Browsing by Subject "Higher education"

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  • Kokko, Sirpa (2021)
    The purpose of this article is to explore the various approaches to craft studies at higher education institutions. Based on fieldwork observations and document analysis of the curricula of four European and one US university craft study programmes, similarities and differences were found. The similarities concerned the pedagogy to acquire basic skills and the urge to keep up craft traditions. The differences concerned the broader aims of study and the students’ prospective career paths. The following approaches to craft studies in higher education were detected: 1. Educational crafts, 2. Traditional crafts, 3. Critical crafts, 4. Cultural heritage of crafts, and 5. Design-based crafts.
  • Kokko, Sirpa (2021)
    The purpose of this article is to explore the various approaches to craft studies at higher education institutions. Based on fieldwork observations and document analysis of the curricula of four European and one US university craft study programmes, similarities and differences were found. The similarities concerned the pedagogy to acquire basic skills and the urge to keep up craft traditions. The differences concerned the broader aims of study and the students’ prospective career paths. The following approaches to craft studies in higher education were detected: 1. Educational crafts, 2. Traditional crafts, 3. Critical crafts, 4. Cultural heritage of crafts, and 5. Design-based crafts.
  • Muukkonen, Hanni; Lakkala, Minna; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Ilomäki, Liisa; Karlgren, Klas; Toom, Auli (2020)
    The necessity to learn competence for collaborative knowledge work during higher education (HE) is accepted widely, but continued work is required to explicate how to define and assess such competence. In this article, the development and validation of a questionnaire for assessing the development of collaborative knowledge work competence is based on object-bound collaborative knowledge creation practices. In total, 546 students responded to a questionnaire on Collaborative Knowledge Practices (CKP). The data were analysed for measurement invariance for two groups of HE students in media engineering and life sciences. Seven scales of the CKP were found to measure course-related learning of collaboration, integration of personal and collective efforts, development through feedback, persistent development of knowledge objects, understanding of different disciplines and related expertise, interdisciplinary collaboration, and using digital technology. The CKP questionnaire scales can be used as a generic self-evaluation tool for students on course-based learning outcomes.
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Löfström, Erika; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2017)
    The present study aimed to identify difficulties in writing at the beginning of educational science programmes in the Finnish Open University by analysing the students’ written argumentation and use of sources at the textual level. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The results showed that many students began their educational studies with weak writing competencies. While many of the problems were directly related to students’ failure to explain the ideas in their sources in their own words, some problems pertained to other aspects, such as the inability to construct convincing arguments. Understanding the nature of the problems in writing encountered by beginning students in educational sciences can help teachers foster students’ participation in academic discourse.
  • Kauko, Jaakko; Diogo, Sara (2011)
    This article provides a comparative analysis of recent governance reforms in both Finnish and Portuguese higher education institutions (HEIs), following the OECD’s recent reviews of both countries’ tertiary education systems. While in the case of Finland the major problem was identified as being a lack of entrepreneurialism, Portugal was considered to lack effective, strategic higher education planning as well as innovative, flexible and responsive HEIs. The review teams pointed to common issues, despite different country contexts. As they recommended very similar solutions for reforming the legal status of universities, this encouraged national governments to undertake reforms according to their specific needs. By pinpointing problems, the OECD was seen to play an important role in this process and its recommendations proved to be close to the ideas of new public management.
  • Kauko, Jaakko (2013)
    This article presents a model for analysing dynamics in higher education politics (DHEP). Theoretically the model draws on the conceptual history of political contingency, agenda-setting theories and previous research on higher education dynamics. According to the model, socio-historical complexity can best be analysed along two dimensions: the political situation and political possibilities. Politics as a situation connotes the idea of an opportune moment when politics can be changed, and political possibilities concern the different alternatives the actors see in different situations. Depending on whether the situation is favourable or unfavourable to change, and on whether the possibilities are politicised or settled, the DHEP model introduces four types of dynamic: reform, gridlock, consensual change and friction. On the empirical level the model has been tested and developed in the context of Finnish higher education by means of interviews and documentary material. It was found, in the Finnish context, that four policy threads functioned according to each of the dynamics. It appears from the empirical findings that dynamics in higher education politics are strongly related to changes that are external to the higher-education system, the changing positions of the actors in different policy threads and the unexpected nature of the dynamics. The DHEP can also be used to shed light on the effects of the silent, settled possibilities that may enable or disable other policy threads within a higher education system.
