Browsing by Subject "ILLNESS"

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  • Siikamäki, Heli; Kivela, Pia; Fotopoulos, Mikael; Kantele, Anu (2017)
    Background: Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce. Method: Data on infections of Finnish travellers during 2010-2012 were retrieved from the database of SOS International, an assistance organization covering 95% of Finns requiring aid abroad. The study included 30,086 cases. For incidence calculation, the data were linked to the numbers of Finns visiting these regions during the same period as recorded by the Official Statistics of Finland. Results: The incidence of infections was particularly high in Africa, southern Europe plus the eastern Mediterranean, and Asia plus Oceania. The most frequent diagnoses were acute gastroenteritis (38.0%) and respiratory-tract infections (RTI) (34.5%), followed by infections of the ear (12.6%), skin or subcutaneous tissue (5.1%), urogenital tract (4.2%), eye (3.1%), and systemic febrile infections (2.2%). Vaccinepreventable diseases (VPD) accounted for 0.8% of cases, with varicella as most (49%) and influenza as second-most (27%) common. Conclusions: Incidence of infections was higher in southern than in eastern and western Europe. Gastroenteritis and RTI proved the most frequent diagnoses, whereas systemic febrile infections were uncommon. Despite pre-travel immunizations, VPDs still occurred; pre-travel consultation should cover both varicella and influenza. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ojansuu, Ilkka; Putkonen, Hanna; Tiihonen, Jari (2018)
    Purpose: To analyze the causes of mortality among patients committed to compulsory forensic psychiatric hospital treatment in Finland during 1980-2009 by categorizing the causes of mortality into somatic diseases, suicides and other unnatural deaths.Materials and methods: The causes of mortality were analyzed among 351 patients who died during the follow-up. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of deaths by using the subject-years methods with 95% confidence intervals, assuming a Poisson distribution. The expected number of deaths was calculated on the basis of sex-, age- and calendar-period-specific mortality rates for the Finnish population.Results: The vast majority (249/351) of deaths were due to a somatic disease with SMR of 2.6 (mean age at death 61 years). Fifty nine patients committed suicide with a SMR of 7.1 (mean age at death 40 years). Four patients were homicide victims (mean age at death 40 years) and 32 deaths were accidental (mean age at death 52 years). The combined homicides and accidental deaths resulted in a SMR of 1.7.Conclusions: The results of this study point out that the high risk for suicide should receive attention when the hospital treatment and the outpatient care is being organized for forensic psychiatric patients. In addition, the risk of accidents should be evaluated and it should be assured that the patients receive proper somatic healthcare during the forensic psychiatric treatment and that it continues also in the outpatient setting.
  • SICS Study Grp; Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J.; Wiersema, Renske; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C. (2019)
    Objectives: Caregivers use clinical examination to timely recognize deterioration of a patient, yet data on the prognostic value of clinical examination are inconsistent. In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I, we evaluated the association of clinical examination findings with 90-day mortality in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective single-center cohort study. Setting: ICU of a single tertiary care level hospital between March 27, 2015, and July 22, 2017. Patients: All consecutive adults acutely admitted to the ICU and expected to stay for at least 24 hours. Interventions: A protocolized clinical examination of 19 clinical signs conducted within 24 hours of admission. Measurements Main Results: Independent predictors of 90-day mortality were identified using multivariable logistic regression analyses. Model performance was compared with established prognostic risk scores using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves. Robustness of our findings was tested by internal bootstrap validation and adjustment of the threshold for statistical significance. A total of 1,075 patients were included, of whom 298 patients (28%) had died at 90-day follow-up. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age and norepinephrine infusion rate demonstrated that the combination of higher respiratory rate, higher systolic blood pressure, lower central temperature, altered consciousness, and decreased urine output was independently associated with 90-day mortality (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.74; 95% CI, 0.71-0.78). Clinical examination had a similar discriminative value as compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II (area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.79; p = 0.29) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.74-0.80; p = 0.16) and was significantly better than the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.64-0.71; p <0.001). Conclusions: Clinical examination has reasonable discriminative value for assessing 90-day mortality in acutely admitted ICU patients. In our study population, a single, protocolized clinical examination had similar prognostic abilities compared with the Simplified Acute Physiology Score-II and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-IV and outperformed the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score.
