Browsing by Subject "Hordeum vulgare"

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  • Mascher, Martin; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.; Chapman, Jarrod; Schmutz, Jeremy; Barry, Kerrie; Munoz-Amatriain, Maria; Close, Timothy J.; Wise, Roger P.; Schulman, Alan H.; Himmelbach, Axel; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Scholz, Uwe; Poland, Jesse A.; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie (2013)
  • Huttunen, Ari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch and its asexual form Fusarium graminearum Schwabe is a pathogen of oat, barley, wheat and maize that causes Fusarium head blight in cereals. F. graminearum produces mycotoxins that contaminate yields in humid and warm weather conditions. The pathogen spreads most effectively during its sexual stage. F. graminearum has become more common as a result of climate change and as reduced tillage has become more preferred in cultivation. This research was a part the Fustox Projet in Natural Resources Institute in Jokioinen research station. Develelopment of G.zeae in crop residues was studied. Crop residue samples were collected from no-till and tilled field plots in existing field trials in spring 2013. Occurrence of F. graminearum was studied in barley and oat from no-till and tilled field plots and in oat from a field trial of four tillage methods during the growing season 2013. Efficiency of two fungicides (DMI and DMI+QoI fungicides) were studied in two oat cultivars, barley and spring wheat in MTT Ylistaro research station. Yield samples were also analysed for deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination. Occurrence of the pathogen was determined by incubating straw pieces and kernels in laboratory conditions. Fusarium species were identified by their colony and spore morphology and colour. Contrary to expectations the pathogen was somewhat more prevalent in tilled plots than in reduced tillage. This may be due to greater microbe activity that is capable of decomposing or inhibiting the pathogen in fields with reduced tillage. In this study stem-bases were more infected by the pathogen in reduced tillage. Fungicide treatments were effective in reducing the occurrence of F. graminearum in the field and DON contamination in yield. There were no significant differences between fungicides. The most effective methods of controlling G. zeae and F. graminearum is selection resistant cultivars for cultivation. Careful selection of soil tillage method can also aid in controlling the pathogen.
  • Huuskonen, Arto; Jaakkola, Seija; Manni, Katariina (2020)
    Total mixed rations (TMR) based on grass silage (GS), triticale silage (TS), mixture of GS and TS, barley silage (BS) and mixture of GS and BS were fed to fifty Hereford (HF) and fifty Charolais (CH) bulls. The proportion (g kg(-1) dry matter [DM]) of the silages in the TMRs were as follows: (1) GS (600); (2) TS (600); (3) GS (300) and TS (300); (4) BS (600); (5) GS (300) and BS (300). Concentrate proportion was 400 g kg(-1) DM. According to feed analyses, the GS had 15 and 8% higher metabolizable energy (ME) concentration as well as 51 and 49% higher crude protein (CP) concentration compared to TS and BS, respectively. Average DM intake (DMI) on TS and BS containing diets was higher compared to GS as a sole forage (p=0.001). Compared to the TS based rations the use of BS rations increased daily DMI by 5% (p
  • Bretani, Gianluca; Shaaf, Salar; Tondelli, Alessandro; Cattivelli, Luigi; Delbono, Stefano; Waugh, Robbie; Thomas, William; Russell, Joanne; Bull, Hazel; Igartua, Ernesto; Casas, Ana M. M.; Gracia, Pilar; Rossi, Roberta; Schulman, Alan H. H.; Rossini, Laura (2022)
    In cereals with hollow internodes, lodging resistance is influenced by morphological characteristics such as internode diameter and culm wall thickness. Despite their relevance, knowledge of the genetic control of these traits and their relationship with lodging is lacking in temperate cereals such as barley. To fill this gap, we developed an image analysis-based protocol to accurately phenotype culm diameters and culm wall thickness across 261 barley accessions. Analysis of culm trait data collected from field trials in seven different environments revealed high heritability values (>50%) for most traits except thickness and stiffness, as well as genotype-by-environment interactions. The collection was structured mainly according to row-type, which had a confounding effect on culm traits as evidenced by phenotypic correlations. Within both row-type subsets, outer diameter and section modulus showed significant negative correlations with lodging (
