Browsing by Subject "Hydrogeology and Environmental Geology"

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  • Hekkala, Toni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Arsenic (As) is a metalloid naturally present in the environment. Arsenic species vary in toxicity. Metal mining has contributed to the anthropogenic input of arsenic to groundwaters and surface waters. In this study, water samples were collected from 20 sample points in three mining-impacted study areas in Finland: the former Ylöjärvi Cu–W–As and Haveri Au–Cu mines, and the active Pyhäsalmi Zn–Cu mine. Six groundwater well samples, eleven surface water samples and three tailings seepage collection ditch samples were analyzed for dissolved arsenic speciation by HPLC-ICP-MS and for geochemical composition by ICP-MS, titration, and ion chromatography. Dissolved arsenic concentrations ranged from 14.2 to 6649 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Ylöjärvi study area, from 0.5 to 6.2 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Haveri study area, and from 0.2 to 9.4 µg L-1 in samples collected at the Pyhäsalmi study area. In all study areas, measured dissolved arsenic concentrations showed a general decrease from the tailings to the surroundings. Speciation analysis showed that two of the samples collected at the Ylöjärvi study area had arsenite [As(III)] as the dominant form of dissolved inorganic arsenic (iAs), three had arsenate [As(V)] as the dominant form of dissolved iAs, and four had a mixture of both. In the water samples collected at the Haveri and Pyhäsalmi study areas, all concentrations of dissolved arsenic species were below method detection limits. Also, none of the 22 water samples analyzed for arsenic speciation had dissolved MMA or DMA concentrations above method detection limits. Identification of dissolved arsenic species in the sampled waters in Haveri and Pyhäsalmi, and of MMA and DMA in all sampled waters requires more detailed study. A significant 2-tailed Pearson correlation between dissolved arsenic and dissolved molybdenum (Mo) (r=0.80**, n=20), and dissolved arsenic and dissolved potassium (K) (0.68**, n=19) suggests that in these three study areas the distributions of dissolved arsenic and Mo, as well as dissolved arsenic and K may be controlled by the same environmental variables. Anomalously high maximum concentrations of dissolved Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, and SO4 were measured in surface water samples collected at the Ylöjärvi and Haveri study areas, and in a seepage collection ditch sample collected at the Pyhäsalmi study area.
  • Koskimaa, Kuutti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    AA Sakatti Mining Oy is researching the possibility of conducting mining operations in Sakatti ore deposit, located partially under the protected Viiankiaapa mire. In order to understand the waters in mining development site, the interactions of surface waters, shallow aquifers, and deep bedrock groundwaters must be understood. To estimate these interactions, hydrogeochemical characterization, together with four tracer methods were used: Tritium/helium, dichlorodifluoromethane and sulfur hexafluoride, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, and carbon-14. Most of the shallow groundwater samples are similar to the natural precipitation and groundwater in their chemical composition, being of Calcium bicarbonate type. B-11-17HYD013 was an exception, containing much more Cl and SO4. The samples from the deep 17MOS8193 all show a very typical composition for this type of a borehole, on the line between the saline Sodium sulphate and Sodium chloride water types. The samples from the 12MOS8102, as well as the river water samples and the Rytikuru spring sample are located between these two end members. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope values divided the samples into two distinct groups: those that show evaporation signal in the source water, and those that do not. The most likely source for the evaporated signal in the groundwaters is in the surface water pools in the Viiankiaapa mire, which have then infiltrated into the groundwater and followed the known groundwater flow gradient into the observation wells near the River Kitinen. Tritium showed no inclusion of recently recharged water in the deep 17MOS8193, and dated most of the shallow wells with screen below bedrock surface to be recharged in the 70’s and 80’s. B-10-17HYD017 had an older apparent age from 1955, and B-14-17HYD006 was curiously dated to be recharged in 2018. 14C gave apparent age of over 30 000 a for the deep 17MOS8193. The slight contents of 14C could be caused by slight contamination during sampling meaning the age is a minimum. The sample M-4-12MOS8102 got an apparent age of ~3 500 a, which could in turn be an overestimate due to ancient carbon being dissolved from the local bedrock fractures. CFC-12 showed apparent recharge dates from 1963 to 1975 in the shallow wells, and no recently recharged water in the deep 17MOS8193, and so was generally in line with the 14C and Tritium results, although some contamination had happened. SF6 concentrations exceeded possible concentrations considering other results, most likely due to underground generation, and the method was dismissed. By trace element composition, all samples from the deep 17MOS8139 are distinct from other samples and saw slight dilution in concentrations of most elements in the span of the test pumping. Other samples are more mixed and difficult to interpret, but some trends and connections are visible, such as the higher contents in wells with screens below the bedrock surface than those with screens above the bedrock surface, and the exceptionally high contents of many elements in B-13-17HYD004. Overall, the study did benefit from the large array of methods, showing no interaction between the deep bedrock groundwaters and shallow groundwaters or surface waters. The evaporated signal from the Viiankiaapa was clearly visible in the samples close to the River Kitinen.