  • Mars, Nina; Kerola, Anne M.; Kauppi, Markku J.; Pirinen, Matti; Elonheimo, Outi; Sokka-Isler, Tuulikki (2022)
    Objective: To identify the patterns of healthcare resource utilization and unmet needs of persistent disease activity, pain, and physical disability in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by cluster analysis. Method: Patients attending the Jyvaskyla Central Hospital rheumatology unit, Finland, were, from 2007, prospectively enrolled in a clinical database. We identified all RA patients in 2010-2014 and combined their individual-level data with well-recorded administrative data on all public healthcare contacts in fiscal year 2014. We ran agglomerative hierarchical clustering (Ward's method), with 28-joint Disease Activity Score with three variables, Health Assessment Questionnaire index, pain (visual analogue scale 0-100), and total annual health service-related direct costs (euro) as clustering variables. Results: Complete-case analysis of 939 patients derived four clusters. Cluster C1 (remission and low costs, 550 patients) comprised relatively young patients with low costs, low disease activity, and minimal disability. C2 (chronic pain, disability, and fatigue, 269 patients) included those with the highest pain and fatigue levels, and disability was fairly common. C3 (inflammation, 97 patients) had rather high mean costs and the highest average disease activity, but lower average levels of pain and less disability than C2, highlighting the impact of effective treatment. C4 (comorbidities and high costs, 23 patients) was characterized by exceptionally high costs incurred by comorbidities. Conclusions: The majority of RA patients had favourable outcomes and low costs. However, a large group of patients was distinguished by chronic pain, disability, and fatigue not unambiguously linked to disease activity. The highest healthcare costs were linked to high disease activity or comorbidities.
  • Fallenius, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Raj, Rahul (2017)
    Background: Intensive care scoring systems are widely used in intensive care units (ICU) around the world for case-mix adjustment in research and benchmarking. The aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of common intensive care scoring systems in predicting mid-term mortality in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated in intensive care units (ICU). Methods: We performed a retrospective observational study including adult patients with spontaneous ICH treated in Finnish ICUs during 2003-2012. We used six-month mortality as the primary outcome of interest. We used logistic regression to customize Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II, Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) for six-month mortality prediction. To assess the usefulness of the scoring systems, we compared their discrimination and calibration with two simpler models consisting of age, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score, and premorbid functional status. Results: Totally 3218 patients were included. Overall six-month mortality was 48%. APACHE II and SAPS II outperformed SOFA (area under the receiver operator curve [AUC] 0.83 and 0.84, respectively, vs. 0.73) but did not show any benefit over the simpler models in terms of discrimination (AUC 0.84, p > 0.05 for all models). SAPS II showed satisfactory calibration (p = 0.058 in the Hosmer-Lemeshow test), whereas all other models showed poor calibration (p <0.05). Discussion: In this retrospective multi-center study, we found that SAPS II and APACHE II were of no additional prognostic value to a simple model based on only age and GCS score for patients with ICH treated in the ICU. In fact, the major predictive ability of APACHE II and SAPS II comes from their age and GCS score components. SOFA performed significantly poorer than the other models and is not applicable as a prognostic model for ICH patients. All models displayed poor calibration, highlighting the need for improved prognostic models for ICH patients. Conclusion: The common intensive care scoring systems did not outperform a simpler model based on only age and GCS score. Thus, the use of previous intensive care scoring systems is not warranted in ICH patients.