  • EuroScitizen; Kuschmierz, Paul; Aivelo, Tuomas; Uitto, Anna E. (2021)
    Background: Investigations of evolution knowledge and acceptance and their relation are central to evolution education research. Ambiguous results in this field of study demonstrate a variety of measuring issues, for instance differently theorized constructs, or a lack of standardized methods, especially for cross-country comparisons. In particular, meaningful comparisons across European countries, with their varying cultural backgrounds and education systems, are rare, often include only few countries, and lack standardization. To address these deficits, we conducted a standardized European survey, on 9200 first-year university students in 26 European countries utilizing a validated, comprehensive questionnaire, the “Evolution Education Questionnaire”, to assess evolution acceptance and knowledge, as well as influencing factors on evolution acceptance. Results: We found that, despite European countries’ different cultural backgrounds and education systems, European first-year university students generally accept evolution. At the same time, they lack substantial knowledge about it, even if they are enrolled in a biology-related study program. Additionally, we developed a multilevel-model that determines religious faith as the main influencing factor in accepting evolution. According to our model, knowledge about evolution and interest in biological topics also increase acceptance of evolution, but to a much lesser extent than religious faith. The effect of age and sex, as well as the country’s affiliation, students’ denomination, and whether or not a student is enrolled in a biology-related university program, is negligible. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that, despite all their differences, most of the European education systems for upper secondary education lead to acceptance of evolution at least in university students. It appears that, at least in this sample, the differences in knowledge between countries reflect neither the extent to which school curricula cover evolutionary biology nor the percentage of biology-related students in the country samples. Future studies should investigate the role of different European school curricula, identify particularly problematic or underrepresented evolutionary concepts in biology education, and analyze the role of religious faith when teaching evolution.
  • Mendoza, Laura; Lehtonen, Tuula; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari; Hyytinen, Heidi (2022)
    This qualitative study analyzes first-year university students' conceptions of their second language (L2) self-concept and self-efficacy for academic writing in English. The data consist of learning journals (N = 74), collected at a Finnish university in an English as a medium of instruction (EMI) context. L2 self-concept descriptions included positive, mixed, and negative ends of the continuum as well as stories of change. These descriptions encompassed various contextual mentions including grades, the current EMI context, and social comparison. The self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing reflected a stage of change among the students. The students reporting more positive, emerging self-efficacy described sensations of familiarity with academic writing. In turn, the students reporting low self-efficacy emphasized that academic writing was new and that they needed more guidance and feedback. An analysis of how the L2 self-concept conceptions and self-efficacy beliefs for academic writing co-occurred on an individual level revealed further variation among this group. Nevertheless, the negative L2 self-concept conceptions seemed to co-occur more with low self-efficacy for academic writing. Furthermore, the findings suggest that positive L2 self-concept conceptions may be of help when building self efficacy for academic writing in English. The implications are discussed on theoretical and pedagogical levels.
  • Sandström, Niclas; Nevgi, Anne (2020)
    This paper took a pedagogical campus developer’s look into a campus retrofitting process. The paper presents a case study of a major Finnish research-intensive university. The data consist of semi-structured interviews of information-rich key stakeholders identified using snowball sampling method. The findings suggest that co-design should be followed through the whole retrofitting process with sufficient communications between stakeholders. The study introduces the concept of learning landscape reliability, putting digital age basic needs in the centre of learning landscape usability.
  • Erjansola, Ari-Matti; Lipponen, Jukka; Vehkalahti, Kimmo; Aula, Hanna-Mari; Pirttila-Backman, Anna-Maija (2021)
    Brand logos are a fundamental part of the corporate visual identity, and their reception has been vigorously researched. The focus has been on the visual traits of the logo and their effect on the reception process, whereas little attention has been paid to how the logo becomes part of the brand. This article narrows this research gap in investigating how a new logo is evaluated, how the perception evolves, and what underlying dimensions emerge from the reception process. We adopted a longitudinal free-association approach and followed the qualitative and quantitative changes in logo associations among first-year students at Aalto University as it was going through a merger accompanied with a radical visual-identity redesign. We show how the new logo faced initial resistance before it became a source of positive brand associations, and how it became anchored in the university ' s corporate identity. We argue that logo evaluations span three dimensions: they may be congruent or incongruent with the disposition of the individual toward the change: they may be congruent or incongruent with the visual preferences of the individual; and they may be based on the visuals of the logo or on its identity-expressing capabilities.
