Browsing by Subject "Heart failure"

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  • Cerlinskaite, Kamile; Javanainen, Tuija; Cinotti, Raphael; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2018)
    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical condition, where urgent diagnostic and treatment methods are of key importance. However, there are few evidence-based treatment methods. Interestingly, despite relatively similar ways of management of AHF throughout the globe, mid-term outcome in East Asia, including South Korea is more favorable than in Europe. Yet, most of the treatment methods are symptomatic. The cornerstone of AHF management is identifying precipitating factors and specific phenotype. Multidisciplinary approach is important in AHF, which can be caused or aggravated by both cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The main pathophysiological mechanism in AHF is congestion, both systemic and inside the organs (lung, kidney, or liver). Cardiac output is often preserved in AHF except in a few cases of advanced heart failure. This paper provides guidance on AHF management in a time-based approach. Treatment strategies, criteria for triage, admission to hospital and discharge are described.
  • Geelhoed, Bastiaan; Börschel, Christin S.; Niiranen, Teemu; Palosaari, Tarja; Havulinna, Aki S.; Fouodo, Cesaire J. K.; Scheinhardt, Markus O.; Blankenberg, Stefan; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Zeller, Tanja; Salomaa, Veikko; Schnabel, Renate B. (2020)
    Aims Natriuretic peptides are extensively studied biomarkers for atrial fibrillation (AF) and heart failure (HF). Their role in the pathogenesis of both diseases is not entirely understood and previous studies several single-nucleotide poly-morphisms (SNPs) at the NPPA-NPPB locus associated with natriuretic peptides have been identified. We investigated the causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and AF as well as HF using a Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and results N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) (N= 6669), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) (N= 6674), and mid-regional pro atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) (N= 6813) were measured in the FINRISK 1997 cohort. N=30 common SNPs related to NT-proBNP, BNP, and MR-proANP were selected from studies. We performed six Mendelian randomizations for all three natriuretic peptide biomarkers and for both outcomes, AF and HF, separately. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on multiple SNPs were used as genetic instrumental variable in Mendelian randomizations. Polygenic risk scores were significantly associated with the three natriuretic peptides. Polygenic risk scores were not significantly associated with incident AF nor HF. Most cardiovascular risk factors showed significant confounding percentages, but no association with PRS. A causal relation except for small causal betas is unlikely. Conclusion In our Mendelian randomization approach, we confirmed an association between common genetic variation at the NPPA-NPPB locus and natriuretic peptides. A strong causal relationship between natriuretic peptides and incidence of AF as well as HF at the community-level was ruled out. Therapeutic approaches targeting natriuretic peptides will therefore very likely work through indirect mechanisms.
  • GREAT Global Res Acute Conditions; INI-CRCT Invest Network Initiative; Legrand, Matthieu; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2018)
    Background The interaction between chronic medications on admission and the association between serum potassium level and outcome in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) are unknown. Methods Observational intercontinental study of patients admitted with AHF. 15954 patients were included from 12 cohorts in 4 continents. Main outcome was 90-day mortality. Clinical presentation (medication use, hemodynamics, comorbidities), demographic, echocardiographic, and biochemical data on admission were recorded prospectively in each cohort, with prospective adjudication of outcomes. Results Positive and negative linear relationships between 90-day mortality and sK+ above 4.5 mmol/L (hyperkalemia) and below 3.5 mmol/L (hypo-kalemia) were observed. Hazard ratio for death was 1.46 [1.34-1.58] for hyperkalemia and 1.22 [1.06-1.40] for hypokalemia. In a fully adjusted model, only hyperkalemia remained associated with mortality (HR 1.03 [1.02-1.04] for each 0.1 mmol/l change of sK+ above 4.5 mmol/L). Interaction tests revealed that the association between hyperkalemia and outcome was significantly affected by chronic medications. The association between hyperkalemia and mortality was absent for patients treated with beta blockers and in those with preserved renal function. Conclusions In patients with AHF, sK+ > 4.5 mmol/L appears to be associated with 90-day mortality. B-blockers have potentially a protective effect in the setting of hyperkalemia.
