Browsing by Subject "Heart rate variability"

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  • Soiluva, Johanna; Häyrinen, Lotta; Gangini, Giacomo; Öistämö, Ruut; Gracia-Calvo, Luis Alfonso; Raekallio, Marja Riitta (2023)
    Traditional visual lameness assessment is subjective. Ethograms have been developed for evaluating pain and objective sensors to detect lameness. Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) have been used to evaluate stress and pain. The aim of our study was to compare subjective and behavioral lame-ness scores, a sensor system measuring movement asymmetry, HR, and HRV. We hypothesized that these measures would show related trends. In 30 horses, an inertial sensor system was used to measure move-ment asymmetries during trot in-hand. A horse was categorized as sound if each asymmetry was less than 10 mm. We recorded riding to observe lameness and evaluate behavior. Heart rate and RR intervals were measured. Root mean squares of successive RR intervals (RMSSD) were calculated. Five horses were categorized as sound and 25 horses as lame by the inertial sensor system. No significant differences were detected between sound and lame horses in the ethogram, subjective lameness score, HR, and RMSSD. Overall asymmetry, ethogram, and lameness score had no significant correlation with each other, whereas overall asymmetry and ethogram correlated significantly with HR and RMSSD during certain phases of the ridden exercise. The main limitation of our study was the small number of sound horses detected by the inertial sensor system. The association between gait asymmetry and HRV suggests that the more gait asymmetry a horse shows during trot in-hand, the more pain or discomfort it probably experiences when ridden with a higher intensity. The threshold for lameness used by the inertial sensor system may require further evaluation.(c) 2023 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
  • Halko, Marja-Liisa; Lappalainen, Olli; Sääksvuori, Lauri (2021)
    We investigate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric non-choice data. We employ a machine learning approach to assess whether biometric data acquired during sleep, naturally occurring daily chores and participation in an experi-ment can reveal preferences for competitive and team-based compensation schemes. We find that biometric data acquired using wearable devices enable equally accurate out-of-sample prediction for compensation-scheme choice as gender and performance. Our re-sults demonstrate the feasibility of inferring economic choices from simple biometric data without observing past decisions. However, we find that biometric data recorded in nat-urally occurring environments during daily chores and sleep add little value to out-of-sample predictions. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license ( )
  • Rinne, Juha K. A.; Miri, Seyedsadra; Oksala, Niku; Vehkaoja, Antti; Kössi, Jyrki (2023)
    To evaluate the accuracy of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters obtained with a wrist-worn photoplethysmography (PPG) monitor in patients recovering from minimally invasive colon resection to investigate whether PPG has potential in postoperative patient monitoring. 31 patients were monitored for three days or until discharge or reoperation using a wrist-worn PPG monitor (PulseOn, Finland) with a Holter monitor (Faros 360, Bittium Biosignals, Finland) as a reference measurement device. Beat-to-beat intervals (BBI) and HRV information collected by PPG were compared with RR intervals (RRI) and HRV obtained from the ECG reference after removing artefacts and ectopic beats. The beat-to-beat mean error (ME) and mean absolute error (MAE) of good quality heartbeat intervals obtained by wrist PPG were estimated as - 1.34 ms and 10.4 ms respectively. A significant variation in the accuracy of the HRV parameters was found. In the time domain, SDNN (9.11%), TRI (11.4%) and TINN (11.1%) were estimated with low relative MAE, while RMSSD (34.3%), pNN50 (139%) and NN50 (188%) had higher errors. The logarithmic parameters in the frequency domain (VLF Log, LF Log and HF Log) exhibited the lowest relative error, and for non-linear parameters, SD2 (7.5%), DFA alpha 1 (8.25%) and DFA alpha 2 (4.71%) were calculated much more accurately than SD1 (34.3%). The wrist PPG shows some potential for use in a clinical setting. The accuracy of several HRV parameters analyzed post hoc was found sufficient to be used in further studies concerning postoperative recovery of patients undergoing laparoscopic colon resection, although there were large errors in many common HRV parameters such as RMSSD, pNN50 and NN50, rendering them unusable. Identifier: NCT04996511, August 9, 2021, retrospectively registered
  • Economides, Marcos; Lehrer, Paul; Ranta, Kristian; Nazander, Albert; Hilgert, Outi; Raevuori, Anu; Gevirtz, Richard; Khazan, Inna; Forman‑Hoffman, Valerie L. (2020)
    A rise in the prevalence of depression underscores the need for accessible and effective interventions. The objectives of this study were to determine if the addition of a treatment component showing promise in treating depression, heart rate variability-biofeedback (HRV-B), to our original smartphone-based, 8-week digital intervention was feasible and whether patients in the HRV-B ("enhanced") intervention were more likely to experience clinically significant improvements in depressive symptoms than patients in our original ("standard") intervention. We used a quasi-experimental, non-equivalent (matched) groups design to compare changes in symptoms of depression in the enhanced group (n = 48) to historical outcome data from the standard group (n = 48). Patients in the enhanced group completed a total average of 3.86 h of HRV-B practice across 25.8 sessions, and were more likely to report a clinically significant improvement in depressive symptom score post-intervention than participants in the standard group, even after adjusting for differences in demographics and engagement between groups (adjusted OR 3.44, 95% CI [1.28-9.26], P = .015). Our findings suggest that adding HRV-B to an app-based, smartphone-delivered, remote intervention for depression is feasible and may enhance treatment outcomes.
