Browsing by Subject "Heavy Ion Experiments"

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Now showing items 1-20 of 23
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Measurements of elliptic (v(2)) and triangular (v(3)) flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, p+(p) over bar, K-S(0), and Lambda+(Lambda) over bar obtained with the scalar product method in Xe-Xe collisions at root sNN = 5.44TeV are presented. The results are obtained in the rapidity range |y| < 0.5 and reported as a function of transverse momentum, p(T), for several collision centrality classes. The flow coefficients exhibit a particle mass dependence for pT < 3 GeV/c, while a grouping according to particle type (i.e., meson and baryon) is found at intermediate transverse momenta (3 < p(T) < 8 GeV/c). The magnitude of the baryon v(2) is larger than that of mesons up to pT = 6 GeV/c. The centrality dependence of the shape evolution of the p(T)-differential v(2) is studied for the various hadron species. The v(2) coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, and p+(p) over bar are reproduced by MUSIC hydrodynamic calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD) for p(T) < 1 GeV/c. A comparison with vn measurements in the corresponding centrality intervals in Pb-Pb collisions at root sNN = 5.02TeV yields an enhanced v(2) in central collisions and diminished value in semicentral collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The elliptic (v(2)), triangular (v(3)), and quadrangular (v(4)) flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/-, p + (p) over bar, Lambda + (Lambda) over bar, K-S(0)), and the phi-meson are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 5.02 TeV. Results obtained with the scalar product method are reported for the rapidity range vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5 as a function of transverse momentum, P-T, at different collision centrality intervals between 0-70%, including ultra-central (0-1%) collisions for pi(+/-), K-+/-, and p + (p) over bar. For P-T < 3 GeV/c, the flow coefficients exhibit a particle mass dependence. At intermediate transverse momenta (3 < p(T) < 8-10 GeV/c), particles show an approximate grouping according to their type (i.e., mesons and baryons). The phi-meson v(2), which tests both particle mass dependence and type scaling, follows p + <(p)over bar> v(2) at low P-T and pi(+/-) v(2) at intermediate p(T). The evolution of the shape of v(n) (p(T)) as a function of centrality and harmonic number n is studied for the various particle species. Flow coefficients of pi(+/-), K-+/- , and p + (p) over bar for p(T) < 3 GeV/c are compared to iEBE-VISHNU and MUSIC hydrodynamical calculations coupled to a hadronic cascade model (UrQMD). The iEBE-VISHNU calculations describe the results fairly well for P-T < 2.5 GeV/c, while MUSIC calculations reproduce the measurements for p(T) < 1 GeV/c. A comparison to vn coefficients measured in Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-s = 2.76 TeV is also provided.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    The elliptic flow of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.7) is measured in Pb-Pb collisions at TeV with ALICE at the LHC. The particle azimuthal distribution with respect to the reaction plane can be parametrized with a Fourier expansion, where the second coefficient (v (2)) represents the elliptic flow. The v (2) coefficient of inclusive electrons is measured in three centrality classes (0-10%, 10-20% and 20-40%) with the event plane and the scalar product methods in the transverse momentum (p (T)) intervals 0.5-13 GeV/c and 0.5-8 GeV/c, respectively. After subtracting the background, mainly from photon conversions and Dalitz decays of neutral mesons, a positive v (2) of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays is observed in all centrality classes, with a maximum significance of 5.9 sigma in the interval 2 <p (T) <2.5 GeV/c in semi-central collisions (20-40%). The value of v (2) decreases towards more central collisions at low and intermediate p (T) (0.5 <p (T) <3 GeV/c). The v (2) of electrons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at mid-rapidity is found to be similar to the one of muons from heavy-flavour hadron decays at forward rapidity (2.5 <y <4). The results are described within uncertainties by model calculations including substantial elastic interactions of heavy quarks with an expanding strongly-interacting medium.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    Measurements of anisotropic flow coefficients with two-and multi-particle cumulants for inclusive charged particles in Pb{Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5 : 02 and 2.76TeV are reported in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta vertical bar <0 : 8 and transverse momentum 0 : 2 <p(T) <50 GeV/c. The full data sample collected by the ALICE detector in 2015 (2010), corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 12.7 (2.0) mu b(-1) in the centrality range 0{80%, is analysed. Flow coefficients up to the sixth flow harmonic (v6) are reported and a detailed comparison among results at the two energies is carried out. The pT dependence of anisotropic flow coefficients and its evolution with respect to centrality and harmonic number n are investigated. An approximate power-law scaling of the form v(n) (p(T)) similar to p(T)(n/3) is observed for all flow harmonics at low p(T) (0.2 <p(T) <3 GeV/c). At the same time, the ratios v(n)/v(m)(n/m) are observed to be essentially independent of pT for most centralities up to about pT = 10 GeV/c. Analysing the di ff erences among higher-order cumulants of elliptic flow (v(2)), which have di ff erent sensitivities to flow fluctuations, a measurement of the standardised skewness of the event-by-event v(2) distribution P (v(2)) is reported and constraints on its higher moments are provided. The Elliptic Power distribution is used to parametrise P (v(2)), extracting its parameters from fi ts to cumulants. The measurements are compared to di ff erent model predictions in order to discriminate among initial-state models and to constrain the temperature dependence of the shear viscosity to entropy-density ratio.