Browsing by Subject "ICU"

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  • Kortelainen, Simon; Curtze, Sami; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Raj, Rahul; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2022)
    Background and purpose Little is currently known about the cost-effectiveness of intensive care of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We evaluated 1-year costs and outcome for patients with AIS treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Materials and methods A single-center retrospective study of patients admitted to an academic ICU with AIS between 2003 and 2013. True healthcare expenditure was obtained up to 1 year after admission and adjusted to consumer price index of 2019. Patient outcome was 12-month functional outcome and mortality. We used multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify independent predictors of favorable outcomes and linear regression analysis to assess factors associated with costs. We calculated the effective cost per survivor (ECPS) and effective cost per favorable outcome (ECPFO). Results The study population comprised 154 patients. Reasons for ICU admission were: decreased consciousness level (47%) and need for respiratory support (40%). There were 68 (44%) 1 year survivors, of which 27 (18%) had a favorable outcome. High age (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91-0.98) and high hospital admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97) were independent predictors of poor outcomes. Increased age had a cost ratio of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) per added year. The ECPS and ECPFO were 115,628euro and 291,210euro, respectively. Conclusions Treatment of AIS in the ICU is resource-intense, and in an era predating mechanical thrombectomy the outcome is often poor, suggesting a need for further research into cost-efficacy of ICU care for AIS patients.
  • Andersen-Ranberg, Nina; Poulsen, Lone M.; Perner, Anders; Hästbacka, Johanna; Morgan, Matthew P. G.; Citerio, Giuseppe; Oxenboll-Collet, Marie; Weber, Sven-Olaf; Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Bestle, Morten H.; Uslu, Bulent; Pedersen, Helle B. S.; Nielsen, Louise G.; Damgaard, Kjeld; Jensen, Troels B.; Sommer, Trine; Dey, Nilanjan; Mathiesen, Ole; Granholm, Anders (2022)
    Background Delirium is highly prevalent in the intensive care unit (ICU) and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The antipsychotic haloperidol is the most frequently used agent to treat delirium although this is not supported by solid evidence. The agents intervening against delirium in the intensive care unit (AID-ICU) trial investigates the effects of haloperidol versus placebo for the treatment of delirium in adult ICU patients. Methods This protocol describes the secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analyses of the primary and secondary outcomes up to day 90 of the AID-ICU trial. We will use Bayesian linear regression models for all count outcomes and Bayesian logistic regression models for all dichotomous outcomes. We will adjust for stratification variables (site and delirium subtype) and use weakly informative priors supplemented with sensitivity analyses using sceptical priors. We will present results as absolute differences (mean differences and risk differences) and relative differences (ratios of means and relative risks). Posteriors will be summarised using median values as point estimates and percentile-based 95% credibility intervals. Probabilities of any benefit/harm, clinically important benefit/harm and clinically unimportant differences will be presented for all outcomes. Discussion The results of this secondary, pre-planned Bayesian analysis will complement the primary frequentist analysis of the AID-ICU trial and facilitate a nuanced and probabilistic interpretation of the trial results.
  • Rentola, Raisa; Hästbacka, Johanna; Heinonen, Erkki; Rosenberg, Per H.; Häggblom, Tom; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2018)
    Arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis is the traditional method for measuring the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. In mechanically ventilated patients a continuous noninvasive monitoring of carbon dioxide would obviously be attractive. In the current study, we present a novel formula for noninvasive estimation of arterial carbon dioxide. Eighty-one datasets were collected from 19 anesthetized and mechanically ventilated pigs. Eleven animals were mechanically ventilated without interventions. In the remaining eight pigs the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was manipulated. The new formula (Formula 1) is PaCO2 = PETCO2 + k(PETO2 - PaO2) where PaO2 was calculated from the oxygen saturation. We tested the agreements of this novel formula and compared it to a traditional method using the baseline PaCO2 - ETCO2 gap added to subsequently measured, end-tidal carbon dioxide levels (Formula 2). The mean difference between PaCO2 and calculated carbon dioxide (Formula 1) was 0.16 kPa (+/- SE 1.17). The mean difference between PaCO2 and carbon dioxide with Formula 2 was 0.66 kPa (+/- SE 0.18). With a mixed linear model excluding cases with cardiorespiratory collapse, there was a significant difference between formulae (p <0.001), as well as significant interaction between formulae and time (p <0.001). In this preliminary animal study, this novel formula appears to have a reasonable agreement with PaCO2 values measured with ABG analysis, but needs further validation in human patients.
