Browsing by Subject "Hemorrhagic stroke"

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  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003–2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p < 0.05). Discussion In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • FinnDiane Study Grp; Hägg-Holmberg, Stefanie; Dahlström, Emma H.; Forsblom, Carol M.; Harjutsalo, Valma; Liebkind, Ron; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik; Thorn, Lena M. (2019)
    Background: Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke in the general population, while systolic blood pressure has been shown to independently increase the risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between different blood pressure variables and risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes, and to explore potential nonlinearity of this relationship. Methods: We included 4105 individuals with type 1 diabetes without stroke at baseline, participating in the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age at baseline was 37.411.9years, median duration of diabetes 20.9 (interquartile range 11.5-30.4) years, and 52% were men. Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Based on these pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Strokes were classified based on medical and autopsy records, as well as neuroimaging. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to study how the different blood pressure variables affected the risk of stroke and its subtypes.ResultsDuring median follow-up time of 11.9 (9.21-13.9) years, 202 (5%) individuals suffered an incident stroke; 145 (72%) were ischemic and 57 (28%) hemorrhagic. SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP all independently increased the risk of any stroke. SBP, PP, and MAP increased the risk of ischemic stroke, while SBP, DBP, and MAP increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. SBP was strongly associated with stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (1.11-1.29)/10mmHg. When variables were modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of stroke increased linearly for SBP, MAP, and PP, and non-linearly for DBP. Conclusions: The different blood pressure variables are all independently associated with increased risk of stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The risk of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke increases linearly at blood pressure levels less than the current recommended treatment guidelines.
  • Hägg-Holmberg, Stefanie; Dahlström, Emma H; Forsblom, Carol M; Harjutsalo, Valma; Liebkind, Ron; Putaala, Jukka; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Groop, Per-Henrik; Thorn, Lena M (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Hypertension is one of the strongest risk factors for stroke in the general population, while systolic blood pressure has been shown to independently increase the risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the association between different blood pressure variables and risk of stroke in type 1 diabetes, and to explore potential nonlinearity of this relationship. Methods We included 4105 individuals with type 1 diabetes without stroke at baseline, participating in the nationwide Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Mean age at baseline was 37.4 ± 11.9 years, median duration of diabetes 20.9 (interquartile range 11.5–30.4) years, and 52% were men. Office systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured. Based on these pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were calculated. Strokes were classified based on medical and autopsy records, as well as neuroimaging. Cox proportional hazard models were performed to study how the different blood pressure variables affected the risk of stroke and its subtypes. Results During median follow-up time of 11.9 (9.21–13.9) years, 202 (5%) individuals suffered an incident stroke; 145 (72%) were ischemic and 57 (28%) hemorrhagic. SBP, DBP, PP, and MAP all independently increased the risk of any stroke. SBP, PP, and MAP increased the risk of ischemic stroke, while SBP, DBP, and MAP increased the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. SBP was strongly associated with stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.20 (1.11–1.29)/10 mmHg. When variables were modeled using restricted cubic splines, the risk of stroke increased linearly for SBP, MAP, and PP, and non-linearly for DBP. Conclusions The different blood pressure variables are all independently associated with increased risk of stroke in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The risk of stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke increases linearly at blood pressure levels less than the current recommended treatment guidelines.