Browsing by Subject "IMAGERY"

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  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Juutinen, Sari; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aurela, Mika; Virtanen, Tarmo (2019)
  • White, Joanne C.; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Wulder, Michael A.; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; Pickell, Paul D.; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2018)
    Landsat time series (LTS) enable the characterization of forest recovery post-disturbance over large areas; however, there is a gap in our current knowledge concerning the linkage between spectral measures of recovery derived from LTS and actual manifestations of forest structure in regenerating stands. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) data provide useful measures of forest structure that can be used to corroborate spectral measures of forest recovery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of a spectral index of recovery based on the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR): the years to recovery, or Y2R metric, as an indicator of the return of forest vegetation following forest harvest (clearcutting). The Y2R metric has previously been defined as the number of years required for a pixel to return to 80% of its pre-disturbance NBR (NBRpre) value. In this study, the Composite2Change (C2C) algorithm was used to generate a time series of gap-free, cloud-free Landsat surface reflectance composites (1985–2012), associated change metrics, and a spatially-explicit dataset of detected changes for an actively managed forest area in southern Finland (5.3 Mha). The overall accuracy of change detection, determined using independent validation data, was 89%. Areas of forest harvesting in 1991 were then used to evaluate the Y2R metric. Four alternative recovery scenarios were evaluated, representing variations in the spectral threshold used to define Y2R: 60%, 80%, and 100% of NBRpre, and a critical value of z (i.e. the year in which the pixel's NBR value is no longer significantly different from NBRpre). The Y2R for each scenario were classified into five groups: recovery within 17 years, and not recovered. Measures of forest structure (canopy height and cover) were obtained from ALS data. Benchmarks for height (>5 m) and canopy cover (>10%) were applied to each recovery scenario, and the percentage of pixels that attained both of these benchmarks for each recovery group, was determined for each Y2R scenario. Our results indicated that the Y2R metric using the 80% threshold provided the most realistic assessment of forest recovery: all pixels considered in our analysis were spectrally recovered within the analysis period, with 88.88% of recovered pixels attaining the benchmarks for both cover and height. Moreover, false positives (pixels that had recovered spectrally, but not structurally) and false negatives (pixels that had recovered structurally, but not spectrally) were minimized with the 80% threshold. This research demonstrates the efficacy of LTS-derived assessments of recovery, which can be spatially exhaustive and retrospective, providing important baseline data for forest monitoring.
  • Kuzmin, Anton; Korhonen, Lauri; Kivinen, Sonja; Hurskainen, Pekka; Korpelainen, Pasi; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Maltamo, Matti; Vihervaara, Petteri; Kumpula, Timo (2021)
    European aspen (Populus tremula L.) is a keystone species for biodiversity of boreal forests.Large-diameter aspens maintain the diversity of hundreds of species, many of which are threatened in Fennoscandia. Due to a low economic value and relatively sparse and scattered occurrence of aspen in boreal forests, there is a lack of information of the spatial and temporal distribution of aspen, which hampers efficient planning and implementation of sustainable forest management practices and conservation efforts. Our objective was to assess identification of European aspen at the individual tree level in a southern boreal forest using high-resolution photogrammetric point cloud (PPC) and multispectral (MSP) orthomosaics acquired with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The structure-from-motion approach was applied to generate RGB imagery-based PPC to be used for individual tree-crown delineation. Multispectral data were collected using two UAV cameras:Parrot Sequoia and MicaSense RedEdge-M. Tree-crown outlines were obtained from watershed segmentation of PPC data and intersected with multispectral mosaics to extract and calculate spectral metrics for individual trees. We assessed the role of spectral data features extracted from PPC and multispectral mosaics and a combination of it, using a machine learning classifier—Support Vector Machine (SVM) to perform two different classifications: discrimination of aspen from the other species combined into one class and classification of all four species (aspen, birch, pine, spruce) simultaneously. In the first scenario, the highest classification accuracy of 84% (F1-score) for aspen and overall accuracy of 90.1% was achieved using only RGB features from PPC, whereas in the second scenario, the highest classification accuracy of 86 % (F1-score) for aspen and overall accuracy of 83.3% was achieved using the combination of RGB and MSP features. The proposed method provides a new possibility for the rapid assessment of aspen occurrence to enable more efficient forest management as well as contribute to biodiversity monitoring and conservation efforts in boreal forests.