  • Perner, Anders; Hjortrup, Peter B.; Pettilä, Ville (2018)
  • Smeds, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Hoppu, Sanna; Laitio, Ruut; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Curtze, Sami; Sibolt, Gerli; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Raj, Rahul (2022)
    Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) entails significant mortality and morbidity. Severely ill ICH patients are treated in intensive care units (ICUs), but data on 1-year healthcare costs and patient care cost-effectiveness are lacking. Methods: Retrospective multi-center study of 959 adult patients treated for spontaneous ICH from 2003 to 2013. The primary outcomes were 12-month mortality or permanent disability, defined as being granted a permanent disability allowance or pension by the Social Insurance Institution by 2016. Total healthcare costs were hospital, rehabilitation, and social security costs within 12 months. A multivariable linear regression of log transformed cost data, adjusting for case mix, was used to assess independent factors associated with costs. Results: Twelve-month mortality was 45% and 51% of the survivors were disabled at the end of follow-up. The mean 12-month total cost was euro49,754, of which rehabilitation, tertiary hospital and social security costs accounted for 45%, 39%, and 16%, respectively. The highest effective cost per independent survivor (ECPIS) was noted among patients aged >70 years with brainstem ICHs, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, larger hematoma volumes, intraventricular hemorrhages, and ICH scores of 3. In multivariable analysis, age, GCS score, and severity of illness were associated independently with 1-year healthcare costs. Conclusions: Costs associated with ICHs vary between patient groups, and the ECPIS appears highest among patients older than 70 years and those with brainstem ICHs and higher ICH scores. One-third of financial resources were used for patients with favorable outcomes. Further detailed cost-analysis studies for patients with an ICH are required.
  • Tirkkonen, Joonas; Tamminen, Tero; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2017)
    Background: An abundance of studies have investigated the impact of rapid response teams (RRTs) on in-hospital cardiac arrest rates. However, existing RRT data appear highly variable in terms of both study quality and reported uses of limitations of care, patient survival and patient long-term outcome. Methods: A systematic electronic literature search (January, 1990-March, 2016) of the PubMed and Cochrane databases was performed. Bibliographies of articles included in the full-text review were searched for additional studies. A predefined RRT cohort quality score (range 0-17) was used to evaluate studies independently by two reviewers. Results: Twenty-nine studies with a total of 157,383 RRT activations were included in this review. The quality of data reporting related to RRT patients was assessed as modest, with a median quality score of 8 (range 2-11). Data from the included studies indicate that a median 8.1% of RRT reviews result in limitations of medical treatment (range 2.1-25%) and 23% (8.2-56%) result in a transfer to intensive care. A median of 29% (6.9-35%) of patients transferred to intensive care died during that admission. The median hospital mortality of patients reviewed by RRT is 26% (12-60%), and the median 30-day mortality rate is 29% (8-39%). Data on long-term survival is minimal. No data on functional outcomes was identified. Conclusions: Patients reviewed by rapid response teams have a high and variable mortality rate, and limitations of care are commonly used. Data on the long-term outcomes of RRT are lacking and needed. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Puntillo, Kathleen A.; Max, Adeline; Timsit, Jean-Francois; Ruckly, Stephane; Chanques, Gerald; Robleda, Gemma; Roche-Campo, Ferran; Mancebo, Jordi; Divatia, Jigeeshu V.; Soares, Marcio; Ionescu, Daniela C.; Grintescu, Ioana M.; Maggiore, Salvatore Maurizio; Rusinova, Katerina; Owczuk, Radoslaw; Egerod, Ingrid; Papathanassoglou, Elizabeth D. E.; Kyranou, Maria; Joynt, Gavin M.; Burghi, Gaston; Freebairn, Ross C.; Ho, Kwok M.; Kaarlola, Anne; Gerritsen, Rik T.; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Sulaj, Miroslav M. S.; Norrenberg, Michelle; Benoit, Dominique D.; Seha, Myriam S. G.; Hennein, Akram; Pereira, Fernando J.; Benbenishty, Julie S.; Abroug, Fekri; Aquilina, Andrew; Monte, Julia R. C.; An, Youzhong; Azoulay, Elie (2018)