  • Siven, Mia; Teppo, Jaakko; Lapatto-Reiniluoto, Outi; Teräsalmi, Eeva; Salminen, Outi; Sikanen, Tiina (2020)
    Solving the environmental and sustainability challenges associated with drug development, manufacturing, distribution, use, and end -of -life requires comprehensive change in the mindset of healthcare professionals on all fronts. Besides current professionals, the faculty teachers and students have a critical role in facilitating the implementation of green principles and practices in educational programs, but no change occurs unless the need and the tools are properly established and their impact understood. This article describes the evolution of green pharmacy practice in the Faculty of Pharmacy at the University of Helsinki, following a previously published framework for change management. Furthermore, the article describes the dissemination of the principles and good practices into medical education.
  • Oinas, Waltteri Juho Joonatan (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    A prevalent narrative associated with contemporary academe in the current era of globalisation is one of constant and increasing mobility. This narrative is acutely modern and tends to obscure the ancient character of academic mobility as a phenomenon. This Master’s Thesis seeks to address a knowledge gap in existing literature by considering the development of intellectual networks in ancient Greece and analysing the movement of Hellenistic philosophers in a prosopographical study of academic mobility utilising an interdisciplinary approach, combining theories and methods of both social sciences and history. Does academic mobility as a phenomenon occur in the context of Hellenistic period, specifically relating to the philosophical schools of that era? Why did Athens become the centre of intellectual activity and philosophical mobility for most of the Hellenistic period? The theoretical framework draws from the study of mobilities, network theory, concept analysis, and (to a lesser extent) human geography. An analytical concept of academic mobility is constructed to enable historical analyses and evaluation of potential historical occurrences of academic mobility. The primary data gathering method employed is an applied form of prosopography, a micro-biographical approach to the study of socio-historical phenomena. The lives of ten Stoic philosophers are summarised in ten case studies, which help illustrate the mobility and social networks of Hellenistic philosophers by providing examples of philosophical movement and career paths. The entries are subsequently analysed in conjunction with research literature to generate answers to the research questions. The study shows that while some of the movement of Hellenistic philosophers indeed meets the criteria for academic mobility, it nonetheless constitutes only a fraction of the mobility exercised by philosophers as a part of their profession and lifestyle. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-eminence of Athens as the centre of Hellenistic philosophical activity was predicated on a self-perpetuating process of social capital accumulation, as the presence of several prominent thinkers and organised schools of thought engaged in an intense dialectic attracted philosophically inclined individuals from all over the Greek world. The study concludes that the existence, development, and transformation of higher education networks is historically contingent and often affected by forces and factors external to the network(s), highlighting the need to examine occurrences and conditions of academic mobility on a case-by-case basis and suggesting further avenues of research to the study of historical academic mobility.
  • Asikainen, Henna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Parpala, Anna; Katajavuori, Nina (2020)
    The purpose of this study was to examine university students' learning profiles and their relationship to study-related burnout as well as study progression and study achievement. The participants in the study were 339 first-year university students. Four clusters were found: Students applying a deep approach; Organised students; Students applying a surface approach; and Unorganised students applying a deep approach. The results show that students who apply a surface approach to learning in their studies are more likely suffer from study-related burnout, as students applying a deep approach experience less study-related burnout. In addition, unorganised students applying a deep approach also proceeded slower in their studies. The study suggests that students' study skills and their learning processes should be considered when considering study-related burnout in higher education.
  • Härkki, Tellervo; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai (2018)
    While sketching has an established role in professional design, its benefits and role in design education are subjects that invite research and opinions. We investigated how undergraduates studying to become design educators and textile teachers used sketching to generate and develop design solutions in a collaborative setting. The students were given an authentic design assignment involving three detailed tasks, one of which was 2D visualisation by sketching. Adopting a micro-analytical approach, we analysed the video-recorded visualisation session to understand how teams used sketching to collaborate and to generate and develop design solutions. To that end, we set three research questions: (1) What ways of collaborative working are reflected in actions of sketching? (2) In what ways do sequences of collaborative sketching contribute to designing? (3) What kinds of collaborative sequences of sketching advance designing? Our analysis identified three collaborative ways of sketching (co-ordinated, collective and disclosed) and confirmed that sketching is an important facilitator of mutual appropriation, adaption and adoption. Next, we identified three ways of contributing to designing, as well as three functions and six capacities for advancing designing. Our analysis shows that sketching can lead to invaluable advances in designing, although each team had its own way of using and benefiting from sketching. We further consider that the teams' diverse sketching processes and rich content owed, at least in part, to the task structure and imposed constraints. We continue to see sketching as an important design tool, one among many.
