Browsing by Subject "Health"

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  • ISCOLE Res Grp; Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K.; Gillison, Fiona B.; Fogelholm, Mikael; Kivelä, Jemina; Räsänen, Sari; Roito, Sanna; Saloheimo, Taru; Valta, Leena (2019)
    BackgroundExisting research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites.MethodsThis multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9-11years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2days/week [rare], 3 to 5days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200h) and afternoon (1200h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time.ResultsParticipants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated witha higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found.ConclusionsIn this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance.Trial registrationThe International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at(Identifier NCT01722500).
  • Zakrzewski-Fruer, Julia K; Gillison, Fiona B; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Mire, Emily F; Broyles, Stephanie T.; Champagne, Catherine M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Denstel, Kara D; Fogelholm, Mikael; Hu, Gang; Lambert, Estelle V.; Maher, Carol; Maia, José; Olds, Tim; Onywera, Vincent; Sarmiento, Olga L.; Tremblay, Mark S.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Standage, Martyn (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Existing research has documented inconsistent findings for the associations among breakfast frequency, physical activity (PA), and sedentary time in children. The primary aim of this study was to examine the associations among breakfast frequency and objectively-measured PA and sedentary time in a sample of children from 12 countries representing a wide range of human development, economic development and inequality. The secondary aim was to examine interactions of these associations between study sites. Methods This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6228 children aged 9–11 years from the 12 International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment sites. Multilevel statistical models were used to examine associations between self-reported habitual breakfast frequency defined using three categories (breakfast consumed 0 to 2 days/week [rare], 3 to 5 days/week [occasional] or 6 to 7 days/week [frequent]) or two categories (breakfast consumed less than daily or daily) and accelerometry-derived PA and sedentary time during the morning (wake time to 1200 h) and afternoon (1200 h to bed time) with study site included as an interaction term. Model covariates included age, sex, highest parental education, body mass index z-score, and accelerometer waking wear time. Results Participants averaged 60 (s.d. 25) min/day in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), 315 (s.d. 53) min/day in light PA and 513 (s.d. 69) min/day sedentary. Controlling for covariates, breakfast frequency was not significantly associated with total daily or afternoon PA and sedentary time. For the morning, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with a higher proportion of time in MVPA (0.3%), higher proportion of time in light PA (1.0%) and lower min/day and proportion of time sedentary (3.4 min/day and 1.3%) than rare breakfast consumption (all p ≤ 0.05). No significant associations were found when comparing occasional with rare or frequent breakfast consumption, or daily with less than daily breakfast consumption. Very few significant interactions with study site were found. Conclusions In this multinational sample of children, frequent breakfast consumption was associated with higher MVPA and light PA time and lower sedentary time in the morning when compared with rare breakfast consumption, although the small magnitude of the associations may lack clinical relevance. Trial registration The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and the Environment (ISCOLE) is registered at (Identifier NCT01722500 ).
  • Basnet, Syaron; Merikanto, Ilona; Lahti, Tuuli; Männistö, Satu; Laatikainen, Tiina; Vartiainen, Erkki; Partonen, Timo (2016)
  • Wikstrom, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (2020)
    BackgroundThe unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position.MethodsThe Abilitator was developed in 2014-2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n=30), practical expert panels of professionals (n=700) and target group clients (n=28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels' feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n=3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel.ResultsThe construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator's 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively.ConclusionThe Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Wikström, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position. Methods The Abilitator was developed in 2014–2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n = 30), practical expert panels of professionals (n = 700) and target group clients (n = 28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels’ feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n = 3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel. Results The construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator’s 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively. Conclusion The Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O.; Coall, David A.; Jokela, Markus (2019)
    Previous studies suggest grandparental childcare is associated with improved health and well-being of grandparents but limited information on the causal nature of this association exists. Here, we use the longitudinal Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) of people aged 50 and above across 11 countries including follow-up waves between 2004 and 2015 (n = 41,713 person-observations from 24,787 unique persons of whom 11,102 had two or more measurement times). Between-person and within-person (or fixed-effect) regressions were applied, where between-person models show associations across participants and within-person models focus on each participant's variation over time. Health and well-being were measured according to self rated health, difficulties with activities of daily living (ADLs), depressive symptoms, life satisfaction and meaning of life scores. Across all analyses, childcare assistance provided by older adults to their adult children, was associated with increased health and well-being of grandparents. However, these associations were almost completely due to between-person differences and did not hold in within-person analyses that compared the same participants over time. Fewer ADL limitations for grandparents who provided childcare assistance was the only association that remained in the within-individual analyses. These findings suggest that there might be only limited causal association between grandchild care and grandparental well-being and that it may be specific to physical rather than cognitive factors. The results are discussed with regard to evolutionary psychology assumptions of altruistic behavior and positive health outcomes for the helper.
