Browsing by Subject "ICE-AGE"

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  • Garcia-Alix, Antonio; Toney, Jaime L.; Jiménez-Moreno, Gonzalo; Pérez-Martinez, Carmen; Jiménez, Laura; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Anderson, R. Scott; Camuera, Jon; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Ramos-Roman, Maria J. (2020)
    Alpine ecosystems of the southern Iberian Peninsula are among the most vulnerable and the first to respond to modern climate change in southwestern Europe. While major environmental shifts have occurred over the last similar to 1500 years in these alpine ecosystems, only changes in the recent centuries have led to abrupt environmental responses, but factors imposing the strongest stress have been unclear until now. To understand these environmental responses, this study, for the first time, has calibrated an algal lipid-derived temperature proxy (based on long-chain alkyl diols) to instrumental historical data extending alpine temperature reconstructions to 1500 years before present. These novel results highlight the enhanced effect of greenhouse gases on alpine temperatures during the last similar to 200 years and the long-term modulating role of solar forcing. This study also shows that the warming rate during the 20th century (similar to 0.18 degrees C per decade) was double that of the last stages of the Little Ice Age (similar to 0.09 degrees C per decade), even exceeding temperature trends of the high-altitude Alps during the 20th century. As a consequence, temperature exceeded the preindustrial record in the 1950s, and it has been one of the major forcing processes of the recent enhanced change in these alpine ecosystems from southern Iberia since then. Nevertheless, other factors reducing the snow and ice albedo (e.g., atmospheric deposition) may have influenced local glacier loss, since almost steady climate conditions predominated from the middle 19th century to the first decades of the 20th century.
  • Nicolle, Marie; Debret, Maxime; Massei, Nicolas; Colin, Christophe; deVernal, Anne; Divine, Dmitri; Werner, Jojannes P.; Hormes, Anne; Korhola, Atte Antero; Linderholm, Hans W. (2018)
    To put recent climate change in perspective, it is necessary to extend the instrumental climate records with proxy data from paleoclimate archives. Arctic climate variability for the last 2 millennia has been investigated using statistical and signal analyses from three regionally averaged records from the North Atlantic, Siberia and Alaska based on many types of proxy data archived in the Arctic 2k database v1.1.1. In the North Atlantic and Alaska, the major climatic trend is characterized by long-term cooling interrupted by recent warming that started at the beginning of the 19th century. This cooling is visible in the Siberian region at two sites, warming at the others. The cooling of the Little Ice Age (LIA) was identified from the individual series, but it is characterized by wide-range spatial and temporal expression of climate variability, in contrary to the Medieval Climate Anomaly. The LIA started at the earliest by around AD 1200 and ended at the latest in the middle of the 20th century. The widespread temporal coverage of the LIA did not show regional consistency or particular spatial distribution and did not show a relationship with archive or proxy type either. A focus on the last 2 centuries shows a recent warming characterized by a well-marked warming trend parallel with increasing greenhouse gas emissions. It also shows a multidecadal variability likely due to natural processes acting on the internal climate system on a regional scale. A similar to 16-30-year cycle is found in Alaska and seems to be linked to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, whereas similar to 20-30- and similar to 50-90-year periodicities characterize the North Atlantic climate variability, likely in relation with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. These regional features are probably linked to the sea ice cover fluctuations through ice-temperature positive feedback.
  • Charman, D. J.; Beilman, D. W.; Blaauw, M.; Booth, R. K.; Brewer, S.; Chambers, F. M.; Christen, J. A.; Gallego-Sala, A.; Harrison, S. P.; Hughes, P. D. M.; Jackson, S. T.; Korhola, A.; Mauquoy, D.; Mitchell, F. J. G.; Prentice, I. C.; van der Linden, M.; De Vleeschouwer, F.; Yu, Z. C.; Alm, J.; Bauer, I. E.; Corish, Y. M. C.; Garneau, M.; Hohl, V.; Huang, Y.; Karofeld, E.; Le Roux, G.; Loisel, J.; Moschen, R.; Nichols, J. E.; Nieminen, T. M.; MacDonald, G. M.; Phadtare, N. R.; Rausch, N.; Sillasoo, Ue; Swindles, G. T.; Tuittila, E-S.; Ukonmaanaho, L.; Valiranta, M.; van Bellen, S.; van Geel, B.; Vitt, D. H.; Zhao, Y. (2013)
  • Etu-Sihvola, H.; Salo, K.; Naito, Y. I.; Kytokari, M.; Ohkouchi, N.; Oinonen, M.; Heyd, V.; Arppe, L. (2022)
    In this article, we present the results of an isotopic study of diet for the early medieval (Merovingian, Viking, Early Christian) humans buried in the unique Luistari cemetery at Eura (ca. 600-1400 CE), southwestern Finland, the largest cemetery of the region. Isotope analysis was conducted on 37 humans for dentine and bone collagen (delta C-13, delta N-15, and delta S-34), and five of them were also studied using compound-specific nitrogen isotope analysis. Dental enamel and/or bone carbonate delta C-13 values were studied from altogether 65 humans, five cattle, and five sheep/goats. The bone and dentine collagen and carbonate data show that throughout the centuries, freshwater fish was a stable part of the diet for the population. Our results do not show systematic dietary differences between estimated males and females, but differences can be large on the individual level. We also discovered a possible temporal change in the enamel carbonate delta C-13 values that could be related to the increasing role of carbohydrates (e.g., crops) in the diet. Luistari burials are well comparable to contemporary Swedish Viking trading communities like Birka in their higher protein intake. But contrary to the wider Viking network, they do not show the same marine signal.