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J.; Yoon, J. H.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, Y. (2019)
    Two-particle correlations in high-energy collision experiments enable the extraction of particle source radii by using the Bose-Einstein enhancement of pion production at low relative momentum q proportional to 1/R. It was previously observed that in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV the average pair transverse momentum k(T) range of such analyses is limited due to large background correlations which were attributed to mini-jet phenomena. To investigate this further, an event-shape dependent analysis of Bose-Einstein correlations for pion pairs is performed in this work. By categorizing the events by their transverse sphericity S-T into spherical (S-T > 0.7) and jet-like (S-T <0.3) events a method was developed that allows for the determination of source radii for much larger values of k(T) for the first time. Spherical events demonstrate little or no background correlations while jet-like events are dominated by them. This observation agrees with the hypothesis of a mini-jet origin of the non-femtoscopic background correlations and gives new insight into the physics interpretation of the k(T) dependence of the radii. The emission source size in spherical events shows a substantially diminished k(T) dependence, while jet-like events show indications of a negative trend with respect to k(T) in the highest multiplicity events. Regarding the emission source shape, the correlation functions for both event sphericity classes show good agreement with an exponential shape, rather than a Gaussian one.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    The study of (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions has proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the formation mechanism of loosely bound states in high-energy hadronic collisions. In this paper the production of (anti-)deuterons is studied as a function of the charged particle multiplicity in inelastic pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV using the ALICE experiment. Thanks to the large number of accumulated minimum bias events, it has been possible to measure (anti-)deuteron production in pp collisions up to the same charged particle multiplicity (dN(ch)/d eta similar to 26) as measured in p-Pb collisions at similar centre-of-mass energies. Within the uncertainties, the deuteron yield in pp collisions resembles the one in p-Pb interactions, suggesting a common formation mechanism behind the production of light nuclei in hadronic interactions. In this context the measurements are compared with the expectations of coalescence and statistical hadronisation models (SHM).
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    Inclusive J/psi production is studied in p-Pb interactions at a centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon collision root s(NN) = 8.16 TeV, using the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The J/psi meson is reconstructed, via its decay to a muon pair, in the centreof-mass rapidity intervals 2.03 < Y-cms < 3.53 and -4.46 < Y-cms < -2.96, where positive and negative Y(cms )refer to the p-going and Pb-going direction, respectively. The transverse momentum coverage is PT < 20 GeV/c. In this paper, Y-cms- and P-T-differential cross sections for inclusive J/psi production are presented, and the corresponding nuclear modification factors R-pPb are shown. Forward results show a suppression of the J/psi yield with respect to pp collisions, concentrated in the region P-T less than or similar to 5 GeV/c. At backward rapidity no significant suppression is observed. The results are compared to previous measurements by ALICE in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV and to theoretical calculations. Finally, the ratios R-FB between forward- and backward-Y-cms R-pPb values are shown and discussed.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2022)