  • Leinonen, Taina; Laaksonen, Mikko; Chandola, Tarani; Martikainen, Pekka (2016)
    Background: Little is known of how pension reforms affect the retirement decisions of people with different health statuses, although this is crucial for the understanding of the broader societal impact of pension policies and for future policy development. We assessed how the Finnish statutory pension age reform introduced in 2005 influenced the role of health as a predictor of retirement. Methods: We used register-based data and cox regression analysis to examine the association of health (measured by purchases of psychotropic medication, hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, and the number of any prescription medications) with the risk of retirement at age 63-64 among those subject to the old pension system with fixed age limit at 65 (pre-reform group born in 1937-1941) and the new flexible system with 63 as the lower age limit (post-reform group born in 1941-1945) while controlling for socio-demographic factors. Results: Retirement at age 63-64 was more likely among the post- than the pre-reform group (HR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.43-1.57). This reform-related increase in retirement was more pronounced among those without a history of psychotropic medication or hospitalizations due to circulatory and musculoskeletal diseases, as well as among those with below median level medication use. As a result, poor health became a weaker predictor of retirement after the reform. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations of the Finnish pension reform aimed at extending working lives, offering choice with respect to the timing of retirement may actually encourage healthy workers to choose earlier retirement regardless of the provided economic incentives for continuing in work. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Junna, Liina; Moustgaard, Heta; Martikainen, Pekka (2022)
    Background Successful transitions from unemployment to employment are an important concern, yet little is known about health-related selection into employment. We assessed the association of various physical and psychiatric conditions with finding employment, and employment stability. Methods Using total population register data, we followed Finnish residents aged 30–60 with an unemployment spell during 2009–2018 (n = 814,085) for two years from the onset of unemployment. We predicted any, stable, and unstable employment by health status using Cox proportional hazards models. The data on specialized health care and prescription reimbursement were used to identify any alcohol-related conditions and poisonings, psychiatric conditions and self-harm, injuries, and physical conditions. We further separated physical conditions into cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological conditions, and psychiatric conditions into depression, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Results The likelihood of any employment was lower among those who had any of the assessed health conditions. It was lowest among those with alcohol-related or psychiatric conditions with an age-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.45 (95% confidence interval 0.44, 0.46) among men and 0.39 (0.38, 0.41) among women for alcohol-related and 0.64 (0.63, 0.65) and 0.66 (0.65, 0.67) for psychiatric conditions, respectively. These results were not driven by differences in socioeconomic characteristics or comorbidities. All the included conditions were detrimental to both stable and unstable employment, however alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions were more harmful for stable than for unstable employment. Conclusions The prospects of the unemployed finding employment are reduced by poor health, particularly alcohol-related and psychiatric conditions. These two conditions may also lead to unstable career trajectories. The selection process contributes to the health differentials between employed and unemployed people. Unemployed people with health problems may therefore need additional support to improve their chances of employment.
  • Muszer, Magdalena; Noszczynska, Magdalena; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Skurnik, Mikael (2015)
    The microorganisms that inhabit humans are very diverse on different body sites and tracts. Each specific niche contains a unique composition of the microorganisms that are important for a balanced human physiology. Microbial cells outnumber human cells by tenfold and they function as an invisible organ that is called the microbiome. Excessive use of antibiotics and unhealthy diets pose a serious danger to the composition of the microbiome. An imbalance in the microbial community may cause pathological conditions of the digestive system such as obesity, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease; of the skin such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne and of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. An unbalanced microbiome has also been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and multiple sclerosis. While the microbiome has a strong impact on the development of the host immune system, it is suspected that it can also be the cause of certain autoimmune diseases, including diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the enormous progress in the field, the interactions between the human body and its microbiome still remain largely unknown. A better characterization of the interactions may allow for a deeper understanding of human disease states and help to elucidate a possible association between the composition of the microbiome and certain pathologies. This review focuses on general findings that are related to the area and provides no detailed information about the case of study. The aim is to give some initial insight on the studies of the microbiome and its connection with human health.