  • CVD-REAL Investigators Study Grp; Khunti, Kamlesh; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Kim, Dae Jung; Eriksson, Johan G.; Fenici, Peter (2021)
    Background Randomized, controlled cardiovascular outcome trials may not be fully representative of the management of patients with type 2 diabetes across different geographic regions. We conducted analyses of data from the multinational CVD-REAL consortium to determine the association between initiation of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) and cardiovascular outcomes, including subgroup analyses based on patient characteristics. Methods De-identified health records from 13 countries across three continents were used to identify patients newly-initiated on SGLT-2i or other glucose-lowering drugs (oGLDs). Propensity scores for SGLT-2i initiation were developed in each country, with 1:1 matching for oGLD initiation. In the matched groups hazard ratios (HRs) for hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), all-cause death (ACD), the composite of HHF or ACD, myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke were estimated by country, and pooled using a weighted meta-analysis. Multiple subgroup analyses were conducted across patient demographic and clinical characteristics to examine any heterogeneity in treatment effects. Results Following matching, 440,599 new users of SGLT-2i and oGLDs were included in each group. Mean follow-up time was 396 days for SGLT-2i initiation and 406 days for oGLDs initiation. SGLT-2i initiation was associated with a lower risk of HHF (HR: 0.66, 95%CI 0.58-0.75; p < 0.001), ACD (HR: 0.52, 95%CI 0.45-0.60; p < 0.001), the composite of HHF or ACD (HR: 0.60, 95%CI 0.53-0.68; p < 0.001), MI (HR: 0.85, 95%CI 0.78-0.92; p < 0.001), and stroke (HR: 0.78, 95%CI 0.72-0.85; p < 0.001); regardless of patient characteristics, including established cardiovascular disease, or geographic region. Conclusions This CVD-REAL study extends the findings from the SGLT-2i clinical trials to the broader setting of an ethnically and geographically diverse population, and across multiple subgroups. Trial registration NCT02993614
  • Leigh, Robert S.; Ruskoaho, Heikki J.; Kaynak, Bogac L. (2021)
    The procholecystokinin (proCCK) gene encodes a secreted peptide known to regulate the digestive, endocrine, and nervous systems. Though recently proposed as a biomarker for heart dysfunction, its physiological role in both the embryonic and adult heart is poorly understood, and there are no reports of tissue-specific regulators of cholecystokinin signaling in the heart or other tissues. In the present study, mRNA of proCCK was observed in cardiac tissues during mouse embryonic development, establishing proCCK as an early marker of differentiated cardiomyocytes which is later restricted to anatomical subdomains of the neonatal heart. Three-dimensional analysis of the expression of proCCK and CCKAR/CCKBR receptors was performed using in situ hybridization and optical projection tomography, illustrating chamber-specific expression patterns in the postnatal heart. Transcription factor motif analyses indicated developmental cardiac transcription factors TBX5 and MEF2C as upstream regulators of proCCK, and this regulatory activity was confirmed in reporter gene assays. proCCK mRNA levels were also measured in the infarcted heart and in response to cyclic mechanical stretch and endothelin-1, indicating dynamic transcriptional regulation which might be leveraged for improved biomarker development. Functional analyses of exogenous cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) administration were performed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), and the results suggest that CCK-8 does not act as a differentiation modulator of cardiomyocyte subtypes. Collectively, these findings indicate that proCCK is regulated at the transcriptional level by TBX5-MEF2 and neurohormonal signaling, informing use of proCCK as a biomarker and future strategies for upstream manipulation of cholecystokinin signaling in the heart and other tissues.
  • Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Brunner-La Rocca, Hans-Peter; Celutkiene, Jelena; Chioncel, Ovidiu; Collins, Sean P.; De Backer, Daniel; Filippatos, Gerasimos S.; Gayat, Etienne; Hill, Loreena; Lainscak, Mitja; Lassus, Johan; Masip, Josep; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Miro, Oscar; Mortara, Andrea; Mueller, Christian; Mullens, Wilfried; Nieminen, Markku S.; Rudiger, Alain; Ruschitzka, Frank; Seferovic, Petar M.; Sionis, Alessandro; Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Weinstein, Jean Marc; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G.; Piepoli, Massimo; Riley, Jillian P. (2018)
    This paper provides a practical clinical application of guideline recommendations relating to the inpatient monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, through the evaluation of various clinical, biomarker, imaging, invasive and non-invasive approaches. Comprehensive inpatient monitoring is crucial to the optimal management of acute heart failure patients. The European Society of Cardiology heart failure guidelines provide recommendations for the inpatient monitoring of acute heart failure, but the level of evidence underpinning most recommendations is limited. Many tools are available for the in-hospital monitoring of patients with acute heart failure, and each plays a role at various points throughout the patient's treatment course, including the emergency department, intensive care or coronary care unit, and the general ward. Clinical judgment is the preeminent factor guiding application of inpatient monitoring tools, as the various techniques have different patient population targets. When applied appropriately, these techniques enable decision making. However, there is limited evidence demonstrating that implementation of these tools improves patient outcome. Research priorities are identified to address these gaps in evidence. Future research initiatives should aim to identify the optimal in-hospital monitoring strategies that decrease morbidity and prolong survival in patients with acute heart failure.
  • Braun, Oscar Ö.; Nilsson, Johan; Gustafsson, Finn; Dellgren, Göran; Fiane, Arnt E.; Lemström, Karl; Hubbert, Laila; Hellgren, Laila; Lund, Lars H. (2019)
    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess complications and mortality and its predictors, with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) in the Nordic Countries. Design: This was a retrospective, international, multicenter cohort study. Results: Between 1993 and 2013, 442 surgically implanted long-term mechanical assist devices were used among 8 centers in the Nordic countries. Of those, 238 were CF-LVADs (HVAD or HeartMate II) implanted in patients >18 years with complete data. Postoperative complications and survival were compared and Cox proportion hazard regression analysis was used to identify predictors of mortality. The overall Kaplan-Meier survival rate was 75% at 1 year, 69% at 2 years and 63% at 3 years. A planned strategy of destination therapy had poorer survival compared to a strategy of bridge to transplantation or decision (2-year survival of 41% vs. 76%, p <.001). The most common complications were non-driveline infections (excluding sepsis) (44%), driveline infection (27%), need for continuous renal replacement therapy (25%) and right heart failure (24%). In a multivariate model age and left ventricular diastolic dimension was left as independent risk factors for mortality with a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval (CI) [1.01-1.80], p = .046) per 10 years and 0.88 (95% CI [0.72-0.99], p = .044) per 5 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Outcome with CF LVAD in the Nordic countries was comparable to other cohorts. Higher age and destination therapy require particularly stringent selection.
  • Konev, Alexey A.; Kharitonov, Alexey; Rozov, Fedor N.; Altshuler, Evgeny P.; Serebryanaya, Daria; Lassus, Johan; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Katrukha, Alexey G.; Postnikov, Alexander B. (2020)
    Aims Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) fragments have been shown to predict the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, including segment-elevation myocardial infarction, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We evaluated the prognostic value of the carboxy-terminal fragment of IGFBP-4 (CT-IGFBP-4) for all-cause mortality in emergency room patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Methods and results CT-IGFBP-4, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at admission from the lithium-heparin plasma of 156 patients with AHF. All-cause mortality was recorded for 1 year. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional hazard ratio analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the various clinical variables, CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, CRP, and their combinations. During 1 year of follow-up, 52 (33.3%) patients died. CT-IGFBP-4 only weakly correlated with NT-proBNP (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.16, P = 0.044) and did not correlate with CRP (r = 0.08, P = 0.35), emphasizing the different nature of these biomarkers. The receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of CT-IGFBP-4 for the prediction of all-cause mortality (0.727) was significantly higher than that of NT-proBNP (0.680, P = 0.045) and CRP (0.669, P = 0.016). The combination of CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP predicted mortality significantly better (ROC AUC = 0.788) than any of the biomarkers alone (P <0.01 for all). The addition of CT-IGFBP-4 to a clinical prediction model that included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, creatinine, and sodium levels, as well as the history of previous heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hypertension significantly improved the mortality risk prediction (ROC AUC 0.774 vs. 0.699, P = 0.025). Cox hazard analysis indicated that elevated CT-IGFBP-4 was independently associated with 1 year mortality (hazard ratio 3.26, P = 0.0008) after adjustment for age, gender, history of previous heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, chronic kidney failure, history of diabetes, heart rate, haemoglobin, plasma sodium, NT-proBNP, CRP, cystatin C, and elevated cardiac troponin I or T. Patients with increased levels of either two or three of the biomarkers CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP had significantly higher mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 10.04, P <0.0001) than patients with increased levels of one or none of the biomarkers. Conclusions CT-IGFBP-4 was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with AHF. Compared with single biomarkers, the combination of CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP improved the prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with AHF.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp (2018)
    Aims/hypothesisThe aim of this study was to assess the potential dose-dependent effects of smoking on the risk of CHD, heart failure and stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes.MethodsThe study included 4506 individuals with type 1 diabetes who were participating in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) study. Intensity of smoking was estimated by packs per day and cumulative smoking by pack-years. Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of incident CHD, heart failure or stroke during follow-up.ResultsOne pack per day significantly increased the risk of incident CHD in current smokers compared with never smokers (HR 1.45 [95% CI 1.15, 1.84]), after adjustment for age, sex, HbA(1c), hypertension, duration of diabetes and BMI. The risk of CHD in former smokers was similar to the risk in never smokers. The risk of incident heart failure was 1.43 (95% CI 1.03, 1.97) in current smokers per one pack per day and 1.37 (95% CI 1.05, 1.77) in former smokers, while the risk of incident stroke was 1.70 (95% CI 1.26, 2.29) and 1.49 (95% CI 1.14, 1.93), respectively. After further adjustments for lipids, however, the difference in the risk of heart failure in current and former smokers was no longer significant. Cumulative smoking data were similar to smoking intensity data.Conclusions/interpretationThere is a dose-dependent association between smoking and cardiovascular disease in individuals with type 1 diabetes. In men in particular, the risk of incident stroke remains high even after smoking cessation and is increased in current and former smokers independently of other risk factors.
  • Nummi, Annu; Nieminen, Tuomo; Pätilä, Tommi; Lampinen, Milla; Lehtinen, Miia L; Kivistö, Sari; Holmström, Miia; Wilkman, Erika; Teittinen, Kari; Laine, Mika; Sinisalo, Juha; Kupari, Markku; Kankuri, Esko; Juvonen, Tatu; Vento, Antti; Suojaranta, Raili; Harjula, Ari (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The atrial appendages are a tissue reservoir for cardiac stem cells. During on-pump coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, part of the right atrial appendage can be excised upon insertion of the right atrial cannula of the heart-lung machine. In the operating room, the removed tissue can be easily cut into micrografts for transplantation. This trial aims to assess the safety and feasibility of epicardial transplantation of atrial appendage micrografts in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Methods/design Autologous cardiac micrografts are made from leftover right atrial appendage during CABG of 6 patients. Atrial appendage is mechanically processed to micrografts consisting of atrial appendage-derived cells (AADCs) and their extracellular matrix (ECM). The micrografts are epicardially transplanted in a fibrin gel and covered with a tissue-engineered ECM sheet. Parameters including echocardiography—reflecting cardiac insufficiency—are studied pre- and post-operatively as well as at 3 and 6 months of the follow-up. Cardiac functional magnetic resonance imaging is performed preoperatively and at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome measures are patient safety in terms of hemodynamic and cardiac function over time and feasibility of therapy administration in a clinical setting. Secondary outcome measures are left ventricular wall thickness, change in the amount of myocardial scar tissue, changes in left ventricular ejection fraction, plasma concentrations of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, New York Heart Association class, days in hospital, and changes in the quality of life. Twenty patients undergoing routine CAGB surgery will be recruited to serve as a control group. Discussion This study aims to address the surgical feasibility and patient safety of epicardially delivered atrial appendage micrografts during CABG surgery. Delivery of autologous micrografts and AADCs has potential applications for cell and cell-based gene therapies. Trial registration Identifier: NCT02672163 . Date of registration: 02.02.2016