  • Oristo, Satu; Rönnqvist, Maria; Aho, Mika; Sovijärvi, Ava; Hannila-Handelberg, Tuula; Horman, Ari; Nikkari, Simo; Kinnunen, Paula M.; Maunula, Leena (2017)
    This study investigated the presence of norovirus and adenovirus, especially enteric adenovirus, on the environmental surfaces (n = 481) and military conscripts' hands (n = 109) in two Finnish garrisons (A and B) in 2013 and 2014. A questionnaire study was conducted to reveal possible correlations between viral findings on the conscripts' hands and their acute gastroenteritis symptoms. In addition to the swab samples, 14 fecal samples were obtained for viral analysis. In total, norovirus was present in 9.0 % of the surface swabs in 2013, whereas enteric adenovirus was present in 0.0 % and non-enteric adenovirus in 9.4 %. In the same year, 2.6 % of the hand swabs contained norovirus, 2.6 % enteric adenovirus, and 40.3 % non-enteric adenovirus. Norovirus GI.6 was continually detected on the surfaces of garrison A, and identical virus was detected in some of the fecal samples. In garrison B, two slightly different norovirus GII.4 strains were present on the surfaces. The questionnaires revealed no recent acute gastroenteritis cases in garrison A, but in garrison B, where the norovirus-positive hand swabs were collected, 30.6 % of the conscripts reported of recent symptoms. In 2014, norovirus was rarely detected, but adenovirus was again frequently present, both on the surfaces and hands. Taken together, our results suggest that gastroenteritis outbreaks occurred in 2013, but not in 2014. Due to the low number of hand swabs positive for enteric viruses, no conclusions about associations between viral findings and gastroenteritis symptoms could be drawn. This study increased our understanding of the possible transmission of viruses via contaminated environment and hands.
  • Mäntylä, Teemu; Kieseppä, Tuula; Suvisaari, Jaana; Raij, Tuukka T. (2021)
    Poor insight is a central characteristic of psychotic disorders, and it has been suggested to result from a general dysfunction in self-reflection. However, brain processing of clinical insight and more general self-reflection has not been directly compared. We compared tasks on (1) self-reflection on psychosis-related mental functioning (clinical insight, in patients only), (2) self-reflection on mental functioning unrelated to psychosis (general metacognition), and (3) semantic control during blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging with 19 first-episode psychosis patients and 24 control participants. Arterial-spin-labeling (ASL) images were collected at rest. Clinical insight was evaluated with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight. In patients, posterosuperior precuneus showed stronger activation during the insight task than during the semantic control task, while anteroinferior precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) showed stronger activation during the insight task than during the general metacognition task. No significant group differences in brain activation emerged during the general metacognition task. Although the BOLD measures did not correlate with clinical insight measures, ASL-measured cerebral blood flow (CBF) values did correlate when extracted from the task-selective precuneus/PCC areas: higher CBF correlated with higher clinical insight scores. These results suggest that regions in the posteromedial cortex are selective for clinical insight.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Suokas, Kimmo; Pirkola, Sami; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Böckerman, Petri (2020)
    Objective: Individuals with severe mental disorders have an impaired ability to work and are likely to receive income transfer payments as their main source of income. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using longitudinal population cohort register data, the authors conducted a case-control study to examine the levels of employment and personal income before and after a first hospitalization for a serious mental disorder. Methods: All individuals (N=50,551) who had been hospitalized for schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychosis, or bipolar disorder in Finland between 1988 and 2015 were identified and matched with five randomly selected participants who were the same sex and who had the same birth year and month. Employment status and earnings, income transfer payments, and total income in euros were measured annually from 1988 to 2015. Results: Individuals with serious mental disorders had notably low levels of employment before, and especially after, the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder. Their total income was mostly constituted of transfer payments, and this was especially true for those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. More than half of all individuals with a serious mental disorder did not have any employment earnings after they received the diagnosis. Conclusions: The current study shows how most individuals in Finland depend solely on income transfer payments after an onset of a severe mental disorder.