  • Elovainio, Marko; Virtanen, Marianna; Oksanen, Tuula (2017)
  • Knaappila, Noora; Kosola, Silja; Kaltiala, Riittakerttu (2021)
    • Suomalaisnuorten ongelmakäyttäytyminen, kuten tupakointi, humalajuominen ja rikekäyttäytyminen, on viime vuosikymmenten aikana jatkuvasti vähentynyt. • Sen sijaan sosioekonomiset erot suomalaisnuorten ongelmakäyttäytymisessä eivät ole kaventuneet, vaan ne ovat jopa kasvaneet. • Hyvinvointierojen kaventamiseksi varhaista tukea tulisi tarjota erityisesti haavoittuvassa asemassa oleville perheille.
  • Matricciani, Lisa; Bin, Yu Sun; Lallukka, Tea; Kronholm, Erkki; Dumuid, Dorothea; Paquet, Catherine; Olds, Tim (2017)
    Sleep is important for the physical, social and mental well-being of both children and adults. Over the years, there has been a general presumption that sleep will inevitably decline with the increase in technology and a busy 24-hour modern lifestyle. This narrative review discusses the empirical evidence for secular trends in sleep duration and the implications of these trends. (c) 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietilainen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (2017)
    Background: Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods: Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (> 14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004-2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results: During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions: Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful information for targeted interventions to promote health and workability.
  • Mänty, Minna; Lallukka, Tea; Lahti, Jouni; Pietiläinen, Olli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lahelma, Eero; Rahkonen, Ossi (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Sickness absence has been shown to be a risk marker for severe future health outcomes, such as disability retirement and premature death. However, it is poorly understood how all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence is reflected in subsequent physical and mental health functioning over time. The aim of this study was to examine the association of all-cause and diagnosis-specific sickness absence with subsequent changes in physical and mental health functioning among ageing municipal employees. Methods Prospective survey and register data from the Finnish Helsinki Health Study and the Social Insurance Institution of Finland were used. Register based records for medically certified all-cause and diagnostic-specific sickness absence spells (>14 consecutive calendar days) in 2004–2007 were examined in relation to subsequent physical and mental health functioning measured by Short-Form 36 questionnaire in 2007 and 2012. In total, 3079 respondents who were continuously employed over the sickness absence follow-up were included in the analyses. Repeated-measures analysis was used to examine the associations. Results During the 3-year follow-up, 30% of the participants had at least one spell of medically certified sickness absence. All-cause sickness absence was associated with lower subsequent physical and mental health functioning in a stepwise manner: the more absence days, the poorer the subsequent physical and mental health functioning. These differences remained but narrowed slightly during the follow-up. Furthermore, the adverse association for physical health functioning was strongest among those with sickness absence due to diseases of musculoskeletal or respiratory systems, and on mental functioning among those with sickness absence due to mental disorders. Conclusions Sickness absence showed a persistent adverse stepwise association with subsequent physical and mental health functioning. Evidence on health-related outcomes after long-term sickness absence may provide useful information for targeted interventions to promote health and workability.
