Browsing by Subject "High-throughput drug screening"

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  • Facciotto, Chiara; Casado, Julia; Turunen, Laura; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Tumiati, Manuela; Rantanen, Ville; Kauppi, Liisa; Lehtonen, Rainer; Leppä, Sirpa; Wennerberg, Krister; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (2019)
    Background The epigenome plays a key role in cancer heterogeneity and drug resistance. Hence, a number of epigenetic inhibitors have been developed and tested in cancers. The major focus of most studies so far has been on the cytotoxic effect of these compounds, and only few have investigated the ability to revert the resistant phenotype in cancer cells. Hence, there is a need for a systematic methodology to unravel the mechanisms behind epigenetic sensitization. Results We have developed a high-throughput protocol to screen non-simultaneous drug combinations, and used it to investigate the reprogramming potential of epigenetic inhibitors. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our protocol by screening 60 epigenetic compounds on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. We identified several histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitors that acted synergistically with doxorubicin and rituximab. These two classes of epigenetic inhibitors achieved sensitization by disrupting DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptotic signaling. The data used to perform these analyses are easily browsable through our Results Explorer. Additionally, we showed that these inhibitors achieve sensitization at lower doses than those required to induce cytotoxicity. Conclusions Our drug screening approach provides a systematic framework to test non-simultaneous drug combinations. This methodology identified HDAC and HMT inhibitors as successful sensitizing compounds in treatment-resistant DLBCL. Further investigation into the mechanisms behind successful epigenetic sensitization highlighted DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis as the most dysregulated pathways. Altogether, our method adds supporting evidence in the use of epigenetic inhibitors as sensitizing agents in clinical settings.
  • Facciotto, Chiara; Casado, Julia; Turunen, Laura; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Tumiati, Manuela; Rantanen, Ville; Kauppi, Liisa; Lehtonen, Rainer; Leppä, Sirpa; Wennerberg, Krister; Hautaniemi, Sampsa (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The epigenome plays a key role in cancer heterogeneity and drug resistance. Hence, a number of epigenetic inhibitors have been developed and tested in cancers. The major focus of most studies so far has been on the cytotoxic effect of these compounds, and only few have investigated the ability to revert the resistant phenotype in cancer cells. Hence, there is a need for a systematic methodology to unravel the mechanisms behind epigenetic sensitization. Results We have developed a high-throughput protocol to screen non-simultaneous drug combinations, and used it to investigate the reprogramming potential of epigenetic inhibitors. We demonstrated the effectiveness of our protocol by screening 60 epigenetic compounds on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells. We identified several histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone methyltransferase (HMT) inhibitors that acted synergistically with doxorubicin and rituximab. These two classes of epigenetic inhibitors achieved sensitization by disrupting DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptotic signaling. The data used to perform these analyses are easily browsable through our Results Explorer. Additionally, we showed that these inhibitors achieve sensitization at lower doses than those required to induce cytotoxicity. Conclusions Our drug screening approach provides a systematic framework to test non-simultaneous drug combinations. This methodology identified HDAC and HMT inhibitors as successful sensitizing compounds in treatment-resistant DLBCL. Further investigation into the mechanisms behind successful epigenetic sensitization highlighted DNA repair, cell cycle, and apoptosis as the most dysregulated pathways. Altogether, our method adds supporting evidence in the use of epigenetic inhibitors as sensitizing agents in clinical settings.
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Brynjulvsen, Marit; Sandberg, Cecilie J; Potdar, Swapnil; Langmoen, Iver A; Laakso, Aki; Gaál-Paavola, Emília; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Despite the well described heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM), treatment is standardized, and clinical trials investigate treatment effects at population level. Genomics-driven oncology for stratified treatments allow clinical decision making in only a small minority of screened patients. Addressing tumor heterogeneity, we aimed to establish a clinical translational protocol in recurrent GBM (recGBM) utilizing autologous glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) cultures and automated high-throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) for individualized treatment within the time available for clinical application. RESULTS: From ten patients undergoing surgery for recGBM, we established individual cell cultures and characterized the GSCs by functional assays. 7/10 GSC cultures could be serially expanded. The individual GSCs displayed intertumoral differences in their proliferative capacity, expression of stem cell markers and variation in their in vitro and in vivo morphology. We defined a time frame of 10 weeks from surgery to complete the entire pre-clinical work-up; establish individualized GSC cultures, evaluate drug sensitivity patterns of 525 anticancer drugs, and identify options for individualized treatment. Within the time frame for clinical translation 5/7 cultures reached sufficient cell yield for complete drug screening. The DSRT revealed significant intertumoral heterogeneity to anticancer drugs (p 