  • Levtchenko, Elena; Servais, Aude; Hulton, Sally A.; Ariceta, Gema; Emma, Francesco; Game, David S.; Lange, Karin; Lapatto, Risto; Liang, Hong; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca; Topaloglu, Rezan; Das, Anibh M.; Webb, Nicholas J. A.; Wanner, Christoph (2022)
    Cystinosis, a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder, results in an abnormal accumulation of the amino acid cystine in multiple organs and tissues of the body. Renal symptoms typically develop in the first few months of life, with extra-renal manifestations becoming apparent over the next 10-20 years, which require coordinated multidisciplinary care. Here, we describe a consensus-based guidance to support the management of adolescents and adults living with cystinosis. The programme was led by a Steering Committee (SC) of six experts in the management of patients with cystinosis, who identified a list of 15 key questions reflecting the multi-organ effects of cystinosis. An Extended Faculty (EF) of eight additional specialists was invited to answer the questions via an online digital platform using a quasi-Delphi approach. The consolidated answers were summarized into recommendations. Where evidence was lacking, recommendations were developed using collective expert consensus. The EF was asked to agree/disagree with the clinical recommendations. The expert-agreed clinical recommendations provide guidance that considers both renal and extra-renal systems. The topics covered are advice on fertility and family planning, consideration of the nervous, muscular, ophthalmic, cardio-respiratory, endocrine, dermatological and gastrointestinal systems, as well as guidance on dental care, diet, lifestyle, and improving quality of life and psychological well-being. In summary, this work outlines recommendations and a checklist for clinicians with a vision for improving and standardizing the multidisciplinary care for patients with cystinosis.
  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka (2020)
    Peer support workers are now working with patients in a variety of settings, coming into close contact and even work alongside health professionals. Despite the potentially influential position peer support workers hold in relation to those engaged in support activities, their role, duties and their relationship to peers and health professionals lack clarity and is often defined by other actors. This study explores how peer support workers interpret and define the activities, responsibilities and knowledge associated with their work. Using methods of membership categorisation analysis, we analysed interview materials generated by conducting individual semi-structured interviews during the autumn of 2016 with prostate cancer peer support workers (n = 11) who currently volunteer as support workers in Finland. Although the peer support workers acknowledged the psychosocial aspects of the work, we argue that their interpretations extend far beyond this and encompass expertise, advocacy and activism as central features of their work. These can be used to strengthen their position as credible commentators and educators on issues relating to cancer and men's health; raise awareness and represent the 'patient's voice' and attempt to influence both policy and clinical practice. These findings suggest that by categorising their work activities in different ways, voluntary sector actors such as peer support workers can attempt to portray themselves as legitimate authorities on a range of issues and influence decision-making ranging from individual level treatment decisions all the way to health policy.
  • Smits, Dins; Brigis, Girts; Pavare, Jana; Urtane, Inga; Kovalovs, Sandis; Barengo, Noel Christopher (2020)
    Background The problem of nonadherence to therapy is a key reason of insufficient asthma control. Evaluating the beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional perceptions may help to identify patients with poor adherence to treatment in clinical practice which need additional attention in order to increase the likelihood of them taking their asthma medication according to the prescribed treatment protocol. The purpose of this study is to assess whether beliefs about asthma medication, cognitive and emotional factors are related to poor treatment adherence of asthma medication in a sample of asthma patients in Latvia. Methods Study subjects were asthma patients attending outpatient pulmonologist consultations in Latvia during September 2013 to December 2015. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors related to asthma were determined in a cross-sectional, self-administered survey. The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (brief IPQ) were used. Treatment adherence was assessed using 5-item version of the Medication Adherence Reporting Scale (MARS). The total sample size was 352 patients. Logistic regression models were used to predict poor adherence to asthma treatment. The validity of each logistic regression model was assessed by the Hosmer/Lemeshow test. The main outcome measure was self-reported adherence to treatment. Results The more the patients agreed with the statement "My future health depends on my asthma medication" the lower the possibility of poor adherence to asthma treatment (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.74). The more concerned the patients were in regard to long-term effects of their medication (OR 2; 95% CI 1.22-3.27), the higher the probability of poor treatment adherence. Conclusions Screening asthma patients using the BMQ may help to identify those to benefit from interventions targeting their concerns and medication beliefs in order to improve adherence to asthma medication.