  • Strandberg, Timo; Strandberg, Arto; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Benetos, Athanase (2018)
    Sauna-type bathing has increased worldwide, and it has been related to both harmful and beneficial effects. There are few studies of bathing in sauna in very old age. The series consists of 524 mostly home-living survivors of the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS, mean age 86 years, range 80-95), who in 2015 responded to a questionnaire survey about lifestyle (including sauna bathing), prevalent diseases, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL, RAND-36). Of the men 57.6% (n = 302) reported all-year round and 17.6% (n = 92) part-year sauna bathing. Sauna was currently used mostly once a week, but 10% bathed more than twice a week. Median time in the hot room was 15 min at 80 A degrees C. Among 45.7% of the men, the habit had decreased with ageing, and 130 (24.8%) did not attend sauna. However, 92.2% of the latter had discontinued an earlier habit, respective proportions 20.7% and 75.0% among all-year and part-year users. Overall, reasons for decreased sauna bathing were nonspecific or related to mobility problems or diverse health reasons (n = 63). The most frequent motivations for sauna were relaxation and hygienic reasons. Of the RAND-36 domains physical function, vitality, social functioning, and general health were significantly better among sauna users than non-users. These differences partly remained after adjusting for prevalent diseases and mobility-disability. Regular sauna bathing was common among octogenarian men and was associated with better HRQoL. However, reverse causality must be taken into account in this cross-sectional study. The bathing habit seemed to be prudent and had decreased in almost half of the cohort.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Koskinen, Seppo; Partonen, Timo (2022)
    Limited evidence suggests that the seasonal changes in mood and behavior may associate with suicidality and the feelings of worthlessness, but these associations have not been analyzed in large population-based data. A random sample of adults (n = 4069), representative of the general population living in Finland, attended a nationwide health examination survey. Seasonal variations (seasonality) in mood and behavior were analyzed with the six items of global seasonality score (GSS) and the experienced problem due to these variations. Their impact on suicidality as well as on the feelings of worthlessness were analyzed using logistic regression models. After adjusting for age and gender, the GSS, each of its six items and the experienced problem due to the seasonal variations in mood and behavior all showed separately a significant association with suicidality as well as with worthlessness. After further adjustment for the education level and region of residence, the GSS, its mood item and the experienced problem remained significantly associated with both suicidality and worthlessness. Seasonal variations in mood and behavior have a significant association with both suicidality and worthlessness.
  • Mattila, Vesa Mikko; Wass, Hanna Maria; Lahtinen, Hannu Antero; Martikainen, Pekka Tapani (2018)
    Previous studies show that people with poor health have a lower propensity to vote. With individual-level register data on sickness allowance episodes and voting in three Finnish elections, we address the following questions: (1) What degree of sickness allowance days negatively influences turnout? (2) Are sickness absences on election day more harmful than absences that occur before the elections? (3) What is the effect of cumulative sickness allowance spells before the elections over a period of several years? We use a threefold categorisation approach, which differentiates between immediate, short-term and long-term health effects on voting. The results show that multiple sickness allowance spells over several years are more strongly connected to turnout than health problems experienced only in the year prior to the elections. Falling ill at the time of the elections had no consistent additional negative relationship with voting. We suggest that the demobilising effects of immediate health problems are associated with tangible factors, while long-term effects are related to lowered levels of political efficacy, interest and social connectedness.
  • Koivisto, Antti Joonas; Kling, Kirsten Inga; Hänninen, Otto; Jayjock, Michael; Londahl, Jakob; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Fonseca, Ana Sofia; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Boor, Brandon E.; Jiménez, Araceli Sánchez; Hämeri, Kaarle; Dal Maso, Miikka; Arnold, Susan F.; Jensen, Keld A.; Viana, Mar; Morawska, Lidia; Hussein, Tareq (2019)
    Poor air quality is a leading contributor to the global disease burden and total number of deaths worldwide. Humans spend most of their time in built environments where the majority of the inhalation exposure occurs. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) is challenged by outdoor air pollution entering indoors through ventilation and infiltration and by indoor emission sources. The aim of this study was to understand the current knowledge level and gaps regarding effective approaches to improve IAQ Emission regulations currently focus on outdoor emissions, whereas quantitative understanding of emissions from indoor sources is generally lacking.Therefore, specific indoor sources need to be identified, characterized, and quantified according to their environmental and human health impact. The emission sources should be stored in terms of relevant metrics and statistics in an easily accessible format that is applicable for source specific exposure assessment by using mathematical mass balance modelings. This forms a foundation for comprehensive risk assessment and efficient interventions. For such a general exposure assessment model we need 1) systematic methods for indoor aerosol emission source assessment, 2) source emission documentation in terms of relevant a) aerosol metrics and b) biological metrics, 3) default model parameterization for predictive exposure modeling, 4) other needs related to aerosol characterization techniques and modeling methods. Such a general exposure assessment model can be applicable for private, public, and occupational indoor exposure assessment, making it a valuable tool for public health professionals, product safety designers, industrial hygienists, building scientists, and environmental consultants working in the field of IAQ and health. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.