Browsing by Subject "Horse"

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  • Kareskoski, Maria; Venhoranta, Heli; Virtala, Anna-Maija; Katila, Terttu (2019)
    Artificial insemination (AI) with cooled stallion semen has increased markedly during the last decades in all countries, but fertility is often lower than when fresh semen or natural mating is used. The objective of this study was to examine field data (1634,cycles 523 Standardbred (SB) mares, 575 Finnhorse (FH) mares, and 90 stallions) using multivariable logistic regression for factors influencing the pregnancy rate (PR) after Al with cooled transported semen from SB and FH stallions. The PR per cycle for the material was 47%: Finnhorses 42% and Standardbreds 53%. When assessed with multivariable logistic regression analyses with a generalized linear mixed model, variables that affected the PR were breed, the number of inseminated estrus cycles, the percentage of progressively motile sperm (PMOT) in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment, and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination. In Standardbreds, variables that increased the per cycle PR were the number of Al per estrus cycle (multiple inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one insemination), the number of inseminated cycles, and PMOT in the AI dose at the time of insemination. In Finnhorses, the number of Al per estrus cycle (two and three inseminations increasing the probability of pregnancy compared to only one), the number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate and in the Al dose, and PMOT in the ejaculate/AI dose at the time of shipment increased the per cycle PR. Non-significant factors for the whole material included the type of artificial vagina (open-ended or closed), transport time, place of Al (stud farm or home stable), insemination done by veterinarian or technician, weekday, month, age of the mare (all age classes combined), age of the stallion, ejaculate parameters (sperm concentration, total number of sperm), and insemination dose parameters (volume proportion of seminal plasma, sperm concentration, PMOT, total number of sperm). In conclusion, breed, breeding opportunity in more than one cycle, more than one insemination/estrus, PMOT of the ejaculate/AI dose and the number of progressively motile sperm in the Al dose at the time of insemination are important for the outcome of inseminations with cooled semen. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Niemelä, Tytti; Viren, Tuomas; Liukkonen, Jukka; Argüelles, David; te Moller, Nikae C. R.; Puhakka, Pia H.; Jurvelin, Jukka S.; Tulamo, Riitta-Mari; Töyräs, Juha (2014)
  • Pehkonen, Jaana; Karma, Leena; Raekallio, Marja (2019)
    No studies have focused on dental pain signs associated with periapical infection in cheek teeth (CT) of horses. Moreover, the ability of owners to recognize signs of dental pain in horses has not been reported. We hypothesized that periapical infection will usually induce pain that manifests in the behavior of the horse. Removing the infected tooth will reduce the expression of such behaviors. Owners of 47 horses whose CT had been removed because of periapical infection participated in this study. They filled an internet-based questionnaire including 23 questions about eating behavior, bit behavior, and general behavior observed before and after the operation. The number of signs exhibited by each horse before and after CT removal was compared using Wilcoxon signed-rank sum test. Values of P <.05 were considered significant. Before the operation, avoidance behaviors, such as evading the bit, difficulties in eating, and even asocial or aggressive behaviors were commonly reported by the owners. Removing the infected tooth significantly reduced the number of these behavioral patterns expressed by the horses (P <.001 for each group of behaviors), suggesting that they could be associated with dental pain. Half of the cases had been diagnosed during a routine dental examination, indicating that many owners did not realize that certain undesirable behavioral patterns of their horses might be associated with dental pain. These findings highlight the importance of training owners to recognize behavior potentially related to dental pain in horses and that routine dental examinations are essential for ensuring horses' well-being. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Pakkanen, Soile Anja Eliisa; de Vries, Annemarie; Raekallio, Marja Riitta; Mykkänen, Anna Kristina; Palviainen, Mari Johanna; Sankari, Satu Marja; Vainio, Outi Maritta (2018)
    Background: Romifidine, an alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists. Previously, vatinoxan is shown to prevent the hyperglycaemia, increase of plasma lactate concentration and the decrease of insulin and non-esterified free fatty acids (FFAs) caused by alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists in different species. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of intravenous romifidine and vatinoxan, alone and combined, on plasma concentrations of glucose and some stress-related hormones and metabolites in horses. Results: Plasma glucose concentration differed between all intravenous treatments: romifidine (80 mu g/kg; ROM), vatinoxan (200 mu g/kg; V) and the combination of these (ROM+V). Glucose concentration was the highest after ROM and the lowest after V. Serum FFA concentration was higher after V than after ROM or ROM+V. The baseline serum concentration of insulin varied widely between the individual horses. No differences were detected in serum insulin, cortisol or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations between the treatments. Plasma lactate, serum triglyceride or blood sodium and chloride concentrations did not differ from baseline or between the treatments. Compared with baseline, plasma glucose concentration increased after ROM and ROM+V, serum cortisol, FFA and base excess increased after all treatments and plasma ACTH concentration increased after V. Serum insulin concentration decreased after V and blood potassium decreased after all treatments. Conclusions: Romifidine induced hyperglycaemia, which vatinoxan partially prevented despite of the variations in baseline levels of serum insulin. The effects of romifidine and vatinoxan on the insulin concentration in horses need further investigation.