  • Toth, Melinda E.; Sarkozy, Marta; Szucs, Gergo; Dukay, Brigitta; Hajdu, Petra; Zvara, Agnes; Puskas, Laszlo G.; Szebeni, Gabor J.; Ruppert, Zsofia; Csonka, Csaba; Kovacs, Ferenc; Kriston, Andras; Horvath, Peter; Kovari, Bence; Cserni, Gabor; Csont, Tamas; Santha, Miklos (2022)
    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of co-existing cardio-metabolic risk factors, including visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia with insulin resistance, and hypertension. As there is a close link between MetS and cardiovascular diseases, we aimed to investigate the sex-based differences in MetS-associated heart failure (HF) and cardiovascular response to regular exercise training (ET). Methods High-fat diet-fed male and female APOB-100 transgenic (HFD/APOB-100, 3 months) mice were used as MetS models, and age- and sex-matched C57BL/6 wild-type mice on standard diet served as healthy controls (SD/WT). Both the SD/WT and HFD/APOB-100 mice were divided into sedentary and ET groups, the latter running on a treadmill (0.9 km/h) for 45 min 5 times per week for 7 months. At month 9, transthoracic echocardiography was performed to monitor cardiac function and morphology. At the termination of the experiment at month 10, blood was collected for serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol measurements and homeostatic assessment model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) calculation. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis were assessed by histology. Left ventricular expressions of selected genes associated with metabolism, inflammation, and stress response were investigated by qPCR. Results Both HFD/APOB-100 males and females developed obesity and hypercholesterolemia; however, only males showed insulin resistance. ET did not change these metabolic parameters. HFD/APOB-100 males showed echocardiographic signs of mild HF with dilated ventricles and thinner walls, whereas females presented the beginning of left ventricular hypertrophy. In response to ET, SD/WT males developed increased left ventricular volumes, whereas females responded with physiologic hypertrophy. Exercise-trained HFD/APOB-100 males presented worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction; however, ET did not change the ejection fraction and reversed the echocardiographic signs of left ventricular hypertrophy in HFD/APOB-100 females. The left ventricular expression of the leptin receptor was higher in females than males in the SD/WT groups. Left ventricular expression levels of stress response-related genes were higher in the exercise-trained HFD/APOB-100 males and exercise-trained SD/WT females than exercise-trained SD/WT males. Conclusions HFD/APOB-100 mice showed sex-specific cardiovascular responses to MetS and ET; however, left ventricular gene expressions were similar between the groups except for leptin receptor and several stress response-related genes.
  • Heliste, Juho; Chheda, Himanshu; Paatero, Ilkka; Salminen, Tiina A.; Akimov, Yevhen; Paavola, Jere; Elenius, Klaus; Aittokallio, Tero (2020)
    Background: To tackle the missing heritability of sporadic heart failure, we screened for novel heart failure associated genetic variants in the Finnish population and functionally characterized a novel variant in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results: Heart failure-associated variants were screened in genotyping array data of the FINRISK study, consisting of 994 cases and 20,118 controls. Based on logistic regression analysis, a potentially damaging variant in TRIM55 (rs138811034), encoding an E140K variant, was selected for validations. In HL-1 cardiomyocytes, we used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to introduce the variant in the endogenous locus, and additionally TRIM55 wildtype or E140K was overexpressed from plasmid. Functional responses were profiled using whole-genome RNA sequencing, RT-PCR and Western analyses, cell viability and cell cycle assays and cell surface area measurements. In zebrafish embryos, cardiac contractility was measured using videomicroscopy after CRISPR-mediated knockout of trim55a or plasmid overexpression of TRIM55 WT or E140K. Genes related to muscle contraction and cardiac stress were highly regulated in Trim55 E140K/- cardiomyocytes. When compared to the WT/WT cells, the variant cells demonstrated reduced viability, significant hypertrophic response to isoproterenol, p21 protein overexpression and impaired cell cycle progression. In zebrafish embryos, the deletion of trim55a or overexpression of TRIM55 E140K reduced cardiac contractility as compared to embryos with wild type genotype or overexpression of WT TRIM55, respectively. Conclusions: A previously uncharacterized TRIM55 E140K variant demonstrated a number of functional implications for cardiomyocyte functions in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest a novel role for TRIM55 polymorphism in predisposing to heart failure.
