Browsing by Subject "Health inequalities"

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  • Suulamo, Ulla; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Existing evidence suggests that within-country area variation in mortality has increased in several high-income countries. Little is known about the role of changes in the population composition of areas in these trends. In this study, we look at mortality variation across Finnish municipalities over five decades. We examine trends by sex, age categories and two broad cause of death groups and assess the role of individual-level compositional factors. Analyses rely on individual-level register data on the total Finnish population aged 30 years and over. We estimated two-level Weibull survival-models with individuals nested in areas for 10 periods between 1972 and 2018 to assess municipal-level variation in mortality. Median hazard ratio (MHR) was used as our summary measure and analyses were adjusted for age and socioeconomic characteristics. The results show a clear overall growth in area variation in mortality with MHR increasing from 1.14 (95% CI 1.12–1.15) to 1.28 (CI 1.26–1.30) among men and 1.17 (CI 1.15–1.18) to 1.30 (CI 1.27–1.32) among women. This growth, however, was fully attenuated by adjustment for age. Area differentials were largest and increased most among men at ages 30–49, and particularly for external causes. This increase was largely due to increasing differentiation in the socioeconomic composition of municipalities. In conclusion, our study shows increases in mortality differentials across municipalities that are mostly attributable to increasing differentiation between municipalities in terms of individual compositional factors.
  • Lehikoinen, Markku; Arffman, Martti; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Elovainio, Marko; Keskimaki, Ilmo (2016)
    Background: Large cities are often claimed to display more distinct geographical and socioeconomic health inequalities than other areas due to increasing residential differentiation. Our aim was to assess whether geographical inequalities in mortality within the capital (City of Helsinki) both exceeded that in other types of geographical areas in Finland, and whether those differences were dependent on socioeconomic inequalities. Methods: We analysed the inequality of distribution separately for overall, ischemic heart disease and alcohol-related mortality, and mortality amenable (AM) to health care interventions in 1992-2008 in three types of geographical areas in Finland: City of Helsinki, other large cities, and small towns and rural areas. Mortality data were acquired as secondary data from the Causes of Death statistics from Statistics Finland. The assessment of changing geographical differences over time, that is geographical inequalities, was performed using Gini coefficients. As some of these differences might arise from socioeconomic factors, we assessed socioeconomic differences with concentration indices in parallel to an analysis of geographical differences. To conclude the analysis, we compared the changes over time of these inequalities between the three geographical areas. Results: While mortality rates mainly decreased, alcohol-related mortality in the lowest income quintile increased. Statistically significant differences over time were found in all mortality groups, varying between geographical areas. Socioeconomic differences existed in all mortality groups and geographical areas. In the study period, geographical differences in mortality remained relatively stable but income differences increased substantially. For instance, the values of concentration indices for AM changed by 54 % in men (p <0.027) and by 62 % in women (p <0.016). Only slight differences existed in the time trends of Gini or in the concentration indices between the geographical areas. Conclusions: No geographical or income-related differences in the distribution of mortality existed between Helsinki and other urban or rural areas of Finland. This suggests that the effect of increasing residential differentiation in the capital may have been mitigated by the policies of positive discrimination and social mixing. One of the main reasons for the increase in health inequalities was growth of alcohol-related mortality, especially among those with the lowest incomes.
  • Wouters, Michel W.; Michielin, Olivier; Bastiaannet, Esther; Beishon, Marc; Catalano, Orlando; del Marmol, Veronique; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Dendale, Remi; Trill, Maria Die; Ferrari, Andrea; Forsea, Ana-Maria; Kreckel, Hannelore; Lövey, Jozsef; Luyten, Gre; Massi, Daniela; Mohr, Peter; Oberst, Simon; Pereira, Philippe; Paiva Prata, Joao Paulo; Rutkowski, Piotr; Saarto, Tiina; Sheth, Sapna; Spurrier-Bernard, Gilly; Vuoristo, Meri-Sisko; Costad, Alberto; Naredi, Peter (2018)
    Background ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are explanations and descriptions of challenges, organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific type of cancer. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Melanoma: essential requirements for quality care: Melanoma, the most-deadly skin cancer, is rising in incidence among fair-skinned people in Europe. Increasing complexity of care for advanced disease in clinical areas such as staging and new therapies requires attention to a number of challenges and inequalities in a diverse patient group. Care for advanced melanoma must only be carried out in, or in collaboration with, specialist melanoma centres which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Access to such units is far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for high-quality comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, to improve survival and quality of life for patients. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality service for melanoma. The ERQCC expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a 'one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary teams and specialised treatments is guaranteed to all patients with melanoma.