  • Marila, Marko; Ilves, Kristin (2021)
    This article provides an account of the history, present state, and possible future directions of Finnish maritime archaeology in order to elucidate certain aspects characteristic of the field. In the Finnish context, academia and the heritage sector are historically interconnected, and professionals have successfully assumed responsibilities in both. Research opportunities, however, have been more numerous at the Finnish Heritage Agency (FHA) than in academia, whereas the focus has been on well-preserved wrecks mainly from seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. This can be explained by the great number of registered shipwrecks from the historical periods being managed by the FHA. Well-preserved shipwrecks are also central for hobby divers’ interest that has been historically paramount for the development of the field. At the same time, discontinuities in academic training of maritime archaeologists have created a situation where opportunities for long-term and in-depth research at universities have been few. Future prospects of Finnish maritime archaeology are discussed with respect to the current state, and the interconnectedness of the heritage management sector, academically trained maritime archaeologists, and avocational diving societies and volunteers is emphasised as a key element in continued development.
  • Näre, Lena; Bendixsen, Synnøve (2021)
  • Tammeleht, Anu; Rodriguez-Triana, Maria Jesus; Koort, Kairi; Löfström, Erika (2021)
    As development of research ethics competencies is in the focus in higher education (HE) institutions, it is crucial to understand how to support the learning process during such training. While there is plenty of research on how to scaffold children's learning of cognitive skills, there is limited knowledge on how to enhance collaborative case-based learning of research ethics competencies in HE contexts. Our aim was to identify whether, how and when scaffolding is needed with various expertise levels to support development of ethics competencies. To identify and evaluate scaffolding during collaborative case-based ethics training we synthesised a scaffolding framework consisting of three levels: techniques, mechanisms and process. We organised 5 training sessions where 46 participants (including bachelor, master and PhD students as well as junior and senior academics) were involved. Data was collected as part of action research from group-work recordings and transcribed verbatim. Deductive qualitative analysis was implemented on transcripts based on the scaffolding framework. Our analysis revealed that structural scaffolding alone (learning material) is not always efficient with bachelor level students, they also require oral scaffolding when the need becomes apparent. Master's level students benefited most from wording the issues they needed to focus on. Doctoral students and senior academics needed scaffolding to maintain goal orientation. We end our article with some recommendations for facilitators of ethics education, and encourage using the scaffolding framework also in complex problem-solving beyond ethics training.
  • Pappa, Sotiria; Elomaa, Mailis; Perälä-Littunen, Satu (2020)
    Although stressors and coping strategies have been examined in managing stress associated with doctoral education, stress continues to have a permeating and pernicious effect on doctoral students’ experience of their training and, by extension, their future participation in the academic community. International doctoral students have to not only effectively cope with tensions during their training and their socialization in their discipline but also address the values and expectations of higher education institutions in a foreign country. Considering the increase of international doctoral students in Finland, this study focuses on perceived sources of stress in their doctoral training and how their scholarly identity is involved when responding to them. The study draws on thematically analyzed interviews with eleven international doctoral students of educational sciences. The participants, one man and ten women, came from nine countries and conducted research in six Finnish universities. The principal sources of stress identified were intrapersonal regulation, challenges pertaining to doing research, funding and career prospects, and lack of a supportive network. Despite the negative presence of stress, most participants saw stress as a motivating element. However, in order for stress to become a positive and motivational force, participants had to mediate its presence and effects by means of personal resources, ascribing meaning and purpose to their research, and positioning themselves within their academic and social environment. The study argues for stress as a catalyst for scholarly identity negotiation and professional development when perceived positively.
  • Hailikari, Telle; Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna (2018)
    Many factors influence students’ progress in higher education. However, the students’ own voices are seldom heard. Using a qualitative approach, the study explored students’ own experiences of the factors that have influenced their studying. Research has indicated that students’ experiences are often related to their approaches to learning. Therefore, experiences of enhancing and impeding factors were explored here in relation to different study profiles. Altogether 736 open-ended answers were analysed by qualitative context analysis. After establishing the categories of enhancing and impeding factors and creating the student profiles, the differences between the profiles were examined using chi-square tests. The results revealed that the students had experienced a broad variety of factors that influenced their studying. These experiences varied widely with regard to the students’ study profiles. In particular, those in the Students applying a surface approach and Unorganised students applying a deep approach profiles appeared to experience more obstacles in their studies than the students in other profiles. Characteristic of these two profiles was the students’ low ability to organise their studies, that is, manage their time and effort. The study suggests that at least part of the variation in students’ experiences of the factors influencing their progress is explainable by the students’ learning profiles. Whether it would be useful to identify different student profiles rather than concentrate on asking the students directly about their experiences of enhancing and impeding factors is discussed.