    The intensity of procedural pain in intensive care unit (ICU) patients is well documented. However, little is known about procedural pain distress, the psychological response to pain. Post hoc analysis of a multicenter, multinational study of procedural pain. Pain distress was measured before and during procedures (0-10 numeric rating scale). Factors that influenced procedural pain distress were identified by multivariable analyses using a hierarchical model with ICU and country as random effects. A total of 4812 procedures were recorded (3851 patients, 192 ICUs, 28 countries). Pain distress scores were highest for endotracheal suctioning (ETS) and tracheal suctioning, chest tube removal (CTR), and wound drain removal (median [IQRs] = 4 [1.6, 1.7]). Significant relative risks (RR) for a higher degree of pain distress included certain procedures: turning (RR = 1.18), ETS (RR = 1.45), tracheal suctioning (RR = 1.38), CTR (RR = 1.39), wound drain removal (RR = 1.56), and arterial line insertion (RR = 1.41); certain pain behaviors (RR = 1.19-1.28); pre-procedural pain intensity (RR = 1.15); and use of opioids (RR = 1.15-1.22). Patient-related variables that significantly increased the odds of patients having higher procedural pain distress than pain intensity were pre-procedural pain intensity (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05); pre-hospital anxiety (OR = 1.76); receiving pethidine/meperidine (OR = 4.11); or receiving haloperidol (OR = 1.77) prior to the procedure. Procedural pain has both sensory and emotional dimensions. We found that, although procedural pain intensity (the sensory dimension) and distress (the emotional dimension) may closely covary, there are certain factors than can preferentially influence each of the dimensions. Clinicians are encouraged to appreciate the multidimensionality of pain when they perform procedures and use this knowledge to minimize the patient's pain experience.
  • Pietiläinen, Laura; Hästbacka, Johanna; Bäcklund, Minna; Parviainen, Ilkka; Pettilä, Ville; Reinikainen, Matti (2018)
    We assessed the association between the premorbid functional status (PFS) and 1-year mortality and functional status of very old intensive care patients. Using a nationwide quality registry, we retrieved data on patients treated in Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during the period May 2012aEuro'April 2013. Of 16,389 patients, 1827 (11.1%) were very old (aged 80 years or older). We defined a person with good functional status as someone independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs without assistance; a person with poor functional status was defined as needing assistance for ADL or being unable to climb stairs. We adjusted for severity of illness and calculated the impact of PFS. Overall, hospital mortality was 21.3% and 1-year mortality was 38.2%. For emergency patients (73.5% of all), hospital mortality was 28% and 1-year mortality was 48%. The functional status at 1 year was comparable to the PFS in 78% of the survivors. PFS was poor for 43.3% of the patients. A poor PFS predicted an increased risk of in-hospital death, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.50 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.10), and of 1-year mortality, OR 2.18 (1.67-2.85). PFS data significantly improved the prediction of 1-year mortality. Of very old ICU patients, 62% were alive 1 year after ICU admission and 78% of the survivors had a functional status comparable to the premorbid situation. A poor PFS doubled the odds of death within a year. Knowledge of PFS improved the prediction of 1-year mortality.