  • Allum, William; Lordick, Florian; Alsina, Maria; Andritsch, Elisabeth; Ba-Ssalamah, Ahmed; Beishon, Marc; Braga, Marco; Caballero, Carmela; Carneiro, Fatima; Cassinello, Fernando; Dekker, Jan Willem; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Haustermans, Karin; Henning, Geoffrey; Hutter, Bettina; Lovey, Jozsef; Netikova, Irena Stenglova; Oberrnannova, Radka; Oberst, Simon; Rostoft, Siri; Saarto, Tiina; Seufferlein, Thomas; Sheth, Sapna; Wynter-Blyth, Venetia; Costa, Alberto; Naredi, Peter Z. (2018)
    Background: ECCO essential requirements for quality cancer care (ERQCC) are checklists and explanations of organisation and actions that are necessary to give high-quality care to patients who have a specific type of cancer. They are written by European experts representing all disciplines involved in cancer care. ERQCC papers give oncology teams, patients, policymakers and managers an overview of the elements needed in any healthcare system to provide high quality of care throughout the patient journey. References are made to clinical guidelines and other resources where appropriate, and the focus is on care in Europe. Oesophageal and gastric: essential requirements for quality care: Oesophageal and gastric (OG) cancers are a challenging tumour group with a poor prognosis and wide variation in outcomes among European countries. Increasing numbers of older people are contracting the diseases, and treatments and care pathways are becoming more complex in both curative and palliative settings. High-quality care can only be a carried out in specialised OG cancer units or centres which have both a core multidisciplinary team and an extended team of allied professionals, and which are subject to quality and audit procedures. Such units or centres are far from universal in all European countries. It is essential that, to meet European aspirations for comprehensive cancer control, healthcare organisations implement the essential requirements in this paper, paying particular attention to multidisciplinarity and patient-centred pathways from diagnosis, to treatment, to survivorship. Conclusion: Taken together, the information presented in this paper provides a comprehensive description of the essential requirements for establishing a high-quality OG cancer service. The ERQCC expert group is aware that it is not possible to propose a one size fits all' system for all countries, but urges that access to multidisciplinary units or centres must be guaranteed for all those with OG cancer.
  • Ostergren, Olof; Martikainen, Pekka; Lundberg, Olle (2018)
    To assess the level and changes in contribution of smoking and alcohol-related mortality to educational differences in life expectancy in Sweden. We used register data on the Swedish population at ages 30-74 during 1991-2008. Cause of death was used to identify alcohol-related deaths, while smoking-related mortality was estimated using lung cancer mortality to indirectly assess the impact of smoking on all-cause mortality. Alcohol consumption and smoking contributed to educational differences in life expectancy. Alcohol-related mortality was higher among men and contributed substantially to inequalities among men and made a small (but increasing) contribution to inequalities among women. Smoking-related mortality decreased among men but increased among women, primarily among the low educated. At the end of the follow-up, smoking-related mortality were at similar levels among men and women. The widening gap in life expectancy among women could largely be attributed to smoking. Smoking and alcohol consumption contribute to educational differences in life expectancy among men and women. The majority of the widening in the educational gap in mortality among women can be attributed to alcohol and smoking-related mortality.
  • Hoffmann, Kristina; De Gelder, Rianne; Hu, Yannan; Bopp, Matthias; Vitrai, Jozsef; Lahelma, Eero; Menvielle, Gwenn; Santana, Paula; Regidor, Enrique; Ekholm, Ola; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity increased dramatically in many European countries in the past decades. Whether the increase occurred to the same extent in all socioeconomic groups is less known. We systematically assessed and compared the trends in educational inequalities in obesity in 15 different European countries between 1990 and 2010. Methods Nationally representative survey data from 15 European countries were harmonized and used in a meta-regression of trends in prevalence and educational inequalities in obesity between 1990 and 2010. Educational inequalities were estimated by means of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios in men and women aged 30–64 years. Results A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of obesity was found for all countries, except for Ireland (among men) and for France, Hungary, Italy and Poland (among women). Meta-regressions showed a statistically significant overall increase in absolute inequalities of 0.11% points [95% CI 0.03, 0.20] per year among men and 0.12% points [95% CI 0.04, 0.20] per year among women. Relative inequalities did not significantly change over time in most countries. A significant reduction of relative inequalities was found among Austrian and Italian women. Conclusion The increase in the overall prevalence aligned with a widening of absolute but not of relative inequalities in obesity in many European countries over the past two decades. Our findings urge for a further understanding of the drivers of the increase in obesity in lower education groups particularly, and an equity perspective in population-based obesity prevention strategies.
  • Hoffmann, Kristina; De Gelder, Rianne; Hu, Yannan; Bopp, Matthias; Vitrai, Jozsef; Lahelma, Eero; Menvielle, Gwenn; Santana, Paula; Regidor, Enrique; Ekholm, Ola; Mackenbach, Johan P.; van Lenthe, Frank J. (2017)
    Background: The prevalence of obesity increased dramatically in many European countries in the past decades. Whether the increase occurred to the same extent in all socioeconomic groups is less known. We systematically assessed and compared the trends in educational inequalities in obesity in 15 different European countries between 1990 and 2010. Methods: Nationally representative survey data from 15 European countries were harmonized and used in a metaregression of trends in prevalence and educational inequalities in obesity between 1990 and 2010. Educational inequalities were estimated by means of absolute rate differences and relative rate ratios in men and women aged 30-64 years. Results: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of obesity was found for all countries, except for Ireland (among men) and for France, Hungary, Italy and Poland (among women). Meta-regressions showed a statistically significant overall increase in absolute inequalities of 0.11% points [95% CI 0.03, 0.20] per year among men and 0.12% points [95% CI 0.04, 0.20] per year among women. Relative inequalities did not significantly change over time in most countries. A significant reduction of relative inequalities was found among Austrian and Italian women. Conclusion: The increase in the overall prevalence aligned with a widening of absolute but not of relative inequalities in obesity in many European countries over the past two decades. Our findings urge for a further understanding of the drivers of the increase in obesity in lower education groups particularly, and an equity perspective in population-based obesity prevention strategies.