    A measurement of inclusive, prompt, and non-prompt J/psi production in p-Pb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV is presented. The inclusive J/psi mesons are reconstructed in the dielectron decay channel at midrapidity down to a transverse momentum p(T) = 0. The inclusive J/psi nuclear modification factor R-pPb is calculated by comparing the new results in p-Pb collisions to a recently measured proton-proton reference at the same centre-of-mass energy. Non-prompt J/psi mesons, which originate from the decay of beauty hadrons, are separated from promptly produced J/psi on a statistical basis for p(T) larger than 1.0 GeV/c. These results are based on the data sample collected by the ALICE detector during the 2016 LHC p-Pb run, corresponding to an integrated luminosity L-int = 292 +/- 11 mu b(-1), which is six times larger than the previous publications. The total uncertainty on the P-T-integrated inclusive J/psi and non-prompt J/psi cross section are reduced by a factor 1.7 and 2.2, respectively. The measured cross sections and R-pPb are compared with theoretical models that include various combinations of cold nuclear matter effects. From the non-prompt J/psi production cross section, the b (b) over bar production cross section at midrapidity, d sigma(b (b) over bar)/dy, and the total cross section extrapolated over full phase space sigma(b (b) over bar) are derived.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, B.S.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, Jan; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, Tomas; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Jet fragmentation transverse momentum (j(T)) distributions are measured in proton-proton (pp) and proton-lead (p-Pb) collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE experiment at the LHC. Jets are reconstructed with the ALICE tracking detectors and electromagnetic calorimeter using the anti-k(T) algorithm with resolution parameter R = 0.4 in the pseudorapidity range vertical bar eta vertical bar < 0.25. The j(T) values are calculated for charged particles inside a fixed cone with a radius R = 0.4 around the reconstructed jet axis. The measured j(T) distributions are compared with a variety of parton-shower models. Herwig and PYTHIA 8 based models describe the data well for the higher j(T) region, while they underestimate the lower j(T) region. The j(T) distributions are further characterised by fitting them with a function composed of an inverse gamma function for higher j(T) values (called the "wide component"), related to the perturbative component of the fragmentation process, and with a Gaussian for lower j(T) values (called the "narrow component"), predominantly connected to the hadronisation process. The width of the Gaussian has only a weak dependence on jet transverse momentum, while that of the inverse gamma function increases with increasing jet transverse momentum. For the narrow component, the measured trends are successfully described by all models except for Herwig. For the wide component, Herwig and PYTHIA 8 based models slightly underestimate the data for the higher jet transverse momentum region. These measurements set constraints on models of jet fragmentation and hadronisation.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    Modifications of the properties of jets in PbPb collisions, relative to those in pp collisions, are studied at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of,root S-NN = 5.02 TeV via correlations of charged particles with the jet axis in relative pseudorapidity (Delta eta), relative azimuth (Delta phi), and relative angular distance from the jet axis Delta r = root(Delta eta)(2) + (Delta phi)(2). This analysis uses data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 404 mu b(-1) and 27.4 pb(-1) for PbPb and pp collisions, respectively. Charged particle number densities, jet fragmentation functions, and jet shapes are presented as a function of PbPb collision centrality and charged-particle track transverse momentum, providing a differential description of jet modifications due to interactions with the quark gluon plasma.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    The p(T)-differential production cross section of prompt Lambda(+)(c) charmed baryons was measured with the ALICE detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV and in p-Pb collisions at root s(NN) = 5.02 TeV at midrapidity. The Lambda(+)(c) and (Lambda) over bar (-)(c) were reconstructed in the hadronic decay modes Lambda(+)(c) -> pK(-)pi(+), Lambda(+)(c)-> pK(S)(0)) and in the semileptonic channel Lambda(+ )(c)-> e(+)nu(e)Lambda (and charge conjugates). The measured values of the Lambda(+)(c)/D-0 ratio, which is sensitive to the c-quark hadronisation mechanism, and in particular to the production of baryons, are presented and are larger than those measured previously in different colliding systems, centre-of-mass energies, rapidity and p(T) intervals, where the Lambda(+)(c) production process may differ. The results are compared with the expectations obtained from perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics calculations and Monte Carlo event generators. Neither perturbative QCD calculations nor Monte Carlo models reproduce the data, indicating that the fragmentation of heavy-flavour baryons is not well understood. The first measurement at the LHC of the Lambda(+)(c) nuclear modification factor, R-ppb, is also presented. The R-ppb is found to be consistent with unity and with that of D mesons within the uncertainties, and consistent with a theoretical calculation that includes cold nuclear matter effects and a calculation that includes charm quark interactions with a deconfined medium.