  • Pietiläinen, Laura; Bäcklund, Minna; Hästbacka, Johanna; Reinikainen, Matti (2022)
    Background Poor premorbid functional status (PFS) is associated with mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients aged 80 years or older. In the subgroup of very old ICU patients, the ability to recover from critical illness varies irrespective of age. To assess the predictive ability of PFS also among the patients aged 85 or older we set out the current study. Methods In this nationwide observational registry study based on the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database, we analysed data of patients aged 85 years or over treated in ICUs between May 2012 and December 2015. We defined PFS as good for patients who had been independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs and as poor for those who were dependent on help or unable to climb stairs. To assess patients' functional outcome one year after ICU admission, we created a functional status score (FSS) based on how many out of five physical activities (getting out of bed, moving indoors, dressing, climbing stairs, and walking 400 m) the patient could manage. We also assessed the patients' ability to return to their previous type of accommodation. Results Overall, 2037 (3.3% of all adult ICU patients) patients were 85 years old or older. The average age of the study population was 87 years. Data on PFS were available for 1446 (71.0%) patients (good for 48.8% and poor for 51.2%). The one-year mortalities of patients with good and those with poor PFS were 29.2% and 50.1%, respectively, p < 0.001. Poor PFS increased the probability of death within 12 months, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-2.76, p < 0.001. For 69.5% of survivors, the FSS one year after ICU admission was unchanged or higher than their premorbid FSS and 84.2% of patients living at home before ICU admission still lived at home. Conclusions Poor PFS doubled the odds of death within one year. For most survivors, functional status was comparable to the premorbid status.
  • AID-ICU Cohort Study Co-authors; Loisa, Pekka (2018)
    We assessed the prevalence and variables associated with haloperidol use for delirium in ICU patients and explored any associations of haloperidol use with 90-day mortality. All acutely admitted, adult ICU patients were screened during a 2-week inception period. We followed the patient throughout their ICU stay and assessed 90-day mortality. We assessed patients and their variables in the first 24 and 72 h in ICU and studied their association together with that of ICU characteristics with haloperidol use. We included 1260 patients from 99 ICUs in 13 countries. Delirium occurred in 314/1260 patients [25% (95% confidence interval 23-27)] of whom 145 received haloperidol [46% (41-52)]. Other interventions for delirium were benzodiazepines in 36% (31-42), dexmedetomidine in 21% (17-26), quetiapine in 19% (14-23) and olanzapine in 9% (6-12) of the patients with delirium. In the first 24 h in the ICU, all subtypes of delirium [hyperactive, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 29.7 (12.9-74.5); mixed 10.0 (5.0-20.2); hypoactive 3.0 (1.2-6.7)] and circulatory support 2.7 (1.7-4.3) were associated with haloperidol use. At 72 h after ICU admission, circulatory support remained associated with subsequent use of haloperidol, aOR 2.6 (1.1-6.9). Haloperidol use within 0-24 h and within 0-72 h of ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality [aOR 1.2 (0.5-2.5); p = 0.66] and [aOR 1.9 (1.0-3.9); p = 0.07], respectively. In our study, haloperidol was the main pharmacological agent used for delirium in adult patients regardless of delirium subtype. Benzodiazepines, other anti-psychotics and dexmedetomidine were other frequently used agents. Haloperidol use was not statistically significantly associated with increased 90-day mortality.
  • Moller, Morten Hylander; Sigurosson, Martin Ingi; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Rehn, Marius; Yli-Hankala, Arvi; Chew, Michelle S. (2022)
    The Clinical Practice Committee of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine endorses the clinical practice guideline Transfusion strategies in bleeding critically ill adults: a clinical practice guideline from the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. This trustworthy clinical practice guideline serves as a useful decision aid for Nordic anaesthesiologists caring for critically ill patients with bleeding.