  • Reddy, Mittapalle Kiran; Pohjalainen, Hilla; Helkkula, Pyry; Kaitue, Kasimir; Minkkinen, Mikko; Tolppanen, Heli; Nieminen, Tuomo; Alku, Paavo (2022)
    Heart failure (HF) is one of the most life-threatening diseases globally. HF is an under-diagnosed condition, and more screening tools are needed to detect it. A few recent studies have suggested that HF also affects the functioning of the speech production mechanism by causing generation of edema in the vocal folds and by impairing the lung function. It has not yet been studied whether these possible effects of HF on the speech production mechanism are large enough to cause acoustically measurable differences to distinguish speech produced in HF from that produced by healthy speakers. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to compare speech production between HF patients and healthy controls by focusing on the excitation signal generated at the level of the vocal folds, the glottal flow. The glottal flow was computed from speech using the quasi-closed phase glottal inverse filtering method and the estimated flow was parameterized with 12 glottal parameters. The sound pressure level (SPL) was measured from speech as an additional parameter. The statistical analyses conducted on the parameters indicated that most of the glottal parameters and SPL were significantly different between the HF patients and healthy controls. The results showed that the HF patients generally produced a more rounded glottal pulse and a lower SPL level compared to the healthy controls, indicating incomplete glottal closure and inappropriate leakage of air through the glottis. The results observed in this preliminary study indicate that glottal features are capable of distinguishing speakers with HF from healthy controls. Therefore, the study suggests that glottal features constitute a potential feature extraction approach which should be taken into account in future large-scale investigations in studying the automatic detection of HF from speech.
  • Ekström, Kaj; Räisänen-Sokolowski, Anne; Lehtonen, Jukka; Nordenswan, Hanna-Kaisa; Mäyranpää, Mikko I.; Kupari, Markku (2020)
    Aims Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) and giant cell myocarditis (GCM) are inflammatory cardiomyopathies sharing histopathological and clinical features. Their differentiation is difficult and susceptible of confusion and apparent mistakes. The possibility that they represent different phenotypes of a single disease has been debated. Methods and results We made a retrospective audit of 73 cases of GCM diagnosed in Finland since the late 1980s. All available histological material was reanalyzed as were other examinations pertinent to the distinction between GCM and CS. Finding granulomas in or outside the heart was considered diagnostic of CS and exclusive of GCM. Altogether 45 of the 73 cases of GCM (62%) were reclassified as CS. In all except one case, this was based on finding sarcoid granulomas that either had been originally missed (n = 29) or misinterpreted (n = 11) or were found in additional posttransplant myocardial specimens (n = 3) or samples of extracardiac tissue (n = 1) accrued over the disease course. Supporting the reclassification, patients relocated to the CS group had less heart failure at presentation (prevalence 20% vs. 46%, P = 0.017) and better 1 year transplant-free survival (82% vs. 45%, P = 0.011) than patients considered to represent true GCM. Conclusions Recognizing granulomas in or outside the heart remains a challenge for the pathologist. Given that CS and GCM are considered distinct diseases and granulomas exclusive of GCM, many cases of GCM, if thoroughly scrutinized, may need reclassification as CS. However, whether CS and GCM are truly different entities or parts of a one-disease continuum has not yet been conclusively settled.