  • Pakkanen, Soile A E; de Vries, Annemarie; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna K; Palviainen, Mari J; Sankari, Satu M; Vainio, Outi M (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Romifidine, an α-2 adrenoceptor agonist, is a widely-used sedative in equine medicine. Besides the desired sedative and analgesic actions, α-2 adrenoceptor agonists have side effects like alterations of plasma concentrations of glucose and certain stress-related hormones and metabolites in various species. Vatinoxan (previously known as MK-467), in turn, is an antagonist of α-2 adrenoceptors. Because vatinoxan does not cross the blood brain barrier in significant amounts, it has only minor effect on sedation induced by α-2 adrenoceptor agonists. Previously, vatinoxan is shown to prevent the hyperglycaemia, increase of plasma lactate concentration and the decrease of insulin and non-esterified free fatty acids (FFAs) caused by α-2 adrenoceptor agonists in different species. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of intravenous romifidine and vatinoxan, alone and combined, on plasma concentrations of glucose and some stress-related hormones and metabolites in horses. Results Plasma glucose concentration differed between all intravenous treatments: romifidine (80 μg/kg; ROM), vatinoxan (200 μg/kg; V) and the combination of these (ROM + V). Glucose concentration was the highest after ROM and the lowest after V. Serum FFA concentration was higher after V than after ROM or ROM + V. The baseline serum concentration of insulin varied widely between the individual horses. No differences were detected in serum insulin, cortisol or plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations between the treatments. Plasma lactate, serum triglyceride or blood sodium and chloride concentrations did not differ from baseline or between the treatments. Compared with baseline, plasma glucose concentration increased after ROM and ROM + V, serum cortisol, FFA and base excess increased after all treatments and plasma ACTH concentration increased after V. Serum insulin concentration decreased after V and blood potassium decreased after all treatments. Conclusions Romifidine induced hyperglycaemia, which vatinoxan partially prevented despite of the variations in baseline levels of serum insulin. The effects of romifidine and vatinoxan on the insulin concentration in horses need further investigation.
  • Hemmann, Karin; Raekallio, Marja; Kanerva, Kira; Hänninen, Laura; Pastell, Matti; Palviainen, Mari; Vainio, Outi (2012)
    Crib-biting is classified as an oral stereotypy, which may be initiated by stress susceptibility, management factors, genetic factors and gastrointestinal irritation. Ghrelin has been identified in the gastric mucosa and is involved in the control of food intake and reward, but its relationship to crib-biting is not yet known. The aim of this study was to examine the concentration and circadian variation of plasma ghrelin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and β-endorphin in crib-biting horses and non-crib-biting controls. Plasma samples were collected every second hour for 24 h in the daily environment of eight horses with stereotypic crib-biting and eight non-crib-biting controls. The crib-biting horses had significantly higher mean plasma ghrelin concentrations than the control horses. The circadian rhythm of cortisol was evident, indicating that the sampling protocol did not inhibit the circadian regulation in these horses. Crib-biting had no statistically significant effect on cortisol, ACTH or β-endorphin concentrations. The inter-individual variations in β-endorphin and ACTH were higher than the intra-individual differences, which made inter-individual comparisons difficult and complicated the interpretation of results. Further research is therefore needed to determine the relationship between crib-biting and ghrelin concentration.