  • Cnossen, Maryse C.; Huijben, Jilske A.; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Volovici, Victor; van Essen, Thomas; Polinder, Suzanne; Nelson, David; Ercole, Ari; Stocchetti, Nino; Citerio, Giuseppe; Peul, Wilco C.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Lingsma, Hester F.; CENTER-TBI Investigators; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2017)
    Background: No definitive evidence exists on how intracranial hypertension should be treated in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is therefore likely that centers and practitioners individually balance potential benefits and risks of different intracranial pressure (ICP) management strategies, resulting in practice variation. The aim of this study was to examine variation in monitoring and treatment policies for intracranial hypertension in patients with TBI. Methods: A 29-item survey on ICP monitoring and treatment was developed on the basis of literature and expert opinion, and it was pilot-tested in 16 centers. The questionnaire was sent to 68 neurotrauma centers participating in the Collaborative European Neurotrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. Results: The survey was completed by 66 centers (97% response rate). Centers were mainly academic hospitals (n = 60, 91%) and designated level I trauma centers (n = 44, 67%). The Brain Trauma Foundation guidelines were used in 49 (74%) centers. Approximately 90% of the participants (n = 58) indicated placing an ICP monitor in patients with severe TBI and computed tomographic abnormalities. There was no consensus on other indications or on peri-insertion precautions. We found wide variation in the use of first-and second-tier treatments for elevated ICP. Approximately half of the centers were classified as using a relatively aggressive approach to ICP monitoring and treatment (n = 32, 48%), whereas the others were considered more conservative (n = 34, 52%). Conclusions: Substantial variation was found regarding monitoring and treatment policies in patients with TBI and intracranial hypertension. The results of this survey indicate a lack of consensus between European neurotrauma centers and provide an opportunity and necessity for comparative effectiveness research.
  • Husu, Henrik L.; Leppäniemi, Ari K.; Mentula, Panu J. (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Selection of patients for open abdomen (OA) treatment in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is challenging. Treatment related morbidity and risk of adverse events are high; however, refractory abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is potentially lethal. Factors influencing the decision to initiate OA treatment are clinically important. We aimed to study these factors to help understand what influences the selection of patients for OA treatment in SAP. Methods A single center study of patients with SAP that underwent OA treatment compared with conservatively treated matched controls. Results Within study period, 47 patients treated with OA were matched in a 1:1 fashion with conservatively treated control patients. Urinary output under 20 ml/h (OR 5.0 95% CI 1.8-13.7) and ACS (OR 4.6 95% CI 1.4-15.2) independently associated with OA treatment. Patients with OA treatment had significantly more often visceral ischemia (34%) than controls (6%), P = 0.002. Mortality among patients with visceral ischemia was 63%. Clinically meaningful parameters predicting developing ischemia were not found. OA treatment associated with higher overall 90-day mortality rate (43% vs 17%, P = 0.012) and increased need for necrosectomy (55% vs 21%, P = 0.001). Delayed primary fascial closure was achieved in 33 (97%) patients that survived past OA treatment. Conclusion Decreased urine output and ACS were independently associated with the choice of OA treatment in patients with SAP. Underlying visceral ischemia was strikingly common in patients undergoing OA treatment, but predicting ischemia in these patients seems difficult.
  • Husu, Henrik Leonard; Leppäniemi, Ari Kalevi; Mentula, Panu Juhani (2021)
    Background Selection of patients for open abdomen (OA) treatment in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is challenging. Treatment related morbidity and risk of adverse events are high; however, refractory abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is potentially lethal. Factors influencing the decision to initiate OA treatment are clinically important. We aimed to study these factors to help understand what influences the selection of patients for OA treatment in SAP. Methods A single center study of patients with SAP that underwent OA treatment compared with conservatively treated matched controls. Results Within study period, 47 patients treated with OA were matched in a 1:1 fashion with conservatively treated control patients. Urinary output under 20 ml/h (OR 5.0 95% CI 1.8-13.7) and ACS (OR 4.6 95% CI 1.4-15.2) independently associated with OA treatment. Patients with OA treatment had significantly more often visceral ischemia (34%) than controls (6%), P = 0.002. Mortality among patients with visceral ischemia was 63%. Clinically meaningful parameters predicting developing ischemia were not found. OA treatment associated with higher overall 90-day mortality rate (43% vs 17%, P = 0.012) and increased need for necrosectomy (55% vs 21%, P = 0.001). Delayed primary fascial closure was achieved in 33 (97%) patients that survived past OA treatment. Conclusion Decreased urine output and ACS were independently associated with the choice of OA treatment in patients with SAP. Underlying visceral ischemia was strikingly common in patients undergoing OA treatment, but predicting ischemia in these patients seems difficult.