  • Orozco Ramírez, Lilia Estefanía (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The European Water Framework Directive aims at restoring all water bodies in good ecological conditions by the year 2023. For this aim, understanding the responses of these ecosystems to current and future pressures is a requisite. Lakes Hältingträsk and Storträsk are located in Östersundom, a latent developing suburban area in eastern Helsinki. Alterations to the catchment in Hältingträsk as a consequence of urbanization will likely change the conditions of the lake. Storträsk, part of Sipoonkorpi nature reserve is primarily influenced by recreational activities. Ecological status of both lakes is likely to alter under the ongoing urban development. For this reason, the reference conditions of Hältingträsk and the resilience of both lakes to human stressors must be assessed. A long term record from Hältingträsk, with special focus on the most recent section, as well as a short core from Storträsk targeting the most recent events, are analyzed for different palaeobiological and geochemical proxies. The sequence from Hältingträsk is evaluated with diatom assemblages, trace metal analyses, lithological description of sediments through loss-on-ignition and inferred chlorophyll a. For Storträsk, a high-resolution study of diatom communities and photosynthetic pigments is performed. Both sequences are framed with an age-depth model based on radiogenic dating techniques. In addition, the results are analyzed with statistical tools and fossil diatom data is used to reconstruct lake water pH. The results describe the evolution of Hältingträsk through the mid-Holocene until recent times; the diatom assemblages indicates the area was part of Ancylus Lake and, later of Litorina Sea, and that it was isolated from the Baltic Basin at 6500 cal BP. This is supported by the high concentrations of Fe and Mn, showing the presence of metallic nodules common in marine environments. The change in sediments and the predominance of fragilarioid diatoms, display the succession of the lake (from gloe to flada). Afterwards, the ontogeny of the lake and the development of surrounding peat bog can be tracked with changes in the diatom community and decrease in heavy metals concentrations. The reconstructed pH reveals that Hältingträsk is a naturally acidic lake. Furthermore, signals of agricultural activities and industrialization are recorded in the area, as well as their development, is recorded through shifts in the diatom community and the oscillation of trace metals of both local (Cu, Ni and V) and long (Pb, Zn and Cd) transport. Finally, climatic anomalies such as the Little Ice Age and current climate warming are imprinted in the diatom assemblages and the photosynthetic pigments. The high resolution of subsampling from Storträsk displayed little variation. The faint changes could be attributed to CaCO3 treatment, fish introduction or recent climate warming. However, discern the influence of each of these stressors was not possible.
