study subjects (n = 10,855) originated from a population-based random sample of working-age Finns in the Health and Social Support study (HeSSup). According to linear regression analysis, better SWB predicted better health behavior sum score with a β = 0.019 (p < 0.001) with a maximum effect of 0.3 points after adjusting for age (p = 0.038), gender (p < 0.001), education (p = 0.55), baseline self-reported diseases (p = 0.020), baseline health behavior (β = 0.49, p < 0.001), and the interaction between SWB and education (p < 0.001). The results suggest that SWB has long-term positive effect on health behavior. Thus, interventions aiming at health behavioral changes could benefit from taking into account SWB and its improvement in the intervention.
  • Reijonsaari, Karita; Vehtari, Aki; Kahilakoski, Olli-Pekka; van Mechelen, Willem; Aro, Timo; Taimela, Simo (2012)
  • Wang, Mo; Svedberg, Pia; Narusyte, Jurgita; Silventoinen, Karri; Ropponen, Annina (2021)
    We investigated the associations between health behaviors and sustainable working life outcomes including allcause disability pension, disability pensions due to musculoskeletal and mental diagnoses and unemployment. The role of familial factors behind these associations was studied by analysing discordant twin pairs. Our data included Swedish twins born in 1925-1986 (51891 twin individuals). Baseline data based on two independent surveys in 1998-2003 and 2005-2006 for health behaviors were linked to national registers on disability pension and unemployment until 2016. Cox proportional hazards models for hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for the whole sample adjusting for covariates. Analyses of health behavior discordant twin pairs (n = 5903 pairs) were conducted using conditional Cox models. In the whole cohort, the combination of healthy behaviors was associated with lower risk for all-cause disability pension, disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses or mental diagnoses, and for unemployment (HRs 0.56-0.86, 95% CIs 0.51-0.92) as did being physically active (HRs 0.69-0.87, 95% CI 0.65-0.92). The discordant pair analyses confirmed the lower risk among those having healthy behaviors (HR 0.70-0.86) or being physically active (HR 0.86-0.87) for all-cause disability pension, disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, and for unemployment. To conclude, controlling the effects of covariates or familial confounding (i.e. discordant twin pair analyses) shows that being physically active or having several healthy behaviors predict better working life outcomes. This points towards independent association between healthy behavior and longer working life.