  • Elfving, Pia; Puolakka, Kari; Rantalaiho, Vappu; Kautiainen, Hannu; Virta, Lauri J.; Kaipiainen-Seppänen, Oili (2018)
    Objectives of this study were to examine work disability (WD) and its leading causes in incident SLE patients. Data were derived from the Finnish nationwide registries to identify all non-retired, 18 to 64-year-old incident SLE patients between 2000 and 2007. Sick benefits and WD pensions and the causes for them were monitored until the end of 2008. A total of 446 working-aged, incident SLE patients available for work force (mean age 42 +/- 13 years, 89% females) were found. During the follow-up (median 5.3 years), WD pension was granted to 27 patients. The most common cause was SLE itself (14 patients, 52%), with cumulative incidence of 3.4% (95% CI 1.9 to 5.8) in 5 years and 5.0% (95% CI 3.0 to 8.5) in 8 years, followed by musculoskeletal and psychiatric causes. The age- and sex- adjusted incidence ratio for WD pension in SLE patients due to any cause was 5.4 (95% CI 3.7 to 7.9) compared to the Finnish population. The mean number of WD days was 32 (95% CI 28 to 35) per patient-year among all SLE patients during the follow-up. The study concludes that SLE patients have an increased risk for WD already in early course of the disease.
  • Salmela, Jatta; Brunton-Smith, Ian; Meadows, Robert (2022)
    Considerable attention has been paid to inequalities in health. More recently, focus has also turned to inequalities in 'recovery'; with research, for example, suggesting that lower grade of employment is strongly associated with slower recovery from both poor physical and poor mental health. However, this research has tended to operationalise recovery as 'return to baseline', and we know less about patterns and predictors when recovery is situated as a 'process'. This paper seeks to address this gap. Drawing on data from the UK Household Longitudinal Study, we operationalise recovery as both an 'outcome' and as a 'process' and compare patterns and predictors across the two models. Our analysis demonstrates that the determinants of recovery from poor health, measured by the SF-12, are robust, regardless of whether recovery is operationalised as an outcome or as a process. For example, being employed and having a higher degree were found to increase the odds of recovery both from poor physical and mental health functioning, when recovery was operationalised as an outcome. These variables were also important in distinguishing health functioning trajectories following a poor health episode. At one and the same time, our analysis does suggest that understandings of inequalities in recovery will depend in part on how we define it. When recovery is operationalised as a simple transition from poor health state to good, it loses sight of the fact that there may be inequalities (i) within a 'poor health' state, (ii) in how individuals are able to step into the path of recovery, and (iii) in whether health states are maintained over time. We therefore need to remain alert to the additional nuance in understanding which comes from situating recovery as a process; as well as possible methodological artefacts in population research which come from how recovery is operationalised.
  • Biddle, Daniel J.; Hermens, Daniel F.; Lallukka, Tea; Aji, Melissa; Glozier, Nick (2019)
    Objectives: We evaluated whether insomnia symptoms and short or long sleep duration, alone or in combination, are robustly associated with subsequent trajectory of mental health symptoms. Methods: Participants were 2598 individuals (15 to 94 years of age) with elevated mental health symptoms at baseline (2013-14). Associations of baseline insomnia symptoms and sleep duration with two-year trajectory of mental health were estimated and adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Outcomes included recovery (well at both follow-up timepoints), intermittent symptoms (unwell at one follow-up timepoint), and chronic symptoms (unwell at each follow-up timepoint). Results: Adjusted for age and sex, baseline insomnia symptoms predicted intermittent (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.15-1.80) and chronic (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.77-2.68) trajectories of mental health symptoms. Short sleep duration (= 6 to Conclusion: A focus on just sleep duration or insomnia symptoms in those with elevated mental health symptoms will not be adequate to address chronicity. Both components of sleep disturbance, and in particular their co-occurrence, should be addressed. (c) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Pelkonen, Tuula; Sarajuuri, Anne; Rautanen, Tarja; Sinkkonen, Saku T.; Jero, Jussi (2017)
    We report on a previously healthy 11-year-old male presenting with meningoencephalitis and otitis media. Computed tomography demonstrated opacification of the right middle ear and mastoid ear cells, but no destructive changes. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgG and IgM were positive in serum and at high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and its nucleic acid was detected in the middle ear fluid and in a throat swab, but not in CSF. EEG showed generalized slowing and right temporal sharp waves. Brain MRI imaging remained normal. After a 3-week treatment with doxycycline and a tympanostomy tube, the patient recovered, and no long-term neurological sequelae have appeared. Diagnostics and pathogenetic mechanisms in meningoencephalitis caused by M. pneumoniae are discussed.