  • Turtiainen, Harri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    A promising Cu-Ni-PGE containing sulphide ore deposit was discovered in 2009 by Anglo American and since the company has continued studies aiming towards utilisation of the deposit. The discovered deposit lies underneath a Natura 2000 protected mire complex, Viiankiaapa, in Sodankylä municipality in Finnish Lapland. The research and exploration activities in the area are performed with mitigation and preventing actions in order to minimize the deterioration impact to the delicate ecosystem. The more detailed understanding of the hydrogeochemistry of the mire environment in its current state can assist: in monitoring, mitigating and preventing of potential environmental effects due to future mining operations as well as planning the monitoring program. Hydrogeochemical studies, consisting of water and peat sampling at eight sampling points, were carried out along a 1.6 km long study line. Water samples were collected from the surface of the mire as well as within the peat layer and the bottom of the peat layer. Water samples were collected using a mini-piezometer. The analyses for the water samples involved: major components, trace elements and δ18O & δ2H. Groundwater influence in the different sampling points as well as different sections of the peat was investigated using the mentioned chemical and isotopic properties. Peat sampling focused on finding samples which would have different hydraulic properties in order to find the influence of peat in the hydrology in the mire. Hydraulic conductivity of peat samples was determined using rigid wall permeameter test setup. The chemical and physical methods were supplemented by a ground penetrating radar survey completed with 30 and 100 MHz antennas. Studies of peat showed that the hydraulic conductivity varies substantially even inside the rather small study area. Widely recognized correlation between hydraulic conductivity and depth was not observed statistically, but the sampling sites individually show a clear connection with depth and hydraulic conductivity. The influence of the hydraulic properties of peat on to the flow of water in the mire was observed to be significant. In cases where the hydraulic conductivity of peat was very low, water flow may be prevented altogether. This was confirmed with the use of chemical analyses. With higher hydraulic conductivity, groundwater influence was seen more or less throughout the peat profile.
  • Laurila, Minna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Artificial groundwater is produced in Jäniksenlinna water treatment facility in Tuusula by infiltrating surface water from the lake Päijänne to the Jäniksenlinna aquifer. The geochemical properties of the artificial groundwater vary and challenge the water purification process in the Jäniksenlinna facility. The objective of the study was to solve the geochemical quality of the water in different locations inside the aquifer area and in the different steps of the water purification process and to solve the changes in the geochemistry of the water caused by the seasonal changes. The study was put into effect by collecting 20 water samples, 16 of which were from different locations inside the aquifer area and 4 of which were from the different steps of the water purification process in the water plant. The samples were collected during the spring 2018 and repeated during the summer 2018. Each water sample was analyzed for major ions by ion chromatography, trace elements by ICP-MS method and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen with the help of Picarro device. Additionally, each sample was analyzed in the field for electric conductivity, pH and temperature and in laboratory for alkalinity, pH and electric conductivity. The results from the spring and from the summer were handled separately since they differed with statistically significant levels from each other. The results were treated with statistical methods and visualized with tables, graphs, photos from the sampling points and maps. The results show that season changed the proportion of the natural and the artificial groundwater in the sampling points. However the season had no effect on the existence of the artificial groundwater in the sampling points. The proportion of the artificial groundwater was highest while the groundwater level was low, that is during the summer. The sampling points were selected with different distances to the infiltration area. However, the amount of infiltrated water did not decrease with the growing distance to the infiltration area, since the geological structures of the aquifer define the water flow inside the aquifer. The amount of artificial groundwater was lower in one sampling point closer to the infiltration area than in two sampling points further away the infiltration area. The water purification process removes the excess iron and manganese from the artificial groundwater and produces water which fulfills the standards set for the drinking water. The amount of iron and manganese in the drinking water might get even lower by conducting the water from the well 12 to the iron and manganese removal. The study covered the spring and the summer seasons, but in order to study the whole annual picture, the sampling should cover the autumn and the winter seasons as well. Flow modelling could give better picture of the formation of the artificial groundwater in Jäniksenlinna.