  • Hagnäs, Magnus J.; Grasso, Carmelo; Di Salvo, Maria Elena; Caggegi, Anna; Barbanti, Marco; Scandura, Salvatore; Milici, Annalisa; Motta, Gessica; Bentivegna, Agnese; Sardone, Andrea; Capodicasa, Luigi; Giuffrida, Angelo; Biancari, Fausto; Mäkikallio, Timo; Capodanno, Davide; Tamburino, Corrado (2021)
    Objectives: To investigate how the changes of left ventricle ejection fraction (LVEF) between admission and discharge affected the long-term outcome in patients who underwent percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for secondary mitral regurgitation. Background: An acute impairment of LVEF after surgical repair of mitral regurgitation, known as afterload mismatch, has been associated with increased all-cause mortality. Afterload mismatch after percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair has been postulated to be a transient phenomenon. Methods: This study is based on a single-center, retrospective, observational registry of patients who underwent percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair with the MitraClip (Abbot Vascular) system for the treatment of symptomatic, moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation. We included data on 399 patients who underwent percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair for secondary mitral regurgitation. Expert echocardiographers assessed LVEF before the procedure and at discharge. The patients were divided into three groups according to the difference of periprocedural LVEF measurements: unchanged (n = 318), improved (n = 40), and decreased (n = 41) LVEF. Results: The median follow-up time was 2.0 years. When adjusted for gender, NYHA class and estimated glomerular filtration rate, decreased postprocedural LVEF was associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.26–3.34) and increased postprocedural LVEF with a reduced risk of death (adjusted HR 0.47, 95% CI 0.24–0.91) compared to unchanged LVEF. Conclusion: Among patients who underwent percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair, decreased postprocedural LVEF was associated with increased mortality, while improved LVEF was associated with lower mortality compared to unchanged LVEF.
  • Pollesello, P.; Parissis, J.; Kivikko, M.; Harjola, V. -P. (2016)
    Background: Levosimendan is an inodilator developed for treatment of acute heart failure and other cardiac conditions where the use of an inodilator is considered appropriate. Levosimendan has been studied in different therapeutic settings including acutely decompensated chronic heart failure, advanced heart failure, right ventricular failure, cardiogenic shock, septic shock, and cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. This variety of data has been re-analysed in 25 meta-analyses from 15 different international research groups, based on different rationales to select the studies included. Methods: We here review all previously published meta-analyses on levosimendan to determine any common denominators for its effects on patient mortality. In addition, we also perform a comparative meta-analysis of the six phase II and III randomized double-blind trials which were taken into consideration by the regulatory authorities for the purpose of introducing levosimendan into the market. Results: Irrespective of clinical setting or comparator, all meta-analyses consistently show benefits for levosimendan, with lower relative risk (or odds ratio) for patient mortality. In 3/25 of the meta-analyses these beneficial trends did not reach statistical significance, while in 22/25 significance was reached. The relative risk is consistent overall, and very similar to that obtained in our own meta-analysis that considered only the 'regulatory' studies. Conclusion: The existing meta-analyses, now based on a population of over 6000 patients, provide the general message of significant benefits for levosimendan in terms of patient mortality. The weight of evidence is now clearly in favour of usefulness/efficacy of levosimendan, with data from multiple randomized trials and meta-analyses. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Lin, Ruizhu; Rahtu-Korpela, Lea; Szabo, Zoltan; Kemppi, Anna; Skarp, Sini; Kiviniemi, Antti M.; Lepojärvi, E. Samuli; Halmetoja, Eveliina; Kilpiö, Teemu; Porvari, Katja; Pakanen, Lasse; Tolva, Johanna; Paakkanen, Riitta; Segersvärd, Heli; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Laine, Mika; Sinisalo, Juha; Lakkisto, Päivi; Huikuri, Heikki; Magga, Johanna; Junttila, Juhani; Kerkelä, Risto (2022)
    Background: Cardiac fibrosis stiffens the ventricular wall, predisposes to cardiac arrhythmias and contributes to the development of heart failure. In the present study, our aim was to identify novel miRNAs that regulate the development of cardiac fibrosis and could serve as potential therapeutic targets for myocardial fibrosis. Methods and results: Analysis for cardiac samples from sudden cardiac death victims with extensive myocardial fibrosis as the primary cause of death identified dysregulation of miR-185-5p. Analysis of resident cardiac cells from mice subjected to experimental cardiac fibrosis model showed induction of miR-185-5p expression specifically in cardiac fibroblasts. In vitro, augmenting miR-185-5p induced collagen production and profibrotic activation in cardiac fibroblasts, whereas inhibition of miR-185-5p attenuated collagen production. In vivo, targeting miR-185-5p in mice abolished pressure overload induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis. Mechanistically, miR-185-5p targets apelin receptor and inhibits the anti-fibrotic effects of apelin. Finally, analysis of left ventricular tissue from patients with severe cardiomyopathy showed an increase in miR-185-5p expression together with pro-fibrotic TGF-beta 1 and collagen I. Conclusions: Our data show that miR-185-5p targets apelin receptor and promotes myocardial fibrosis.