  • Bernardi, Luciano; Bianchi, Lucio (2016)
    Autonomic dysfunction is a frequent and relevant complication of diabetes mellitus, as it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In addition, it is today considered as predictive of the most severe diabetic complications, like nephropathy and retinopathy. The classical methods of screening are the cardiovascular reflex tests and were originally interpreted as evidence of nerve damage. A more modern approach, based on the integrated control of cardiovascular and respiratory function, reveals that these abnormalities are to a great extent functional, at least in the early stage of the disease, thus suggesting new potential interventions. Therefore, this review aims to go further investigating how the imbalance of the autonomic nervous system is altered and can be influenced in many chronic pathologies through a global view of cardio-respiratory and metabolic interactions and how the same mechanisms are applicable to diabetes.
  • van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Sallinen, Mikael; Virkkala, Jussi; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Hublin, Christer; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Harma, Mikko (2018)
    Purpose Sleep restriction is increasingly common and associated with the development of health problems. We investigated how the neuroendocrine stress systems respond to prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep in healthy young men. Methods After two baseline (BL) nights of 8 h time in bed (TIB), TIB was restricted to 4 h per night for five nights (sleep restriction, SR, n = 15), followed by three recovery nights (REC) of 8 h TIB, representing a busy workweek and a recovery weekend. The control group (n = 8) had 8 h TIB throughout the experiment. A variety of autonomic cardiovascular parameters, together with salivary neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cortisol levels, were assessed. Results In the control group, none of the parameters changed. In the experimental group, heart rate increased from 60 +/- 1.8 beats per minute (bpm) at BL, to 63 +/- 1.1 bpm after SR and further to 65 +/- 1.8 bpm after REC. In addition, whole day low-frequency to-high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of heart rate variability increased from 4.6 +/- 0.4 at BL to 6.0 +/- 0.6 after SR. Other parameters, including salivary NPY and cortisol levels, remained unaffected. Conclusions Increased heart rate and LF/HF power ratio are early signs of an increased sympathetic activity after prolonged sleep restriction. To reliably interpret the clinical significance of these early signs of physiological stress, a follow-up study would be needed to evaluate if the stress responses escalate and lead to more unfavourable reactions, such as elevated blood pressure and a subsequent elevated risk for cardiovascular health problems.
  • Rankanen, Mimmu; Leinikka, Marianne; Groth, Camilla; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Mäkelä, Maarit; Huotilainen, Minna (2022)
    Experimental research on the psychophysiological effects of different art materials and tasks is still scarce. This mixed methods research focused on physiological changes and emotional experiences in drawing and clay forming during the tasks of copying, creating novel designs and free improvisation within fast and slow time-frames. It combined an experimental setting and analysis of 29 participants' physiology with a qualitative content analysis of 18 participants' stimulated recall interviews. The main findings indicate that fast drawing was mentally the most relaxing. This physiological and qualitative evidence supports the therapeutic use of the fast scribbling tasks commonly used in the warm-up phase of art therapy. Furthermore, compared to drawing, clay forming demanded higher mental and physical effort in both timeframes. Interestingly, while physiology did not significantly differ between the tasks, the qualitative analysis revealed that nondirective clay forming stimulated participants' creative ideation and evoked the most positive emotions. This supports the use of nondirective clay tasks to aid in reaching therapeutic goals. The qualitative results also shed light on the unique and contradictory nature of emotional processes that different art materials, tasks and timing can evoke, highlighting the impor-tance of therapists' skills to sensitively tailor matching interventions for different clients.
  • Määttanen, Ilmari; Henttonen, Pentti; Väliaho, Julius; Palomäki, Jussi; Thibault, Maisa; Kallio, Johanna; Mäntyjärvi, Jani; Harviainen, Tatu; Jokela, Markus (2021)
    Personality describes the average behaviour and responses of individuals across situations; but personality traits are often poor predictors of behaviour in specific situations. This is known as the "personality paradox". We evaluated the interrelations between various trait and state variables in participants' everyday lives. As state measures, we used 1) experience sampling methodology (ESM/EMA) to measure perceived affect, stress, and presence of social company; and 2) heart rate variability and 3) real-time movement (accelerometer data) to indicate physiological stress and physical movement. These data were linked with self-report measures of personality and personality-like traits. Trait variables predicted affect states and multiple associations were found: traits neuroticism and rumination decreased positive affect state and increased negative affect state. Positive affect state, in turn, was the strongest predictor of observed movement. Positive affect was also associated with heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV). Negative affect, in turn, was not associated with neither movement, HR or HRV. The study provides evidence on the influence of personality-like traits and social context to affect states, and, in turn, their influence to movement and stress variables.