  • Clergeaud, Joona (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pro gradu -tutkielma on osa Vantaanjoen ja Helsingin seudun vesiensuojeluyhdistys ry:n hanketta, jossa tutkitaan maanläjitystoiminnan tyypillisiä pinta- ja pohjavesivaikutuksia sekä havainnoidaan lohikalojen lisääntymisalueille tapahtuvia haittoja Vantaanjoen valuma-alueella. Maanläjitystoiminnan moninaisen luonteen vuoksi, toiminnan laajuudesta ja sen vaikutuksista ei ole olemassa luotettavaa tutkimuksiin perustuvaa tietoa. Tutkielmassa selvitettiin millaisia vaikutuksia pilaantumattomien ylijäämämaiden välivarastoinnilla ja läjityksellä on lähiympäristön pohja- ja pintaveden laatuun. Pilaantumattomien ylijäämämaiden osalta tutkimuksia tehtiin kolmessa eri kohteessa Vantaanjoen valuma-alueella. Tutkielma keskittyi valuma-alueella sijaitsevien ympäristöluvanvaraisten- ja muilla luvilla toimivien maanläjitysalueiden velvoitetarkkailutulosten kokoamiseen, tarkasteluun ja paikkatietoanalyysin kehittämiseen. Näiden kriteerien avulla voidaan arvioida läjitysalueiden vesille aiheuttamia riskejä. Tutkimukseen kuului lisäksi pohjaveden purkautumispaikkojen ja luonnonpurojen kartoitusta, vedenlaadun kenttämittauksia ja vesinäytteenottoa. Esiselvitysten perusteella odotettiin maanläjitysalueiden läheisyydessä olevissa pinta- ja pohjavesissä olevan tausta-arvoista kohonneita raskasmetalleja, talousveden laatuvaatimuksista poikkeavia pH-arvoja sekä sähkönjohtavuuden muutoksia. Tulosten perusteella pilaantumattomilla ylijäämämailla on lieviä haitallisia vaikutuksia niin pinta- ja kuin pohjaveden laadullisiin tekijöihin. Pinta- ja pohjavesissä todettiin alueittain kohonneita pitoisuuksia ja arvoja muun muassa sulfaatilla, sähkönjohtavuudella, liukoisessa muodossa raudalla, mangaanilla, uraanilla, rikillä sekä sinkillä. Tutkielman tulokset auttavat arvioimaan läjitysalueiden haitta-ainekuormituksia vesiympäristöön ja suunnittelemaan riskienhallintatoimenpiteitä kuormituksen rajoittamiseksi. Suppeita analyysipaketteja tulisi laajentaa raskasmetallien osalta, sillä vähäinen analyysivalikoima ei edusta kaikkia kohteita. Tavoitteena on ohjata maanläjitystoiminta sellaisille alueille, joilla vesiin kohdistuvat haitat voidaan hallita.
  • Silvennoinen, Joel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    High amounts of H2 have been observed worldwide in deep bedrock aquifers. Sources and interaction processes of H2 within bedrock are poorly known so far, but recognizing those are important on order to identify risks related to various deep bedrock utilizing projects, such as repository of the nuclear waste. Aim of this study was to investigate if there is a correlation between H2 or fractionation factor α (H2O–H2) and the lithology of the host rock. In addition, several proposed low temperature H2 producing processes were reviewed via literature in order to investigate if α (H2O–H2) might help to identify the source of H2. In this study, H2 isotope data collected in previous studies in Finland from Pori, Pyhäsalmi, Juuka and Outokumpu deep bore holes representing various lithologies were used. In addition to α (H2O–H2), other parameters such as relative gas volumes, isotopic composition of water, temperature data, water pH, H2/He ratio of gasses were summarized. As part of the study, in the summer of 2019 new sampling was conducted in the Pinomäki borehole, in Pori by using tube sampling method and also field measurements were applied. Samples were later analyzed with ion chromatographic and spectrometric methods. In the results, isotope geochemical analyses were applied by using H2O–H2 system as a geothermometer. Results of the water analysis from Pori borehole were consistent with previous studies thus confirming two distinct water layers. Volume of H2 (0,4 %) differed considerably when compared with the previous study (28 %). Results of the isotopic composition of the hydrogen gas revealed extremely low values from -816 to -848 ‰ relative VSMOW which are among the most depleted δ2H-H2 values ever measured in the world. According to isotope analysis, in most of the boreholes in the study, except Outokumpu, H2 is not in equilibrium with groundwater when compared to in situ temperatures. α (H2O–H2) values were partially in similar range as fractionation related to some specific hydrogen forming processes, but there wasn’t a clear connection and values from different processes were overlapping each other. H2O–H2 system re-equilibrates relatively fast in a geologic timescale, which means that the possible isotopic fingerprint of H2 origin is lost. On the other hand, since H2 was clearly in a disequilibrium state, it might indicate the presence of possible active H2 forming processes. There wasn’t any clear correlation with host rock lithology and H2 concentration nor α (H2O–H2) either, except in Juuka, where lithology, α (H2O–H2), pH, and H2/He ratio summoned with high H2 volume (12,8 %) strongly indicates serpentinization as origin of H2. There are many challenges in the sampling of deep and narrow bore holes, especially related to the intention of preserving original conditions and also preventing gas contamination. In addition to further H2 sampling, recommendations for further studies include studying H2 producing reactors to investigate the effect of different H2 forming process to the isotope fractionation of H2.
  • Junna, Tuomas (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pedogenic ferromanganese nodules and concretions are prevalent redoximorphic features in tropical and sub-tropical soils. The nodules are typically highly enriched in Fe and Mn that are present as oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides. The formation of nodules happens via precipitation and translocation of metals as the soil redox state undergoes cyclical changes between reductive and oxidizing settings. As the nodule elemental distribution and structure is primarily and expression of the prevailing soil redox conditions, Fe-Mn nodules have the potential to be a useful tool of paleoclimatological analysis. The Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) is a terrestrial archive for study of changes in the monsoon climate system. During Late Miocene, the intensification of the Asian Monsoon system caused an increase in warmth and humidity in inland Eastern Asia during a global trend of increased aridity and decreasing temperatures. Fe-Mn nodules from three different soil horizons, formed 8.07, 7.7 and 3.7 Ma ago in Lantian, southern CLP, were studied to compare nodules from varying sedimentary settings formed under different moisture regimes. Using electron microscopy methods, the structure and elemental distribution of nodules were described to compare their redoximorphic features. Large Fe-Mn nodules from floodplain sediments (8.07 Ma) show a well-developed structure, high metal enrichment and signs of variations in rate of formation and dominant redox states. The soil redox conditions are likely primarily controlled by the river flooding. Nodules from two eolian deposits (7.7 Ma and 3.7 Ma) were, on average smaller and showed less metal enrichment, less elemental differentiation and less variance in the dominant redox conditions. Only small, poorly developed nodules were found from older eolian sediments whereas younger soil horizon contained larger nodules with evidence of higher hydromorphism. While potential for using the nodules from eolian sediments to assess changes in precipitation exists, the lack of paleoclimatological information in smaller nodules, the small sample count, limitations of the methods and variance in depositional settings increase the uncertainty of the interpretation.