  • Lahtinen, Maria; Salmi, Anna-Kaisa (2019)
    A stable isotope investigation of a large Medieval population buried in Iin Hamina, northern Finland, has been used to reconstruct palaeodiet. Iin Hamina is situated approximately 30 km away from the modern city Oulu, in close proximity to the Bothnian Bay coast and the river Ii. The material used in this study is human skeletal material from an Iin Hamina cemetery dated as 15 to 17th centuries AD and animal bones excavated in Northern Ostrobothnia from pre-industrial contexts. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved collagen indicate that both freshwater and marine fish was the dominant protein source for the people buried at the Iin Hamina cemetery.
  • Juselius, Teemu; Ravolainen, Virve Tuulia; Zhang, Hui; Piilo, Sanna; Müller, Mitro; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Väliranta, Minna (2022)
    High latitude organic soils form a significant carbon storage and deposition of these soils is largely driven by climate. Svalbard, Norway, has experienced millennial-scale climate variations and in general organic soil processes have benefitted from warm and humid climate phases while cool late Holocene has been unfavourable. In addition to direct effect of cool climate, the advancing glaciers have restricted the vegetation growth, thus soil accumulation. Since the early 1900’s climate has been warming at unprecedented rate, assumingly promoting organic soil establishment. Here we present results of multiple organic soil profiles collected from Svalbard. The profiles have robust chronologies accompanied by soil property analyses, carbon stock estimations and testate amoeba data as a proxy for soil moisture. Our results reveal relatively recent initiation of organic soils across the Isfjorden area. The initiation processes could be linked to glacier retreat, and improvement of growing conditions and soil stabilization. Carbon stock analyses suggested that our sites are hot spots for organic matter accumulation. Testate amoebae data suggested drying of soil surfaces, but the reason remained unresolved. If continued, such a process may lead to carbon release. Our data suggest that detailed palaeoecological data from the Arctic is needed to depict the on-going processes and to estimate future trajectories.
  • Luoto, Tomi P.; Ojala, Antti E. K.; Zajaczkowski, Marek (2019)
    We used fossil Chironomidae assemblages and the transfer function approach to reconstruct summer air temperatures over the past 300 years from a High Arctic lake in Hornsund, Svalbard. Our aims were to compare reconstructed summer temperatures with observed (last 100 years) seasonal temperatures, to determine a potential climate warming break point in the temperature series and to assess the significance and rate of the climate warming trend at the study site. The reconstructed temperatures were consistent with a previous proxy record from Svalbard and showed good correlation with the meteorological observations from Bjornoya and Longyearbyen. From the current palaeoclimate record, we found a significant climate warming threshold in the 1930s, after which the temperatures rapidly increased. We also found that the climate warming trend was strong and statistically significant. Compared with the reconstructed Little Ice Age temperatures in late eighteenth century cooling culmination, the present day summer temperatures are >4 degrees C higher and the temperature increase since the 1930s has been 0.5 degrees C per decade. These results highlight the exceptionally rapid recent warming of southern Svalbard and add invaluable information on the seasonality of High Arctic climate change and Arctic amplification.
  • Rantala, Marttiina V.; Luoto, Tomi P.; Nevalainen, Liisa (2016)
    Widespread ecological reorganizations and increases in organic carbon (OC) in lakes across the Northern Hemisphere have raised concerns about the impact of the ongoing climate warming on aquatic ecosystems and carbon cycling. We employed diverse biogeochemical techniques on a high-resolution sediment record from a subarctic lake in northern Finland (70 degrees N) to examine the direction, magnitude and mechanism of change in aquatic carbon pools prior to and under the anthropogenic warming. Coupled variation in the elemental and isotopic composition of the sediment and a proxy-based summer air temperature reconstruction tracked changes in aquatic production, depicting a decline during a cool climate interval between similar to 1700-1900 C.E. and a subsequent increase over the 20th century. OC accumulation rates displayed similar coeval variation with temperature, mirroring both changes in aquatic production and terrestrial carbon export. Increase in sediment organic content over the 20th century together with high inferred aquatic UV exposure imply that the 20th century increase in OC accumulation is primarily connected to elevated lake production rather than terrestrial inputs. The changes in the supply of autochthonous energy sources were further reflected higher up the benthic food web, as evidenced by biotic stable isotopic fingerprints.