  • Bäckström, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The growth and development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is affected by photoperiod and temperature. Photoperiod has various signalling functions affecting reproductive development and its rate. It also affects the rates of leaf area extensions and dry matter production. Increase in photoperiod hastens the plant developmental processes and affects the leaf area and tiller formation. Primary tillers form from axillary buds in the leaf nodes on the main culm and increase the leaf area of the plant. Under favourable conditions, initiated tillers grow to separate culms with grain bearing ears. However, the environmental conditions during the growing season in northern latitudes affect tiller formation. The aims of the experiments were to investigate the effects of photoperiod on barley leaf and tiller development. Other aims were to compare the differences expressed by the two row-types and tillering habits. Seven barley accessions, differing in tillering habit and row-type, were used in the experiments. Three pairs of near-isogenic accessions six-rowed ‘Morex’ and ‘Uniculm Morex’, ‘Kindred’ and ‘Uniculm Kindred’, two-rowed ‘Ingrid’ and ‘3-503’, differing in tillering habit, and two-rowed ‘Saana’ were grown in growth chamber at humidity of 60/70 % and at temperature 18/12 ºC (day/night), in three different photoperiods (15 h, 18 h and 21 h). The leaf length and width were measured from the full-grown leaves. The samples to identify main culm and tillers were taken after the plants reached the 4-leaf-stage. The effects of photoperiod, accession, tillering habit and row-type on the plant, leaf and tiller growth were statistically analysed. Increase in photoperiod hastened the plant development as well as leaf and tiller emergence rates. The leaf size and main culm leaf area decreased as the photoperiod increased. The number of tillers increased as photoperiod increased. The uniculm accessions had larger leaves and a larger main culm leaf area than the conventional tillering accessions. Six-rowed accessions had larger leaves and a larger main culm leaf area than the two-rowed accessions. The two-rowed accessions had a faster tiller emergence rate and a higher tiller number compared to the six-rowed accessions. Photoperiod treatments affected the leaf and tiller growth and development as expected apart from the number of tillers produced in the longest, 21h photoperiod. Differences between the two tillering habits and row-types were also as expected, although some exceptions occurred. Potentials and limitations of uniculm growth habit in agricultural production were also discussed.
  • Pensas, Ari (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important cop in the world. It is used as raw material for fodder, brewing, bakery and foodstuff industry. Barley needs nutrients and nitrogen is the most important. Barley takes nitrogen 100 to 120 kg per hectar as ammonium and nitrate, which it uses during the growing season to form biomass and leaf chlorophyll to photosynthesize. Nitrogen deficiency causes dwarfism to stem and undeveloped state to phosynthesizing leaves. Nitrogen can be applied as inorganic and organic fertilizers and also as microbe content organic mineral fertilizers. The aim of the thesis was to examine how conventionally and organically cultivated methods affected two-row barley’s yield and quality in field experiment in 2009. There were six different cultivation methods; Berner Plant protection, University of Helsinki, Nylands Svenska Lantbrukssällskap (NSL) and Raisio Agro used conventionally cultivated methods and Elosato and ProAgria Organic used organically cultivated methods. Treatmens were fertilized by nitrogen from 71 to 118 kg per hectar where conventionally cultivated treatments were fertilized by nitrogen from 85 to 118 kg per hectar and organically cultivated treatments were fertilized by 71 kg per hectar. Seed population was from 400 to 500 seeds per m2. The results indicated that NFC Tipple matured 4 to 5 days earlier in organically cultivated treatments than conventionally cultivated treatments which had an effect to grain size. Early maturing was caused by low nitrogen fertilizer amount and plant disease amount. Vigorously grown barley resulted in higher yield and better yield quality when it was conventionally cultivated in comparison to organically cultivated. Quench responded better to nitrogen fertilizer when nitrogen than NFC Tipple and Fairytale. Number and timing of fungicide treatment had no effect to Quench’s growth’s disease amount.
  • Kankaanpää, Juha (University of Helsinki, 1992)