  • Saarinen, Ninni; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.; Kangas, Annika; Tuominen, Sakari; Kankare, Ville; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2018)
    There is growing interest in the use of Landsat data to enable forest monitoring over large areas. Free and open data access combined with high performance computing have enabled new approaches to Landsat data analysis that use the best observation for any given pixel to generate an annual, cloud-free, gap-free, surface reflectance image composite. Finland has a long history of incorporating Landsat data into its National Forest Inventory to produce forest information in the form of thematic maps and small area statistics on a variety of forest attributes. Herein we explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Landsat archive in the context of forest monitoring in Finland. The United States Geological Survey Landsat archive holds a total of 30 076 images (1972-2017) for 66 scenes (each 185 km by 185 km in size) representing the terrestrial area of Finland, of which 93.6% were acquired since 1984 with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Approximately 16.3% of the archived images have desired compositing characteristics (acquired within August 1 +/- 30 days,
  • Näsi, Roope; Honkavaara, Eija; Blomqvist, Minna; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi Marja Emilia; Hakala, Teemu; Viljanen, Niko; Kantola, Tuula Anneli; Holopainen, Markus Edvard (2018)
    Climate-related extended outbreaks and range shifts of destructive bark beetle species pose a serious threat to urban boreal forests in North America and Fennoscandia. Recent developments in low-cost remote sensing technologies offer an attractive means for early detection and management of environmental change. They are of great interest to the actors responsible for monitoring and managing forest health. The objective of this investigation was to develop, assess, and compare automated remote sensing procedures based on novel, low-cost hyperspectral imaging technology for the identification of bark beetle infestations at the individual tree level in urban forests. A hyperspectral camera based on a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer was operated from a small, unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) platform and a small Cessna-type aircraft platform. This study compared aspects of using UAV datasets with a spatial extent of a few hectares (ha) and a ground sample distance (GSD) of 10-12 cm to the aircraft data covering areas of several km(2) and having a GSD of 50 cm. An empirical assessment of the automated identification of mature Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) trees suffering from infestation (representing different colonization phases) by the European spruce bark beetle (Ips typographus L.) was carried out in the urban forests of Lahti, a city in southern Finland. Individual spruces were classified as healthy, infested, or dead. For the entire test area, the best aircraft data results for overall accuracy were 79% (Cohen's kappa: 0.54) when using three crown color classes (green as healthy, yellow as infested, and gray as dead). For two color classes (healthy, dead) in the same area, the best overall accuracy was 93% (kappa: 0.77). The finer resolution UAV dataset provided better results, with an overall accuracy of 81% (kappa: 0.70), compared to the aircraft results of 73% (kappa: 0.56) in a smaller sub-area. The results showed that novel, low-cost remote sensing technologies based on individual tree analysis and calibrated remote sensing imagery offer great potential for affordable and timely assessments of the health condition of vulnerable urban forests.
  • Liu, Jinxiu; Maeda, Eduardo; Du, Wang; Heiskanen, Janne (2021)
    Accurate and efficient burned area mapping and monitoring are fundamental for environmental applications. Studies using Landsat time series for burned area mapping are increasing and popular. However, the performance of burned area mapping with different spectral indices and Landsat time series has not been evaluated and compared. This study compares eleven spectral indices for burned area detection in the savanna area of southern Burkina Faso using Landsat data ranging from October 2000 to April 2016. The same reference data are adopted to assess the performance of different spectral indices. The results indicate that Burned Area Index (BAI) is the most accurate index in burned area detection using our method based on harmonic model fitting and breakpoint identification. Among those tested, fire-related indices are more accurate than vegetation indices, and Char Soil Index (CSI) performed worst. Furthermore, we evaluate whether combining several different spectral indices can improve the accuracy of burned area detection. According to the results, only minor improvements in accuracy can be attained in the studied environment, and the performance depended on the number of selected spectral indices.
  • Imangholiloo, Mohammad; Saarinen, Ninni; Holopainen, Markus; Yu, Xiaowei; Hyyppa, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2020)
    Information from seedling stands in time and space is essential for sustainable forest management. To fulfil these informational needs with limited resources, remote sensing is seen as an intriguing alternative for forest inventorying. The structure and tree species composition in seedling stands have created challenges for capturing this information using sensors providing sparse point densities that do not have the ability to penetrate canopy gaps or provide spectral information. Therefore, multispectral airborne laser scanning (mALS) systems providing dense point clouds coupled with multispectral intensity data theoretically offer advantages for the characterization of seedling stands. The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Optech Titan mALS data to characterize seedling stands in leaf-off and leaf-on conditions, as well as to retrieve the most important forest inventory attributes, such as distinguishing deciduous from coniferous trees, and estimating tree density and height. First, single-tree detection approaches were used to derive crown boundaries and tree heights from which forest structural attributes were aggregated for sample plots. To predict tree species, a random forests classifier was trained using features from two single-channel intensities (SCIs) with wavelengths of 1550 (SCI-Ch1) and 1064 nm (SCI-Ch2), and multichannel intensity (MCI) data composed of three mALS channels. The most important and uncorrelated features were analyzed and selected from 208 features. The highest overall accuracies in classification of Norway spruce, birch, and nontree class in leaf-off and leaf-on conditions obtained using SCI-Ch1 and SCI-Ch2 were 87.36% and 69.47%, respectively. The use of MCI data improved classification by up to 96.55% and 92.54% in leaf-off and leaf-on conditions, respectively. Overall, leaf-off data were favorable for distinguishing deciduous from coniferous trees and tree density estimation with a relative root mean square error (RMSE) of 37.9%, whereas leaf-on data provided more accurate height estimations, with a relative RMSE of 10.76%. Determining the canopy threshold for separating ground returns from vegetation returns was found to be critical, as mapped trees might have a height below one meter. The results showed that mALS data provided benefits for characterizing seedling stands compared to single-channel ALS systems.