  • Drews, Teemu E. I.; Laukkanen, Jari; Nieminen, Tuomo (2021)
    We planned this systematic review and meta-analysis to study an estimate of the effect of non-invasive home telemonitoring (TM) in the treatment of patients with recently decompensated heart failure (HF). A systematic literature search was conducted in the Medline, Cinahl, and Scopus databases to look for randomized controlled studies comparing TM with standard care in the treatment of patients with recently decompensated HF. The main outcomes of interest were all-cause hospitalizations and mortality. Eleven original articles met our eligibility criteria. The pooled estimate of the relative risk of all-cause hospitalization in the TM group compared with standard care was 0.95 (95% CI 0.84-1.08, P = 0.43) and the relative risk of all-cause death was 0.83 (95% CI 0.63-1.09, P = 0.17). There was significant clinical heterogeneity among primary studies. HF medication could be directly altered in three study interventions, and two of these had a statistically significant effect on all-cause hospitalizations. The pooled effect estimate of TM interventions on all-cause hospitalizations and all-cause death in patients with recently decompensated heart failure was neutral.
  • Delles, Christian; Rankin, Naomi J.; Boachie, Charles; McConnachie, Alex; Ford, Ian; Kangas, Antti; Soininen, Pasi; Trompet, Stella; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Zannad, Faiez; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Salomaa, Veikko; Havulinna, Aki S.; Welsh, Paul; Wurtz, Peter; Sattar, Naveed (2018)
    Aims We investigated the association between quantified metabolite, lipid and lipoprotein measures and incident heart failure hospitalisation (HFH) in the elderly, and examined whether circulating metabolic measures improve HFH prediction.& para;& para;Methods and results Overall, 80 metabolic measures from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) trial were measured by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (n = 5341; 182 HFH events during 2.7-year follow-up). We repeated the work in FINRISK 1997 (n = 7330; 133 HFH events during 5-year follow-up). In PROSPER, the circulating concentrations of 13 metabolic measures were found to be significantly different in those who were later hospitalised for heart failure after correction for multiple comparisons. These included creatinine, phenylalanine, glycoprotein acetyls, 3-hydroxybutyrate, and various high-density lipoprotein measures. In Cox models, two metabolites were associated with risk of HFH after adjustment for clinical risk factors and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP): phenylalanine [hazard ratio (HR) 1.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.53; P = 0.002] and acetate (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.98; P = 0.026). Both were retained in the final model after backward elimination. Compared to a model with established risk factors and NT-proBNP, this model did not improve the C-index but did improve the overall continuous net reclassification index (NRI 0.21; 95% CI 0.06-0.35; P = 0.007) due to improvement in classification of non-cases (NRI 0.14; 95% CI 0.12-0.17; P
  • VICTORIA Study Grp; Voors, Adriaan A.; Mulder, Hillary; Reyes, Eugene; Lassus, Johan; Armstrong, Paul W. (2021)
    Aims Vericiguat reduced the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization in patients with worsening HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and a lower limit of baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 15 mL/min/1.73 m(2). We evaluated the relationship between the efficacy of vericiguat and baseline and subsequent changes in renal function. Methods and results In VICTORIA, core laboratory serum creatinine was measured at baseline (n = 4956) and weeks 16, 32, and 48. Worsening renal function (WRF), defined as an increase >= 0.3 mg/dL in creatinine from baseline to week 16, was assessed via a Cox model with respect to subsequent primary events. Mean age was 69 years, 24% were female, and mean baseline eGFR was 61 mL/min/1.73 m(2). During 48 weeks of treatment, the trajectories in eGFR and creatinine with vericiguat were similar to placebo (P = 0.50 and 0.18). The beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline eGFR (interaction P = 0.48). WRF occurred in 15% of patients and was associated with worse outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.47; P < 0.001), but the beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were similar in patients with or without WRF (interaction P = 0.76). Conclusion Renal function trajectories were similar between vericiguat- and placebo-treated patients and the beneficial effects of vericiguat on the primary outcome were consistent across the full range of eGFR and irrespective of WRF.