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Two-particle angular correlations are measured in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at = 13 TeV by the ALICE Collaboration. The yields of particle pairs at short-(eta similar to 0) and long-range (1.6 < || < 1.8) in pseudorapidity are extracted on the near-side ( 0). They are reported as a function of transverse momentum (p(T)) in the range 1 < p(T)< 4 GeV/c. Furthermore, the event-scale dependence is studied for the first time by requiring the presence of high-p(T) leading particles or jets for varying p(T) thresholds. The results demonstrate that the long-range "ridge" yield, possibly related to the collective behavior of the system, is present in events with high-p(T) processes as well. The magnitudes of the short- and long-range yields are found to grow with the event scale. The results are compared to EPOS LHC and PYTHIA 8 calculations, with and without string-shoving interactions. It is found that while both models describe the qualitative trends in the data, calculations from EPOS LHC show a better quantitative agreement for the p(T) dependency, while overestimating the event-scale dependency.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    We report measurements of the production of prompt D-0, D+, D*+ and D TeV. For D mesons, the values of R-AA are larger than those of non-strange D mesons, but compatible within uncertainties. In central collisions the average R-AA of non-strange D mesons is compatible with that of charged particles for p 8 GeV/c, while it is larger at lower p(T). The nuclear modification factors for strange and non-strange D mesons are also compared to theoretical models with different implementations of in-medium energy loss.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; The ALICE collaboration (2016)
    The measurement of prompt D-meson production as a function of multiplicity in p-Pb collisions at TeV with the ALICE detector at root s(NN) the LHC is reported. D-0, D+ and Dau+ mesons are reconstructed via their hadronic decay channels in the centre-of-mass rapidity range -0.96 <y(cms) <0.04 and transverse momentum interval 1 <p(T) <24 GeV/c. The multiplicity dependence of D-meson production is examined by either comparing yields in p-Pb collisions in different event classes, selected based on the multiplicity of produced particles or zero-degree energy, with those in pp collisions, scaled by the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions (nuclear modification factor); as well as by evaluating the per-event yields in p-Pb collisions in different multiplicity intervals normalised to the multiplicity-integrated ones (relative yields). The nuclear modification factors for D-0, D+ and D*(+) are consistent with one another. The D-meson nuclear modification factors as a function of the zero-degree energy are consistent with unity within uncertainties in the measured p(T) regions and event classes. The relative D-meson yields, calculated in various p(T) intervals, increase as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity. The results are compared with the equivalent pp measurements at root s = 7 TeV as well as with EPOS 3 calculations.
  • Adam, J.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The production of beauty hadrons was measured via semi-leptonic decays at mid-rapidity with the ALICE detector at the LHC in the transverse momentum interval 1 <PT <8 GeV/c in minimum-bias p-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 5.02 TeV and in 1.3 <PT <8 GeV/c in the 20% most central Pb-Pb collisions at root(NN)-N-S = 2.76 TeV. The pp reference spectra at root s = 5.02 TeV and root s = 2.76 TeV, needed for the calculation of the nuclear modification factors RpPb and R-PbPb, were obtained by a pQCD-driven scaling of the cross section of electrons from beauty-hadron decays measured at root s = 7 TeV. In the PT interval 3 <PT <8 GeV/c, a suppression of the yield of electrons from beauty-hadron decays is observed in Pb-Pb compared to pp collisions. Towards lower PT, the R-PbPb values increase with large systematic uncertainties. The R-ppb is consistent with unity within systematic uncertainties and is well described by theoretical calculations that include cold nuclear matter effects in p-Pb collisions. The measured R-pPb and these calculations indicate that cold nuclear matter effects are small at high transverse momentum also in Pb-Pb collisions. Therefore, the observed reduction of R-PbPb below unity at high PT may be ascribed to an effect of the hot and dense medium formed in Pb-Pb collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    The transverse momentum (p(T)) differential cross section of the charm-strange baryon Xi(0)(c) is measured at midrapidity (vertical bar y vertical bar < 0.5) via its semileptonic decay into e(+)Xi(-)nu(e) in pp collisions at root s = 5.02TeV with the ALICE detector at the LHC. The ratio of the p(T)-differential Xi(0)(c)-baryon and D-0-meson production cross sections is also reported. The measurements are compared with simulations with different tunes of the PYTHIA 8 event generator, with predictions from a statistical hadronisation model (SHM) with a largely augmented set of charm-baryon states beyond the current lists of the Particle Data Group, and with models including hadronisation via quark coalescence. The pT-integrated cross section of prompt Xi(0)(c)-baryon production at midrapidity is also reported, which is used to calculate the baryon-to-meson ratio Xi(0)(c)/D-0 = 0.20 +/- 0.04 (stat.)(-0.07)(+0.08) (syst.). These results provide an additional indication of a modification of the charm fragmentation from e(+) e(-) and e-p collisions to pp collisions.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2018)
