Browsing by Subject "IMMEDIATE"

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  • Rautalin, Mervi; Jahkola, Tiina; Roine, Risto P. (2022)
    Background Analysing the results of breast reconstruction is important both in terms of oncological safety and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) is thought to be prone to complications and heavy for patients with no time to adapt to having cancer. Delayed reconstruction (DR) is an option after primary surgery and oncological treatments, but requires patients to go through two recovery periods after surgery. Methods A prospective study of 1065 breast cancer patients with repeated measurement of HRQoL with both generic (15D) and disease specific (EORTC QLQ C-30 BR23) measuring tools included 51 IBR patients and 41 DR patients. These patients' HRQoL and reconstruction methods were studied in more detail alongside with clinical data to determine HRQoL levels for patients with IBR and those with mastectomy and DR during a 24-month follow-up. Measuring points were baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Results Most frequent techniques used were abdominal flaps (IBR n = 16, DR n = 14), latissimus dorsi flaps (LD) (IBR n = 19, DR n = 10), implants (IBR n = 12) and fat grafting (DR n = 6). Smaller groups were excluded from group comparisons. Approximately one third of the patients encountered complications. Symptom scores did not differ between reconstruction methods. DR patients had better overall HRQoL at 12 months, but at 24 months the situation had changed in favour of IBR. Both approaches of reconstructive surgery produced good HRQoL with no significant differences between the approaches studied.
  • Vainio, Annukka; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri (2020)
    This study explored individuals' engagement in the sustainable energy transition in Finland. Using the attitude-behaviour-context model (Guagnano et al., 1995) and Stern's (2000) typology of environmentally significant behaviours, this study tested the assumption that individuals' engagement in transition is a combination of socio-psychological and contextual (socio-economic) variables and that the active engagement requires individuals to have a future orientation, systemic and self-efficacy, subjective knowledge and a pro-environmental attitude. The survey (N = 1012), representative of the 17-75-yearold Finnish population, was analysed with exploratory factor analysis and linear regression. The socio-psychological variables explained a larger portion of variance than the socio-economic variables in all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. The consideration of future consequences, self-efficacy and knowledge were positively associated with all three types of sustainable energy behaviours. Systemic efficacy was positively associated with and the consideration of immediate consequences was negatively associated with private-sphere environmentalism. The results suggest that individuals' consideration of the immediate and distant future should be included in the socio-psychological models of sustainable behaviours. The results also suggest that policymakers need to focus on strengthening citizens' efficacy beliefs, future orientation and knowledge. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Annual Capri Workshop Grp; Glasier, Anna; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Volpe, Annibale (2019)
    Whatever the outcome, pregnancy provides the opportunity to offer effective contraception to couples motivated to avoid another pregnancy. This narrative review summarizes the evidence for health providers, drawing attention to current guidelines on which contraceptive methods can be used, and when they should be started after pregnancy, whatever its outcome. Fertility returns within 1 month of the end of pregnancy unless breastfeeding occurs. Breastfeeding, which itself suppresses fertility after childbirth, influences both when contraception should start and what methods can be used. Without breastfeeding, effective contraception should be started as soon as possible if another pregnancy is to be avoided. Interpregnancy intervals of at least 6 months after miscarriage and 1-2 years after childbirth have long been recommended by the World Health Organization in order to reduce the chance of adverse pregnancy outcome. Recent research suggests that this may not be necessary, at least for healthy women
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Gissler, Mika; Ikonen, Pirjo; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2020)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can the incidence of subsequent termination of pregnancy (TOP) be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as part of the abortion service? SUMMARY ANSWER: Provision of an intrauterine device (IUD) as part of TOP services reduced the need for subsequent TOP but the effect was limited to the first 3 years of the 5-year follow-up. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: An IUD is highly effective in preventing subsequent TOP. Prompt initiation of IUD use leads to a higher usage rate during follow-up, as compliance with post-TOP IUD insertion visits is low. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The objective of this randomised controlled trial was to assess the effect of early comprehensive provision of intrauterine contraception after TOP, with primary outcome being the incidence of subsequent TOP during the 5 years of follow-up after the index abortion. This study was conducted at a tertiary care centre between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. Altogether, 748 women undergoing a first trimester TOP were recruited and randomised into two groups. The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with an IUD during surgical TOP or 1-4 weeks following medical TOP at the hospital providing the abortion care. Women in the control group (n = 373) were advised to contact primary health care for follow-up and IUD insertion. Subsequent TOPs during the 5-year follow-up were identified from the Finnish Register on induced abortions. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age >= 18 years, duration of gestation MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The overall numbers of subsequent TOPs were 50 in the intervention and 72 in the control group (26.7 versus 38.6/1000 years of follow-up, P = 0.027), and those of requested TOPs, including TOPs and early pregnancy failures, were 58 and 76, respectively (30.9 versus 40.8/1000, P = 0.080). Altogether 40 (10.7%) women in the intervention and 63 (16.9%) in the control group underwent one or several subsequent TOPs (hazard ratio 1.67 [95% CI 1.13 to 2.49], P = 0.011). The number of TOPs was reduced by the intervention during years 0-3 (22.2 versus 46.5/1000, P = 0.035), but not during years 4-5 (33.3 versus 26.8/1000, P = 0.631). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Both medical and surgical TOP were used. This may be seen as a limitation, but it also reflects the contemporary practice of abortion care. The immediate post-TOP care was provided by two different organizations, allowing us to compare two different ways of contraceptive service provision following TOP. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Providing TOP and IUD insertion comprehensively in the same heath care unit leads to significantly higher rates of attendance, IUD use and a significantly lower risk of subsequent TOP.
  • Korjamo, Riina; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objective: To compare levonorgestrel (LNG) 52-mg intrauterine system (IUS) expulsion rates with fast-track ( Study design: In this pilot trial, we randomized 108 women at Results: We had follow-up data at 3 months and 1 year for 41 (74.5%) and 37 (69.8%) women in the fast-track group and 31 (56.4%) and 28 (52.8%) women in the delayed group. By 3 months, expulsion occurred in six (12.5%) women after fast-track and one (2.3%) woman after delayed insertion [risk ratio (RR) 5.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-43.90]; most (n=5) of these were partial expulsions in the fast track group. By 1 year, expulsion had occurred in seven (14.6%) and five (11.5%) women in the fast-track and delayed groups, respectively (RR 1.28, 95% CI 0.44-3.75). We found no differences in rates of vacuum aspiration, residual tissue, infection and bleeding or bleeding patterns within 3 months of insertion. Conclusion: Fast-track insertion of the LNG 52-mg IUS after medical abortion is feasible but may result in higher expulsion rates compared to delayed insertion. Due to lack of statistical power and high lost-to-follow-up rates, we were unable to fully address this question. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Suhonen, Satu; Mentula, Maarit; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2017)
    Objective: To assess the success and factors affecting early intrauterine device (IUD) provision after first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP). Study design: Subgroup analysis of a randomized contraceptive trial assessing the long-term effects of early provision of intrauterine contraception following abortion. Altogether, 606 women undergoing MTOP were included and followed for 3 months. The intervention group (n=307) was offered an IUD (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-IUD) at a follow-up visit 1-4 weeks after MTOP. The control group (n=299) contacted primary health care for follow-up and contraceptive provision. Adverse events (infections, bleeding, residual tissue and incomplete abortion) were analyzed on intention-to-treat basis and IUD expulsions on per-protocol (PP) basis. Results: In the intervention group, 234 women (76.2%) received the IUD as scheduled, 46 later (altogether 91.2%). In the control group, the corresponding figures were 8 (2.7%) and 64 [altogether 24.1%, Odds ratio (OR) (95% Confidence interval (Cl)) = 32.7 (20.3-52.6)]. Eighty-five (27.7%) women in the intervention group and 38 (12.7%) in the control group received treatment (administration of antibiotics, misoprostol or surgical evacuation) because of presumed adverse event [2.63 (1.72-4.01)], mainly residual tissue. In the control group, 23 (60.5%) of these occurred during the first 2 weeks. IUD expulsion occurred in 12 (5.4%) of the 222 women in the intervention group (PP basis). Conclusions: When provided as part of abortion service, most early insertions following MTOP were performed as planned. The main reason for postponement was overdiagnosis of adverse events suspected at follow-up. The rate of IUD expulsion was similar to that reported previously. Implications: Early insertion following MTOP is safe, and the rate of IUD expulsion is low. Most adverse events possibly delaying IUD insertion occur early. Based on timing of adverse events in the control group, IUD insertion at approximately 2 weeks after completed MTOP seems optimal. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Suhonen, Satu P.; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2018)