  • Montserrat Rivera del Alamo, Maria; Reilas, Tiina; Galvao, Antonio; Yeste, Marc; Katila, Terttu (2018)
    Treatment with intrauterine devices (IUD) prolongs luteal phases in mares, but the mechanism for this has not been fully elucidated. The aims of the present study were to examine how IUDs affect the uterus to induce longer luteal phases, particularly the role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the maintenance of the corpus luteum (CL). Twenty-seven reproductively normal mares were included: 12 were inseminated (AI), and 15 were fitted with IUDs. Blood samples for progesterone were obtained on Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, and 15 (relative to day of ovulation). The groups were further divided into non-pregnant (AI-N, n = 4), pregnant (AI-P, n = 8), normal (IUD-N, n = 8) and prolonged luteal phase (IUD-P, n = 7) based on ultrasonic examinations and serum progesterone concentrations on Days 14 and 15. Blood sampling to quantify the PGF(2 alpha) metabolite (PGFM) was performed through a catheter hourly from 15:00 to 20:00 h on Day 14, and from 6:00 until 13:00 h on Day 15. On Day 15, a low-volume uterine lavage followed by an endometrial biopsy was performed. Estradiol concentration in the Day 15 serum and lavage fluid was determined, while the abundance of COX-2 was evaluated in the biopsy specimens using western blotting (WB) and irnmunohistochemistry (IHC). All pregnant mares were negative for COX-2 in IHC samples and 5 of 8 were negative in WB samples while all mares of the IUD-N group were positive for COX-2. Of the seven mares in the IUD-P group, five and four were negative for COX-2 with the IHC and WB samples, respectively. The results from this study indicate that IUDs, when effective, suppress COX-2, leading to the inhibition of PGF2 alpha release and maintenance of CL.
  • Tapio, H. A.; Raekallio, M. R.; Mykkänen, A. K.; Al-Ramahi, D.; Scheinin, M.; Hautajarvi, H. J.; Männikkö, S.; Vainio, O. (2019)
    A constant rate infusion (CRI) of medetomidine is used to balance equine inhalation anesthesia, but its cardiovascular side effects are a concern. This experimental crossover study aimed to evaluate the effects of vatinoxan (a peripheral a2-adrenoceptor antagonist) on cardiorespiratory and gastrointestinal function in anesthetized healthy horses. Six horses received medetomidine hydrochloride 7 mu g/kg IV alone (MED) or with vatinoxan hydrochloride 140 mu g/kg IV (MED + V). Anesthesia was induced with midazolam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane and medetomidine CRI for 60min. Heart rate, carotid and pulmonary arterial pressures, central venous pressure, cardiac output and arterial and mixed venous blood gases were measured. Selected cardiopulmonary parameters were calculated. Plasma drug concentrations were determined. Fecal output was measured over 24h. For statistical comparisons, repeated measures analysis of covariance and paired t-tests were applied. Heart rate decreased slightly from baseline in the MED group. Arterial blood pressures decreased with both treatments, but significantly more dobutamine was needed to maintain normotension with MED + V (P = 0.018). Cardiac index (CI) and oxygen delivery index (DO2I) decreased significantly more with MED, with the largest difference observed at 20min: CI was 39 +/- 2 and 73 +/- 18 (P = 0.009) and DO2I 7.4 +/- 1.2 and 15.3 +/- 4.8 (P = 0.014)mL/min/kg with MED and MED + V, respectively. Fecal output or plasma concentrations of dexmedetomidine did not differ between the treatments. In conclusion, premedication with vatinoxan induced hypotension, thus its use in anesthetized horses warrants further studies. Even though heart rate and arterial blood pressures remained clinically acceptable with MED, cardiac performance and oxygen delivery were lower than with MED + V. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Tessier, Laurence; Cote, Olivier; Clark, Mary Ellen; Viel, Laurent; Diaz-Mendez, Andres; Anders, Simon; Bienzle, Dorothee (2017)
    Background: Severe equine asthma is a naturally occurring lung inflammatory disease of mature animals characterized by neutrophilic inflammation, bronchoconstriction, mucus hypersecretion and airway remodeling. Exacerbations are triggered by inhalation of dust and microbial components. Affected animals eventually are unable of aerobic performance. In this study transcriptomic differences between asthmatic and non-asthmatic animals in the response of the bronchial epithelium to an inhaled challenge were determined. Results: Paired endobronchial biopsies were obtained pre- and post-challenge from asthmatic and non-asthmatic animals. The transcriptome, determined by RNA-seq and analyzed with edgeR, contained 111 genes differentially expressed (DE) after challenge between horses with and without asthma, and 81 of these were upregulated. Genes involved in neutrophil migration and activation were in central location in interaction networks, and related gene ontology terms were significantly overrepresented. Relative abundance of specific gene products as determined by immunohistochemistry was correlated with differential gene expression. Gene sets involved in neutrophil chemotaxis, immune and inflammatory response, secretion, blood coagulation and apoptosis were overrepresented among up-regulated genes, while the rhythmic process gene set was overrepresented among down-regulated genes. MMP1, IL8, TLR4 and MMP9 appeared to be the most important proteins in connecting the STRING protein network of DE genes. Conclusions: Several differentially expressed genes and networks in horses with asthma also contribute to human asthma, highlighting similarities between severe human adult and equine asthma. Neutrophil activation by the bronchial epithelium is suggested as the trigger of the inflammatory cascade in equine asthma, followed by epithelial injury and impaired repair and differentiation. Circadian rhythm dysregulation and the sonic Hedgehog pathway were identified as potential novel contributory factors in equine asthma.