    Transverse-momentum (p(T)) differential yields of electrons from semileptonic heavy-flavour hadron decays have been measured in the most central (0-10%) and in semi-central (20-40%) Pb-Pb collisions at TeV. The corresponding production cross section in pp collisions has been measured at the same energy with substantially reduced systematic uncertainties with respect to previously published results. The modification of the yield in Pb-Pb collisions with respect to the expectation from an incoherent superposition of nucleon-nucleon collisions is quantified at mid-rapidity (|y| <0.8) in the p(T) interval 0.5-3 GeV/c via the nuclear modification factor, R-AA. This paper extends the p(T) reach of the R-AA measurement towards significantly lower values with respect to a previous publication. In Pb-Pb collisions the p(T)-differential measurements of yields at low p(T) are essential to investigate the scaling of heavy-flavour production with the number of binary nucleon-nucleon collisions. Heavy-quark hadronization, a collective expansion and even initial-state effects, such as the nuclear modification of the Parton Distribution Function, are also expected to have a significant effect on the measured distribution.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Molander, Mikael Andreas; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, A.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2022)
    The jet angularities are a class of jet substructure observables which characterize the angular and momentum distribution of particles within jets. These observables are sensitive to momentum scales ranging from perturbative hard scatterings to nonperturbative fragmentation into final-state hadrons. We report measurements of several groomed and ungroomed jet angularities in pp collisions at root s = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector. Jets are reconstructed using charged particle tracks at midrapidity (vertical bar eta vertical bar< 0.9). The anti-k(T) algorithm is used with jet resolution parameters R = 0.2 and R = 0.4 for several transverse momentum p(T)(ch jet) intervals in the 20-100 GeV/c range. Using the jet grooming algorithm Soft Drop, the sensitivity to softer, wide-angle processes, as well as the underlying event, can be reduced in a way which is well-controlled in theoretical calculations. We report the ungroomed jet angularities, lambda(alpha), and groomed jet angularities, lambda(alpha,g), to investigate the interplay between perturbative and nonperturbative effects at low jet momenta. Various angular exponent parameters alpha = 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 are used to systematically vary the sensitivity of the observable to collinear and soft radiation. Results are compared to analytical predictions at next-to-leading-logarithmic accuracy, which provide a generally good description of the data in the perturbative regime but exhibit discrepancies in the nonperturbative regime. Moreover, these measurements serve as a baseline for future ones in heavy-ion collisions by providing new insight into the interplay between perturbative and nonperturbative effects in the angular and momentum substructure of jets. They supply crucial guidance on the selection of jet resolution parameter, jet transverse momentum, and angular scaling variable for jet quenching studies.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Rytkonen, H.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; Zhou, Z. (2019)
    Production cross sections of muons from semi-leptonic decays of charm and beauty hadrons were measured at forward rapidity (2.5 <y <4) in proton-proton (pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy root s = 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN LHC. The results were obtained in an extended transverse momentum interval, 2 <p(T)<20 GeV/c, and with an improved precision compared to previous measurements performed in the same rapidity interval at centre-of-mass energies root s = 2.76 and 7 TeV. The p(T)- and y-differential production cross sections as well as the p(T)-differential production cross section ratios between different centre-of-mass energies and different rapidity intervals are described, within experimental and theoretical uncertainties, by predictions based on perturbative QCD.
  • Acharya, S.; Brucken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Viinikainen, J.; The ALICE collaboration (2017)
    The measurement of azimuthal correlations of charged particles is presented for Pb-Pb collisions at root S-NN 2.76 TeV and p-Pb collisions at root S-NN 5.02 TeV with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. These correlations are measured for the second, third and fourth order flow vector in the pseudorapidity region vertical bar eta vertical bar 0.8 as a function of centrality and transverse momentum pT using two observables, to search for evidence of PT-dependent flow vector fluctuations. For Ph-Ph collisions at 2.76 TeV, the measurements indicate that PT-dependent fluctuations are only present for the second order flow vector. Similar results have been found for p-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV. These measurements are compared to hydrodynamic model calculations with event-by-event geometry fluctuations in the initial state to constrain the initial conditions and transport properties of the matter created in Ph-Ph and p-Pb collisions.