  • Teppo, Konsta; Jaakkola, Jussi; Biancari, Fausto; Halminen, Olli; Putaala, Jukka; Mustonen, Pirjo; Haukka, Jari; Linna, Miika; Kinnunen, Janne; Tiili, Paula; Kouki, Elis; Penttilä, Tero; Hartikainen, Juha; Aro, Aapo L.; Airaksinen, K. E. Juhani; Lehto, Mika (2022)
    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) patients with mental health conditions (MHCs) have higher incidence of ischaemic stroke (IS) than patients without MHC, but whether this results from direct impact of MHCs or relates to higher prevalence of comorbidities and differences in the use of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy is unclear. We assessed the hypothesis that MHCs independently increase the risk of IS in patients with incident AF. Methods The nationwide FinACAF cohort covered all 203,154 patients diagnosed with incident AF without previous IS or transient ischaemic attack in Finland during 2007-2018. MHCs of interest were depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, schizophrenia and any MHC. The outcomes were first-ever IS and all-cause death. Results The patients' (mean age 73.0 +/- 13.5 years, 49.0% female) mean follow-up time was 4.3 (SD 3.3) years and 16,272 (8.0%) experienced first-ever IS and 63,420 (31.2%) died during follow-up. After propensity score matching and adjusting for OAC use, no MHC group was associated with increased IS risk (adjusted SHRs (95% CI): depression 0.961 (0.857-1.077), bipolar disorder 1.398 (0.947-2.006), anxiety disorder 0.878 (0.718-1.034), schizophrenia 0.803 (0.594-1.085) and any MHC 1.033 (0.985-1.085)). Lower rate of OAC use partly explained the observed higher crude IS incidence in patients with any MHC. Depression, schizophrenia and any MHC were associated with higher all-cause mortality (adjusted HRs [95% CI]: 1.208 [1.136-1.283], 1.543 [1.352-1.761] and 1.149 [1.116-1.175], respectively). Conclusions In this nationwide retrospective cohort study, MHCs were not associated with the incidence of first-ever IS in patients with AF.
  • Keinänen, Jaakko; Mantere, Outi; Markkula, Niina; Partti, Krista; Perälä, Jonna; Saarni, Samuli I.; Härkänen, Tommi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2018)
    Objectives: We conducted a population based study aiming at finding predictors of mortality in psychotic disorders and evaluating the extent to which sociodemographic, lifestyle and health-related factors explain the excess mortality. Methods: In a nationally representative sample of Finns aged 30-70 years (n = 5642), psychotic disorders were diagnosed using structured interviews and medical records in 2000-2001. Information on mortality and causes of death was obtained of those who died by the end of year 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to investigate the mortality risk. Results: No people with affective psychoses (n = 36) died during the follow-up, thus the analysis was restricted to non-affective psychotic disorders (NAP) (n = 106). Adjusting for age and sex, NAP was statistically significantly associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 2.99, 95% CI 2.03-441) and natural-cause mortality (HR 2.81, 95% CI 1.85-4.28). After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health status, inflammation and smoking, the HR dropped to 2.11 (95%CI 1.10-4.05) for all-cause and to 1.98 (95% CI 0.94-4.16) for natural-cause mortality. Within the NAP group, antipsychotic use at baseline was associated with reduced HR for natural-cause mortality (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.96), and smoking with increased HR (HR 3.54, 95% CI 1.07-11.69). Conclusions: The elevated mortality risk in people with NAP is only partly explained by socioeconomic factors, lifestyle, cardio-metabolic comorbidities and inflammation. Smoking cessation should be prioritized in treatment of psychotic disorders. More research is needed on the quality of treatment of somatic diseases in people with psychotic disorders. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Selinheimo, S; Lampi, J; Pekkanen, J (2021)
    Little is known whether parent's indoor environment quality (IEQ)-related symptoms or health perceptions influence the risk of self- or parent-reported symptoms in their children. We assessed (i) the association of parents' IEQ-related symptoms with IEQ-related symptoms in their children at school and (ii) whether parental IEQ-related health worry increases the risk for children's symptoms. We used two Finnish studies: a national, population-based survey of indoor air and related health problems (n = 611 parents) and a subset of survey for all primary school pupils (grade 3-6) and their parents in Helsinki, which also included school IEQ-related symptoms reported by children (n = 1617 parent-child dyads). In the school survey, parent's own symptoms increased strongly their reporting of their children's symptoms at school (aOR 4.0, 95% CI 2.7-6.0 for parents experiencing a lot of symptoms) and also symptoms reported by the child itself (aOR 2.2, 95% CI 1.5-3.1). Similar, but slightly weaker associations were seen with parental IEQ-related health worries. Results remained unchanged when adjusted for the IEQ of school buildings or parental and children's allergic diseases. Similar associations were seen in the national survey between parent's symptoms at work and child's symptoms at school. The results suggest that parents' health perceptions may increase the reporting of children's IEQ-related symptoms even more than is typically seen for many indoor air contaminants.