  • Hankaankorpi, Tuuli (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The study area is Hyrylä groundwater area, located in southern Finland, in the city center of Tuusula. Hyrylä groundwater area is class 1 groundwater area, and it is classified as a chemical risk area. The Koskenmäki water pumping plant, owned by Keski-Uudenmaan Vesi Kuntayhtymä, is in the groundwater area, where on average 1000 m3 of water is pumped daily for domestic use. The groundwater area is situated in a southwest to northeast orientated esker which is a part of a bigger esker series starting from I-Salpausselkä in Hyvinkää. There is a big southwest to northeast orientated shear zone in the bedrock under the groundwater area where Lake Tuusulanjärvi and Tuusula-river follow the shear zone. The aim of this study was to research the interactions between river water and groundwater in the Hyrylä groundwater area and to get a better understanding of the geology of the area. Additionally, the movements of the groundwater were studied. Based on earlier studies the groundwater is discharging to the Tuusula-river near the Koskenmäki water pumping plant and the river water has been recharging to the groundwater. There are contaminated areas surrounding the old gas station in Hyrylä, where the soil and groundwater are contaminated with oil hydrocarbons, hence it was important to study where the water to Koskenmäki water pumping plant is coming from. Effects of the shear zone to the movements of the groundwater and to the amount of water available for pumping were also examined. The groundwater-river water interactions were studied with thermal methods and seepage meters. Isotopic and chemical tracers were analyzed from the water samples, which were collected from the groundwater observation wells, groundwater discharging to Tuusula-river and from the river water itself. A 3D geological structure model of the groundwater area was made based on earlier gravimetric measurements and drillhole data. The water table measurements from the observation wells were taken at the same time when the water samples were collected. Based on the 3D structure model a groundwater flow model was made to explain the movements of groundwater in Hyrylä. The geology of the groundwater area was examined with ground-penetrating radar, but the measurements were not successful and did not give any useful data for making the 3D model. The results of this study show that the groundwater is discharging to the Tuusula-river near the Koskenmäki water pumping plant. Based on the water analyses done, there was only one water sample with surface water mixed in it. 3D modeling gave a clear picture of the bedrock surface and cross-sections of the soil structure. According to the groundwater flow model, groundwater is flowing to the Koskenmäki water pumping plant from southeast. To the shear zone groundwater flows mostly from east and southeast. From the northwest part of the groundwater area the groundwater is flowing via northeast to the northern parts of the shear zone. The contaminated areas are not in the flow path to Koskenmäki water pumping plant. Based on the water analyses, groundwater discharging to the western parts of Tuusula-river is from a different source than the water discharging to the eastern parts of the river. In the shear zone the groundwater flow direction is to the south and the groundwater discharges to the river southwest of the Koskenmäki water pumping plant.
  • Laasio, Emmi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    As a part of constructing the upcoming repository for spent nuclear fuel ONKALO®, Posiva Oy is investigating the hydrogeological structures of Olkiluoto bedrock. Posiva Flow Log (PFL) drillhole measurements are an important part in characterization of bedrock’s hydraulic properties. The measurements are conducted both from the surface and in the study site of ONKALO tunnel network. Results are used widely at the site from the planning of construction to the water conducting fracture characterization. PFL equipment are capable of measuring groundwater flow originating from a single fracture which enables small scale detection of transmissive fractures in bedrock. Equipment measures temperature variations in a water flow inside an isolated test section to determine the flow rate. Several other equipment for groundwater flow measurement are introduced to highlight the accuracy of PFL. Fractures measured with PFL DIFF were 3D modelled in twelve ONKALO pilot holes (ONK-PH13-20, ONK-PH23, ONK-PH26 and ONK-PH28-29) using FracMan software suitable for fracture network modelling. 3D model described the fracture locations with fracture orientation and pilot hole transmissive fracture traces projected to tunnel walls. Brittle fault zone intersection between the chosen pilot holes were also modelled. Three of the pilot holes (ONK-PH23, ONK-PH28 and ONK-PH29) were selected for the fracture correlation. Pilot hole transmissive fractures were connected with tunnel wall water leaking fractures located with systematic mapping and water leakage mapping. Criteria for connecting the fractures were fracture location, water leakage and fracture orientation. Structure intersections with brittle fault zones were studied individually for each pilot hole. 433 meters of ONKALO tunnels were included in the correlation with total 20 of pilot hole transmissive fractures and 18 tunnel wall water leaking fractures according to systematic mapping. 100 % of ONK-PH23, 75 % of ONK-PH28 and 16,7 % of ONK-PH29 pilot hole transmissive fractures were correlated with tunnel wall water leakages in the corresponding depths. Counterparts were found for nine fractures of total 20 studied fractures based on the listed attributes. Fracture correlation was unsuccessful with 11 of the observed transmissive fractures. Study produced new data for the possible fracture correlations and hydraulic connections were produced in the pilot hole areas. Views and opinions described in this thesis are interpretation of the author and do not necessarily represent Posiva’s views.
