Browsing by Subject "Hymenoptera"

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  • Caterpillar Rearing Group (CRG), LepSoc Africa; Staude, Hermann; MacLean, Marion; Mecenero, Silvia; Pretorius, Rudolph J.; Oberprieler, Rolf G.; van Noort, Simon; Sharp, Allison; Sharp, Ian; Balona, Julio; Bradley, Suncana; Brink, Magriet; Morton, Andrew S.; Bodha, Magda J.; Collins, Steve C.; Grobler, Quartus; Edge, David A.; Williams, Mark C.; Sihvonen, Pasi (2020)
    We present an overview of the known host associations of larval Lepidoptera for southern Africa, based on a database of 11 628 rearings, including all Caterpillar Rearing Group (CRG) records and other published records. Rearings per Lepidoptera family show some bias in the rearing effort towards the more conspicuous families, ectophagous groups and non-detritus-feeders but in general follow species diversity. Recorded Lepidoptera host associations per host family for southern Africa are shown. Data analyses revealed the following general trends: of the 20 most reared species 13 are polyphagous; Fabaceae are the most utilised plant family with 2 122 associations, followed by Asteraceae (600), Malvaceae (564) and Anacardiaceae (476); 98.8 % of hosts are vascular plants; and of the 19 most utilised host species 18 are common trees or shrubs. We discuss possible reasons behind these trends, particularly the high utilisation of Fabaceae and the widespread use of trees and shrubs as hosts. We compare recorded host species numbers with species diversity for the 19 most recorded host families and discuss possible reasons for the low utilisation of four plant families with an exceptionally low percentage of Lepidoptera host species / plant host species diversity. All Lepidoptera families for which more than 100 rearings have been recorded (21 families) utilise one (or two in the case of Pyralidae, Nolidae and Hesperiidae) plant family exponentially more than any of the other families, with resulting histograms forming hyperbolic curves, as are typical of distributions of taxonomic assemblages in nature. We calculate an exponential factor to quantify this phenomenon and show that for all 21 Lepidoptera families one host family is utilised 6–33 times more than the average use of other host families. In this paper, the larvae and adults of 953 African, mostly South African, Lepidoptera species reared by the CRG between January 2016 and June 2019 are illustrated together with pertinent host information. 119 Lepidoptera-parasitoid associations are reported, comprising seven hymenopteran families and one dipteran family. With the current data release, larval host association records are now available for 2 826 Lepidoptera species in the southern African subregion, covering about 25 % of the described fauna.
  • Wirta, Helena K.; Hebert, Paul D. N.; Kaartinen, Riikka; Prosser, Sean W.; Varkonyi, Gergely; Roslin, Tomas (2014)
  • Tarasov, Sergei; Miko, Istvan; Yoder, Matthew; Uyeda, Josef (2019)
  • Wirta, Helena K.; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Hamback, Peter A.; Weingartner, Elisabeth; Rasmussen, Claus; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Schmidt, Niels M.; Gilg, Olivier; Roslin, Tomas (2015)
    How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure for a large part of a high-arctic food web. For this purpose, we apply a combination of recent techniques to describing the links between three predator guilds (insectivorous birds, spiders, and lepidopteran parasitoids) and their two dominant prey orders (Diptera and Lepidoptera). The resultant web shows a dense link structure and no compartmentalization or modularity across the three predator guilds. Thus, both individual predators and predator guilds tap heavily into the prey community of each other, offering versatile scope for indirect interactions across different parts of the web. The current description of a first but single arctic web may serve as a benchmark toward which to gauge future webs resolved by similar techniques. Targeting an unusual breadth of predator guilds, and relying on techniques with a high resolution, it suggests that species in this web are closely connected. Thus, our findings call for similar explorations of link structure across multiple guilds in both arctic and other webs. From an applied perspective, our description of an arctic web suggests new avenues for understanding how arctic food webs are built and function and of how they respond to current climate change. It suggests that to comprehend the community-level consequences of rapid arctic warming, we should turn from analyses of populations, population pairs, and isolated predator-prey interactions to considering the full set of interacting species.