  • Kuosmanen, Lotta; Hupli, Maija; Ahtiluoto, Satu; Haavisto, Elina (2021)
    Background Shared decision-making is a process where the decisions regarding patients' care are done in collaboration with the patient, the patient's family and a healthcare professional or an interdisciplinary team. Shared decision-making is considered to be a part of patient centred care, and it enables patient autonomy which is a cornerstone of palliative care. In the past, research on the experiences of palliative care patients' participation in shared decision-making involving a nurse has been limited as the focus has mainly been on specific medical interventions, rather than holistic palliative care. Objectives To synthesise research findings on patient participation in shared decision-making in palliative care. Research design An integrative literature review. Methods The literature search was conducted by searching computerised databases (CINAHL, PubMed, PsychINFO and COCHRANE). The search resulted in 12 articles. The quality of the included articles was evaluated with JBI checklist, and the data analysis was done using inductive content analysis. Reporting was done according to a PRISMA checklist. Findings Patients do participate in shared decision-making and desire to participate in everyday nursing care decisions, treatment-related medical decisions and end-of-life decisions. The prerequisites for patient participation in shared decision-making are interdisciplinary teamwork, open communication, good patient-healthcare professional relationship, a favourable environment and mutual information. Conclusion Palliative care patients do participate and desire to participate in decisions that cover a much broader range of topics than just medical interventions and this should be addressed in future research and in practise. The main responsibility for successful patient participation in shared decision-making lies with the healthcare professionals and the organisations providing palliative care. There is a need to conduct more research from the patient's perspective and explore the meaning of participating in shared decision-making from the patient's point of view.
  • Mars, NJ; Kerola, AM; Kauppi, MJ; Pirinen, M; Elonheimo, O; Sokka-Isler, T (2019)
    Objectives: Healthcare service needs have changed with the use of effective treatment strategies. Using data from the modern era, we aimed to explore and compare health service-related direct costs in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA).Methods: We linked a longitudinal, population-based clinical data set from Finland's largest non-university hospital's rheumatology clinic with an administrative database on health service-related direct costs in 2014. We compared all-cause costs and costs of comorbidities between adult patients with JIA, PsA, RA, and AxSpA (including ankylosing spondylitis). We also characterized patients with high healthcare resource utilization.Results: Cost distributions were similar between rheumatic diseases (p=0.88). In adulthood, patients with JIA displayed a similar economic burden to much older patients with other inflammatory rheumatic diseases. A minority were high utilizers: among 119 patients with JIA, 15% utilized as much as the remaining 85%. For PsA (213 patients), RA (1086), and AxSpA (277), the high-utilization proportion was 10%. Both low and high utilizers showed rather low disease activity, but in high utilizers, the patient-reported outcomes were slightly worse, with the most distinct differences in pain levels. Of health service-related direct costs, index rheumatic diseases comprised only one-third (43.6% in JIA) and the majority were comorbidity costs.Conclusions: Patients with JIA, PsA, RA, and AxSpA share similar patterns of healthcare resource utilization, with substantial comorbidity costs and a minority being high utilizers. Innovations in meeting these patients' needs are warranted.