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  • Valiev, Rashid R.; Benkyi, Isaac; Konyshev, Yuri; Fliegl, Heike; Sundholm, Dage (2018)
    Magnetically induced current densities and ring-current pathways have been calculated at density functional theory (DFT) and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) levels of theory for a set of expanded porphyrins consisting of five or six pyrrolic rings. The studied molecules are sapphyrin, cyclo [6]pyrrole, rubyrin, orangarin, rosarin, and amethyrin. Different functionals have been employed to assess the functional dependence of the ring-current strength susceptibility. Vertical singlet and triplet excitation energies have been calculated at the second-order approximate coupled cluster (CC2), expanded multiconfigurational quasi-degenerate perturbation theory (XMC-DPT2), and time-dependent density functional theory levels. The lowest electronic transition of the antiaromatic molecules was found to be pure magnetic transitions providing an explanation for the large paratropic contribution to the total current density. Rate constants for different nonradiative deactivation channels of the lowest excited states have been calculated yielding lifetimes and quantum yields of the lowest excited singlet and triplet states. The calculations show that the spin-orbit interaction between the lowest singlet (S-0) and triplet (T-1) states of the antiaromatic molecules is strong, whereas for the aromatic molecule the spin-orbit coupling vanishes. The experimentally detected fluorescence from S-2 to S-0 of amethyrin has been explained. The study shows that there are correlations between the aromatic character and optical properties of the investigated expanded porphyrins.
  • Myllys, Nanna; Ponkkonen, Tuomo; Passananti, Monica; Elm, Jonas; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Olenius, Tinja (2018)
    The role of a strong organobase, guanidine, in sulfuric acid-driven new-particle formation is studied using state-of-the-art quantum chemical methods and molecular cluster formation simulations. Cluster formation mechanisms at the molecular level are resolved, and theoretical results on cluster stability are confirmed with mass spectrometer measurements. New-particle formation from guanidine and sulfuric acid molecules occurs without thermodynamic barriers under studied conditions, and clusters are growing close to a 1:1 composition of acid and base. Evaporation rates of the most stable clusters are extremely low, which can be explained by the proton transfers and symmetrical cluster structures. We compare the ability of guanidine and dimethylamine to enhance sulfuric acid-driven particle formation and show that more than 2000-fold concentration of dimethylamine is needed to yield as efficient particle formation as in the case of guanidine. At similar conditions, guanidine yields 8 orders of magnitude higher particle formation rates compared to dimethylamine. Highly basic compounds such as guanidine may explain experimentally observed particle formation events at low precursor vapor concentrations, whereas less basic and more abundant bases such as ammonia and amines are likely to explain measurements at high concentrations.
  • Rabaa, Hassan; Omary, Mohammad A.; Taubert, Stefan; Sundholm, Dage (2018)
    The molecular structure of stacked cyclic trinuclear gold(I) complexes [Au-3(RN=CR'(3)](n), with n = 1-4, where R = H, methyl (Me), cyclopentyl ((c)Pe), and phenyl (Ph) and R' = OH and methoxy (OMe) were studied computationally at the second-order Moller-Plesset (MP2) and density functional theory (DFT) levels of theory. At the DFT level, the aurophilic and dispersion interactions were accounted for by using the TPSS functional in combination with the semiempirical D3 correction. The structure optimizations yielded the lowest energy for a slided stacked structure of the [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)](2) dimer, where monomers are slightly shifted relative to one another. At the MP2 level, the slided structure is 32 kJ/mol more stable than the staggered dimer structure, which in turn is energetically 11 kJ/mol below the eclipsed structure. The calculations show that aromatic ligands lead to a planar and prismatic structure of [Au-3(PhN=COMe)(3)](4), whereas for [Au-3('PeN=COMe)(3)](4), a chair conformation is obtained due to steric effects. Excitation energies were calculated for [Au-3(RN=CR')(3)] and [Au-3(RN=CR'(3)](2) with R = H, Me, and 'Pe and R' = OH and OMe at the time-dependent DFT level using the optimized molecular structures of the singlet ground state. To simulate the luminescence spectra, the lowest triplet excitation energy was also calculated for the molecular structure of the lowest triplet state. The calculated excitation energies of [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)] and [Au-3(HN=COH)(3)](2) are compared with values obtained at the approximate singles and doubles coupled cluster (CC2) and the second-order algebraic diagrammatic construction (ADC(2)) levels of theory. The calculated absorption and emission energies reproduce the experimental trends, with extremely large Stokes shifts. A solvoluminescence mechanism is also proposed.