  • Huovari, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Espoossa Nuuksion kansallispuiston lähettyvillä sijaitsevan Suomen luontokeskus Haltian kävijämäärät ovat jatkuvasti nousseet sen avaamisesta lähtien. Nuuksion geologinen historia on todella mielenkiintoinen, ja sitä voisi tulevaisuudessa saada luontokeskuksen kävijöiden tietoisuuteen. Alueen geologista historiaa tutkitaan tässä tutkielmassa laajasta näkökulmasta ottaen huomioon erityisesti viime jääkauden loppuvaiheen vaikutus alueen maa- ja kallioperään sekä selvittämällä jääkauden jälkeisen maaperän, ilmaston ja kasvillisuuden kehitystä. Erityistä huomiota kiinnitetään alueelta löytyvään pieneen suohon, jonka kehitystä selvitettiin siitepölyanalyysin sekä raekoon ja orgaanisen aineksen määrän muutosten avulla. Suon keskeltä kairatusta profiilista tehtiin lisäksi kolme ajoitusta, jotta sen syvyysulottuvuus saatiin kiinnitettyä aikaan. Samalla saatiin ikä suoaltaan turpeen muodostumiselle. Uurrehavaintojen sekä rannansiirtymisen avulla pyritään selvittämään suoaltaan ja Haltian ympäristön kehitystä. Rannansiirtymisaineiston perusteella tuotettiin karttoja ja video, jotka havainnollistavat alueella vallinneen muinaisen Itämeren vaiheiden vaikutusta maisemankehitykseen. Uurteiden perusteella jäätikkö virtasi alueen yli ensin pohjoisluoteesta ja lopuksi luoteesta. Suoaltaan pohjalla tavataan karkeampaa materiaalia soraisesta diamiktonista karkeaan silttiin, joka viittaa Baltian jääjärven laskeneen äkillisesti valtamerenpinnan tasolle. Tuotetusta rannansiirtymiskäyrästä selviää, että tutkittava suo on kuroutunut Yoldiamerestä noin 11 400 vuotta sitten. Alueelta löytyvän muinaisrantakivikon alatason perusteella Ancylusjärvivaiheen maksimi sijaitsee Nuuksiossa korkeudella 65 m mpy. Suosta löytyneet siitepölyt kertovat alueella vallinneen aluksi metsätön ja avoin kasvillisuus, jossa vähitellen koivut lisääntyivät. Koivun ollessa valtapuulajina ei alueen ympäristö kuitenkaan ollut vielä täysin metsittynyt suuren ei-puumaisten maakasvien osuuden perusteella. Leppä yleistyi alueella 10 300–9 800 vuotta sitten. Lehmus saapui alueelle 8 500–8 300 vuotta sitten ilmaston lämmetessä. Ilmasto alkoi tästä hieman yli 2 000 vuotta myöhemmin kuitenkin vähitellen viilentyä, ja kuusi yleistyi alueella noin 5 100–4 600 vuotta sitten. Tällöin jalopuut väistyivät vähitellen kuusen tieltä. Metsä muuttui kuusen saapumisen myötä ensin havupuuvaltaiseksi ja lopulta nykyisenlaiseksi sekametsää muistuttavaksi metsäksi. Suoaltaan umpeenkasvu ja sitä kautta soistuminen alkoivat sen reunoilta, ja umpeenkasvu oli todennäköisesti pääosin pohjanmyötäistä. Suoaltaan keskiosat ovat soistuneet kokonaan viimeistään 3 300 vuotta sitten turpeen silmämääräisesti määritetyn alaosan ajoitusiän ollessa 3 375 ± 30 vuotta. Suon turve muuttui lopullisesti saravaltaisesta rahkavaltaiseksi aikaisintaan 2 250 vuotta sitten.