  • Hakala, Sanja Maria; Seppä, Perttu; Heikkilä, Maria; Punttila, Pekka; Sorvari, Jouni; Helanterä, Heikki (2018)
    Coptoformica Muller, 1923 is a subgenus of Formica Linnaeus, 1758 that consists of c. a dozen species of ants that typically inhabit open grassy habitats and build small nest mounds. The most recent addition to the group is Formica fennica Seifert, 2000. The description was based on morphological characters, but the species status has not been confirmed by molecular methods. In this study, we use thirteen DNA microsatellite markers and a partial mitochondrial COI gene sequence to assess the species status of F. fennica, by comparing the genetic variation among samples identified as F. fennica and six other boreal Formica (Coptoformica) species. Most of the species studied form separate, discontinuous clusters in phylogenetic and spatial analyses with only little intraspecific genetic variation. However, both nuclear and mitochondrial markers fail to separate the species pair F. exsecta Nylander, 1846 and F. fennica despite established morphological differences. The genetic variation within the F. exsecta/fennica group is extensive, but reflects spatial rather than morphological differences. Finnish F. fennica populations studied so far should not be considered a separate species, but merely a morph of F. exsecta.
  • Kauppi, Paula; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina (2017)
    Jos allergiset nuha-, silmä- ja astmaoireet ovat vaikeita vuodesta toiseen tavanomaisesta lääkityksestä ¬huolimatta, IgE-välitteiseen allergiaan voidaan antaa siedätyshoitoa. Yleisimmät hoidon aiheet ovat koivu- ja timoteiallergia. Myös eläimille voidaan siedättää, jos tavanomaisen allergialääkityksen teho on riittämätön eikä kontaktia eläimiin pysty kohtuudella välttämään tai jos jo epäsuora kontakti aiheuttaa oireita. Pistiäisallergia on harvinainen, mutta erityinen siedätyshoidon aihe, sillä ampiaisen tai mehiläisen piston aiheuttama anafylaktinen reaktio voi olla hengenvaarallinen.
  • Hakala, Sanja M.; Ittonen, Mats; Seppä, Perttu; Helanterä, Heikki (2020)
    Abstract Understanding how social groups function requires studies on how individuals move across the landscape and interact with each other. Ant supercolonies are extreme cooperative units that may consist of thousands of interconnected nests, and their individuals cooperate over large spatial scales. However, the inner structure of suggested supercolonial (or unicolonial) societies has rarely been extensively studied using both genetic and behavioral analyses. We describe a dense supercolony-like aggregation of more than 1,300 nests of the ant Formica (Coptoformica) pressilabris. We performed aggression assays and found that, while aggression levels were generally low, there was some aggression within the assumed supercolony. The occurrence of aggression increased with distance from the focal nest, in accordance with the genetically viscous population structure we observe by using 10 DNA microsatellite markers. However, the aggressive interactions do not follow any clear pattern that would allow specifying colony borders within the area. The genetic data indicate limited gene flow within and away from the supercolony. Our results show that a Formica supercolony is not necessarily a single unit but can be a more fluid mosaic of aggressive and amicable interactions instead, highlighting the need to study internest interactions in detail when describing supercolonies.
  • Kauppi, Paula; Kukkonen, Anna Kaarina; Alakoskela, Juha-Matti; Pelkonen, Anna; Mäkelä, Mika; Liippo, Jussi (2019)
    Ampiainen aiheuttaa Suomessa suurimman osan pistiäisen pistoihin liittyvistä anafylaksioista. Diagnostiikka on tärkeää sekä pistiäisen tunnistamiseksi että herkistymisen osoittamiseksi. Allergian osoittamiseen käytetään immunoglobuliini E -luokan vasta-aineita ampiaisen ja mehiläisen myrkylle sekä niiden allergeenikomponenteille. Kaikilta yleisreaktion saaneilta tutkitaan seerumin tryptaasin perustaso mastosytoosin poissulkemiseksi. Siedätyshoitoa suositellaan niille, jotka ovat saaneet piston yhteydessä yleistyneen allergisen reaktion.