  • Hallamaa, Raija; Batchu, Krishna (2016)
    Background: Lipids have become an important target for searching new biomarkers typical of different autoimmune and allergic diseases. The most common allergic dermatitis of the horse is related to stings of insects and is known as insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) or summer eczema, referring to its recurrence during the summer months. This intense pruritus has certain similarities with atopic dermatitis of humans. The treatment of IBH is difficult and therefore new strategies for therapy are needed. Autoserum therapy based on the use of serum phospholipids has recently been introduced for horses. So far, serum lipids relating to these allergic disorders have been poorly determined. The main aim of this study was to analyse phospholipid profiles in the sera of horses with allergic dermatitis and in their healthy controls and to further assess whether these lipid profiles change according to the clinical status after therapy. Methods: Sera were collected from 10 horses with allergic dermatitis and from 10 matched healthy controls both before and 4 weeks after the therapy of the affected horses. Eczema horses were treated with an autogenous preparation made from a horse's own serum and used for oral medication. Samples were analysed for their phospholipid content by liquid chromatography coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-MS). Data of phospholipid concentrations between the groups and over the time were analysed by using the Friedman test. Correlations between the change of concentrations and the clinical status were assessed by Spearman's rank correlation test. Results: The major phospholipid classes detected were phosphatidylcholine (PC), sphingomyelin (SM), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Eczema horses had significantly lower total concentrations of PC (p <0.0001) and SM (p = 0.0115) than their healthy controls. After a 4-week therapy, no significant differences were found between the groups. Changes in SM concentrations correlated significantly with alterations in clinical signs (p = 0.0047). Conclusions: Horses with allergic dermatitis have an altered phospholipid profile in their sera as compared with healthy horses and these profiles seem to change according to their clinical status. Sphingomyelin seems to have an active role in the course of equine insect bite hypersensitivity.
  • Mönki, J.; Hewetson, M.; Virtala, A.-M. K. (2016)
    BackgroundEquine gastric glandular disease (EGGD) is a term used to classify erosive and ulcerative diseases of the glandular mucosa of the equine stomach. Epidemiologic studies of risk factors for EGGD have not been reported. ObjectiveTo determine risk factors for EGGD. AnimalsCases (n=83) had endoscopic evidence of EGGD; controls (n=34) included healthy horses and horses with equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) without EGGD. MethodsRetrospective case-control study. The data were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression modeling. Analysis was performed on the full dataset. An additional analysis compared horses with glandular lesions (n=43) against healthy horses (n=22). ResultsOn first analysis, Warmblood breed (OR=13.9, 95% CI 2.2-90.9, P=.005) and an increasing number of caretakers (OR=7.3, 95% CI 0.98-55.6, P=.053) were associated with an increased risk of EGGD. On analysis of the subset of data, Warmblood breed (OR=28.6, 95% CI 2.96-250.0, P=.004) and increasing number of riders (OR=12.99, 95% CI 0.94-166.7, P=.056) were risk factors. The presence of sand in the colon appeared to have a protective effect against EGGD (OR=0.195, 95% CI 0.04-1.0, P=.051 for sand versus not having sand). Conclusions and clinical importanceThis study suggests that Warmbloods are predisposed to EGGD and multiple handlers/riders might increase the risk of EGGD. Identification of risk factors allows speculation on potential pathophysiological mechanisms of EGGD.