    Background Attendance at post-abortion follow-up visits is poor, but little is known about factors affecting it. Objective To assess the factors associated with non-compliance with post-abortion services and to evaluate differences in rates of attendance and intrauterine device (IUD) insertion according to the type of service provision. Methods 605 women undergoing a first trimester medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) and planning to use intrauterine contraception were randomised into two groups. Women in the intervention group (n=306) were booked to have IUD insertion 1-4 weeks after the MTOP at the hospital providing the abortion, while women in the control group (n=299) were advised to contact their primary healthcare (PHC) centre for follow-up and IUD insertion. Results In the intervention group, 21 (6.9%) women failed to attend the fol low-up visit, whereas in the control group 67 (22.4%) women did not contact the PHC to schedule a follow-up (p Conclusions Factors predicting low compliance with post-MTOP fol low-up are few. Comprehensive provision of abortion care and post-abortion services seems beneficial for minimising the loss to fol low-up and delay in initiation of effective contraception.
  • Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari (2015)
    STUDY QUESTION: Can the need of subsequent abortion be reduced by providing intrauterine contraception as a part of the abortion service? SUMMARY ANSWER: Provision of intrauterine devices (IUDs) in association with first trimester abortion more than halved the incidence of repeat abortion during the first year of follow-up. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Following abortion, the incidence of subsequent abortion is high, up to 30-40%. In cohort studies, intrauterine contraception has reduced the need of repeat abortion by 60-70%. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A randomized controlled trial. The main outcome measure was the incidence of subsequent induced abortions during the follow-up. Altogether 751 women seeking first trimester induced abortion were recruited and randomized into two groups. Randomization was accomplished by computer-assisted permuted-block randomization with random block sizes of four to six. The investigators did not participate in randomization, which was done before commencing the study. The participants were recruited between 18 October 2010 and 21 January 2013. PARTICIPANTS, SETTINGS, METHODS: The inclusion criteria were age >= 18 years, duration of pregnancy This study was conducted in collaboration between the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, and Centralized family planning of the City of Helsinki. The intervention group (n = 375) was provided with intrauterine contraception (either the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system or copper-releasing intrauterine device) immediately following surgical abortion (18.1%) or at a follow-up 2-4 weeks after medical abortion (81.9%). Women in the control group were prescribed oral contraceptives and advised to contact their primary healthcare unit for a follow-up visit and further contraceptive services according to national guidelines. The women were followed-up to 28 February 2014 by using the Finnish National Abortion Registry, Helsinki University Hospital electronic database and clinical follow-up visit at 1 year. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The median age of the whole study group was 27 years and 44% had a history of induced abortion(s). During the follow-up year the number of women requesting subsequent abortion was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (9/375 [2.4%] versus 20/373 [5.4%], difference -3.0 [95% CI -6.0 to -0.2] percentage points, P = 0.038, according to intention-to-treat analysis and 5/346 [1.4%] versus 20/357 [5.6%], difference -4.2(-7.2 to -1.4) percentage points, P = 0.003, according toper-protocol analysis, respectively). Provision of intrauterine contraception was safe with rate of infection and expulsion similar to those reported previously. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: The powercalculation was calculated for a 5-year follow-up. However, significant differences between the two groups were already seen after 1 year. The present study was performed in a single clinic, where, similar to 15% of all abortions in Finland are performed. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: In order to decrease the need of subsequent abortions, IUDs should be provided at the time of abortion.
  • Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit (2018)
    Objective: To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Materials and methods: retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. Results: During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age= 25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Conclusions: Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.