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Brynjulvsen, Marit; Sandberg, Cecilie J; Potdar, Swapnil; Langmoen, Iver A; Laakso, Aki; Gaál-Paavola, Emília; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O (Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2019)
    Abstract Background Despite the well described heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM), treatment is standardized, and clinical trials investigate treatment effects at population level. Genomics-driven oncology for stratified treatments allow clinical decision making in only a small minority of screened patients. Addressing tumor heterogeneity, we aimed to establish a clinical translational protocol in recurrent GBM (recGBM) utilizing autologous glioblastoma stem cell (GSC) cultures and automated high-throughput drug sensitivity and resistance testing (DSRT) for individualized treatment within the time available for clinical application. Results From ten patients undergoing surgery for recGBM, we established individual cell cultures and characterized the GSCs by functional assays. 7/10 GSC cultures could be serially expanded. The individual GSCs displayed intertumoral differences in their proliferative capacity, expression of stem cell markers and variation in their in vitro and in vivo morphology. We defined a time frame of 10 weeks from surgery to complete the entire pre-clinical work-up; establish individualized GSC cultures, evaluate drug sensitivity patterns of 525 anticancer drugs, and identify options for individualized treatment. Within the time frame for clinical translation 5/7 cultures reached sufficient cell yield for complete drug screening. The DSRT revealed significant intertumoral heterogeneity to anticancer drugs (p < 0.0001). Using curated reference databases of drug sensitivity in GBM and healthy bone marrow cells, we identified individualized treatment options in all patients. Individualized treatment options could be selected from FDA-approved drugs from a variety of different drug classes in all cases. Conclusions In recGBM, GSC cultures could successfully be established in the majority of patients. The individual cultures displayed intertumoral heterogeneity in their in vitro and in vivo behavior. Within a time frame for clinical application, we could perform DSRT in 50% of recGBM patients. The DSRT revealed a remarkable intertumoral heterogeneity in sensitivity to anticancer drugs in recGBM that could allow tailored therapeutic options for functional precision medicine.
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Fayzullin, Artem; Sandberg, Cecilie J.; Potdar, Swapnil; Kyttälä, Aija; Langmoen, Iver A.; Laakso, Aki; Gaal-Paavola, Emilia; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O. (2019)
    BackgroundA major barrier to effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is the large intertumoral heterogeneity at the genetic and cellular level. In early phase clinical trials, patient heterogeneity in response to therapy is commonly observed; however, how tumor heterogeneity is reflected in individual drug sensitivities in the treatment-naive glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) is unclear.MethodsWe cultured 12 patient-derived primary GBMs as tumorspheres and validated tumor stem cell properties by functional assays. Using automated high-throughput screening (HTS), we evaluated sensitivity to 461 anticancer drugs in a collection covering most FDA-approved anticancer drugs and investigational compounds with a broad range of molecular targets. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation.ResultsAlthough tumor stem cell properties were confirmed in GSC cultures, their in vitro and in vivo morphology and behavior displayed considerable tumor-to-tumor variability. Drug screening revealed significant differences in the sensitivity to anticancer drugs (p
  • Skaga, Erlend; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Fayzullin, Artem; Sandberg, Cecilie J; Potdar, Swapnil; Kyttälä, Aija; Langmoen, Iver A; Laakso, Aki; Gaál-Paavola, Emília; Perola, Markus; Wennerberg, Krister; Vik-Mo, Einar O (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background A major barrier to effective treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is the large intertumoral heterogeneity at the genetic and cellular level. In early phase clinical trials, patient heterogeneity in response to therapy is commonly observed; however, how tumor heterogeneity is reflected in individual drug sensitivities in the treatment-naïve glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) is unclear. Methods We cultured 12 patient-derived primary GBMs as tumorspheres and validated tumor stem cell properties by functional assays. Using automated high-throughput screening (HTS), we evaluated sensitivity to 461 anticancer drugs in a collection covering most FDA-approved anticancer drugs and investigational compounds with a broad range of molecular targets. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way ANOVA and Spearman correlation. Results Although tumor stem cell properties were confirmed in GSC cultures, their in vitro and in vivo morphology and behavior displayed considerable tumor-to-tumor variability. Drug screening revealed significant differences in the sensitivity to anticancer drugs (p < 0.0001). The patient-specific vulnerabilities to anticancer drugs displayed a heterogeneous pattern. They represented a variety of mechanistic drug classes, including apoptotic modulators, conventional chemotherapies, and inhibitors of histone deacetylases, heat shock proteins, proteasomes and different kinases. However, the individual GSC cultures displayed high biological consistency in drug sensitivity patterns within a class of drugs. An independent laboratory confirmed individual drug responses. Conclusions This study demonstrates that patient-derived and treatment-naïve GSC cultures maintain patient-specific traits and display intertumoral heterogeneity in drug sensitivity to anticancer drugs. The heterogeneity in patient-specific drug responses highlights the difficulty in applying targeted treatment strategies at the population level to GBM patients. However, HTS can be applied to uncover patient-specific drug sensitivities for functional precision medicine.