  • Ojala, Ann; Neuvonen, Marjo; Kurkilahti, Mika; Leinikka, Marianne; Huotilainen, Minna; Tyrvainen, Liisa (2022)
    Knowledge workers need short breaks during their office hours to relieve stress. We examined the benefits of virtually produced nature environments during afternoon breaks. Knowledge workers (n = 39) visited the Virtual Nature Room a total of nine times. During their 15-min break, the volunteers 1) watched a video (of a forest or water environment) on a TV monitor with related nature sounds, 2) listened to nature sounds (without a video), or 3) as a control condition, sat in the quiet room without audio-visual material. The volunteers responded to the psychological measures, and we measured the heart rate variability during the experiment. All breaks indicated stress reduction in some measures. The video with audio sessions increased the felt restoration more than the audio and the control conditions. The mean heart rate was sensitive to detect slight decrease during video conditions over the control. Some unexpected results such as the decrease of positive emotions and energy level during breaks are discussed.
  • Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Järvinen, Suvi; Karhunen, Leila; Föhr, Tiina; Myllymäki, Tero; Sairanen, Essi; Lindroos, Sanni; Peuhkuri, Katri; Hallikainen, Maarit; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Puttonen, Sampsa; Korpela, Riitta; Ermes, Miikka; Lappalainen, Raimo; Kujala, Urho M.; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Laitinen, Jaana (2021)
    Background: Association of physiological recovery with nutrition has scarcely been studied. We investigated whether physiological recovery during sleep relates to eating habits, i.e., eating behaviour and diet quality. Methods: Cross-sectional baseline analysis of psychologically distressed adults with overweight (N = 252) participating in a lifestyle intervention study in three Finnish cities. Recovery measures were based on sleep-time heart rate variability (HRV) measured for 3 consecutive nights. Measures derived from HRV were 1) RMSSD (Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences) indicating the parasympathetic activation of the autonomic nervous system and 2) Stress Balance (SB) indicating the temporal ratio of recovery to stress. Eating behaviour was measured with questionnaires (Intuitive Eating Scale, Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, Health and Taste Attitude Scales, ecSatter Inventory (TM)). Diet quality was quantified using questionnaires (Index of Diet Quality, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test Consumption) and 48-h dietary recall. Results: Participants with best RMSSD reported less intuitive eating (p = 0.019) and less eating for physical rather than emotional reasons (p = 0.010) compared to those with poorest RMSSD; participants with good SB reported less unconditional permission to eat (p = 0.008), higher fibre intake (p = 0.028), higher diet quality (p = 0.001), and lower alcohol consumption (p < 0.001) compared to those with poor SB, although effect sizes were small. In subgroup analyses among participants who reported working regular daytime hours (n = 216), only the associations of SB with diet quality and alcohol consumption remained significant. Conclusions: Better nocturnal recovery showed associations with better diet quality, lower alcohol consumption and possibly lower intuitive eating. In future lifestyle interventions and clinical practice, it is important to acknowledge sleep-time recovery as one possible factor linked with eating habits.
  • Föhr, Tiina; Tolvanen, Asko; Myllymaki, Tero; Järvelä-Reijonen, Elina; Rantala, Sanni; Korpela, Riitta; Peuhkuri, Katri; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Puttonen, Sampsa; Lappalainen, Raimo; Rusko, Heikki; Kujala, Urho M. (2015)
    Background: The present study aimed to investigate how subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective heart rate variability (HRV)-based stress and recovery on workdays. Another aim was to investigate how physical activity (PA), body composition, and age are associated with subjective stress, objective stress, and recovery. Methods: Working-age participants (n = 221; 185 women, 36 men) in this cross-sectional study were overweight (body mass index, 25.3-40.1 kg/m(2)) and psychologically distressed (>= 3/12 points on the General Health Questionnaire). Objective stress and recovery were based on HRV recordings over 1-3 workdays. Subjective stress was assessed by the Perceived Stress Scale. PA level was determined by questionnaire, and body fat percentage was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Results: Subjective stress was directly associated with objective stress (P = 0.047) and inversely with objective recovery (P = 0.046). These associations persisted after adjustments for sex, age, PA, and body fat percentage. Higher PA was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.037). Older age was associated with higher objective stress (P <0.001). After further adjustment for alcohol consumption and regular medication, older age was associated with lower subjective stress (P = 0.043). Conclusions: The present results suggest that subjective self-reported stress is associated with objective physiological stress, but they are also apparently affected by different factors. However, some of the found associations among these overweight and psychologically distressed participants with low inter-individual variation in PA are rather weak and the clinical value of the present findings should be studied further among participants with greater heterogeneity of stress, PA and body composition. However, these findings suggest that objective stress assessment provides an additional aspect to stress evaluation. Furthermore, the results provide valuable information for developing stress assessment methods.