Browsing by Subject "IMMIGRANTS"

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  • Renvik (Mähönen), Tuuli Anna; Manner, Joel; Vetik, Raivo; Sam, David; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2020)
    This survey study utilized a person-oriented approach to explore the patterns of socio-political integration among Russian-speaking minority group members in three neighboring countries in the Baltic area: Estonia (n = 482), Finland (n = 252), and Norway (n = 215). Three profiles were obtained in all countries: critical integration, separation, and assimilation. In the whole sample, critical integration was the most common acculturation profile. After the profiles were established, they were examined vis-a-vis citizenship and integration context to see, whether and to what extent, the objective (i.e., citizenship) and subjective (i.e., perceived social status and sense of belonging) socio-political integration of Russian-speakers corresponded with each other. Critical integration and separation were the most common profiles among participants holding national citizenship of the country of residence, while foreign citizenship was not related to any specific profile. Separation was rare among participants holding dual citizenship, but it was the most common profile among participants with undetermined citizenship. Also, intergroup context was associated with socio-political integration: critical integration and separation were the most common profiles of Russian-speakers in Estonia, critical integration and assimilation profiles in Finland, and assimilation profile in Norway. The results are discussed in relation to previous variable-oriented research and official integration policies of the countries studied.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2021)
    This article is about self-defined social identities, other people’s perceptions of us and the potentially conflictual relationship between these two. Building on a Barthian focus on group boundaries, the article takes the interplay between external categorizations and internal group definitions as its point of departure to examine how individuals negotiate the boundaries of their social identities. Based on a case study of skilled migrants with racialized ethnicities in Finland, I look at how they express their self-defined identity as well-to-do, skilled professionals in the face of contradicting categorizations of them as un-skilled, lower-class migrant subjects. I identify two types of complementary approaches employed by the skilled migrants in boundary making strategies to their identity negotiations: those de-emphasizing ethnicity (or its importance), and those emphasizing class status. These approaches are two sides of the same coin; coming from different perspectives, they both aim at a more positively viewed identity, and for individuals to be seen as well-to-do, educated, working professionals, rather than as ethnic migrant subjects. As such, the article also highlights the interconnection of class and ethnicity for the social identities of skilled migrants in Finland.
  • Celikkol, Göksu; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga; Renvik, Tuuli Anna; Vetik, Raivo; Sam, David Lackland (2021)
    Purpose: By utilizing data from Estonia, Finland, and Norway, this study explores how the perceptions of personal and group realistic threats, namely perceived ethnic discrimination and economic insecurity among national majorities, predict their unwillingness to confront injustice on behalf of Russian-speaking minority groups. Background: Previous research on collective action to promote minorities' rights and social standing has focused either on minorities' own actions or factors promoting the willingness of majority group members to engage in collective action on behalf of minorities. In contrast, factors explaining the reluctance of majority group members to engage in collective action on behalf of minority groups have remained less explored. For example, studies have then ignored that the majority members may also feel threatened and may be economically insecure. Furthermore, the possible discrepancy between perceived personal vs. in-group's situation may influence majority group members' (un)willingness to confront injustice on behalf of a minority group. Method: We employed polynomial regression with response surface analysis to analyze data gathered among national majority members in three countries (N = 1,341). Results: Perceived personal and group realistic threats were associated with heightened unwillingness to confront injustice on behalf of the Russian-speaking minority. Furthermore, participants were more unwilling to confront injustice when they perceived more group than personal threat. Conclusion: We found that majority group members' (un)willingness to confront injustice on behalf of the minority is related to how secure they perceive their own and their group status. Our results contribute to previous research by pointing out the important drawbacks of majorities' support for minorities' wish for social change.
  • Paajanen, Anna; Karaharju-Suvanto, Terhi; Koivumäki, Jaakko; Kaila, Minna (2022)
    Objective The population in many countries is becoming more diverse. The number of people from foreign backgrounds is growing in Finland as well. The aim of this study was to better understand how the foreign background of a patient affects the dentist's work. Methods The research was carried out as a semi-structured interview. Six dentists from Helsinki municipality public dental care were interviewed between December 2019 and January 2020. After the interviews were transcribed verbatim, two members of the research group read individually the interviews to find emerging themes. Results The most common problems that arose in the interviews were problems within communication and interpretation. Periodontal diseases and the importance of self-care in treating them were observed to be unfamiliar to many foreign-background patients. The dentists also noticed different expressions of pain among foreign-background patients compared with native Finnish patients. The interviewed dentists thought that the length of time a patient had lived in Finland affected the experienced difficulties and the prejudice that the patients and dentists faced. Conclusion In this qualitative research, we were able to identify some of the common difficulties that the dentists experience while treating patients from foreign backgrounds, despite the small number of participants.
  • Bosqui, Tania; O'Reilly, Dermot; Vaananen, Ari; Patel, Kishan; Donnelly, Michael; Wright, David; Close, Ciara; Kouvonen, Anne (2019)
    PurposeThere is a recent and growing migrant population in Northern Ireland. However, rigorous research is absent regarding access to mental health care by different migrant groups. In order to address this knowledge gap, this study aimed to identify the relative use of psychotropic medication between the largest first generation migrant groups in Northern Ireland and the majority population.MethodsCensus (2011) data was linked to psychotropic prescriptions for the entire enumerated population of Northern Ireland using data linkage methodology through the Administrative Data Research Centre Northern Ireland (ADRC-NI).ResultsLower prescription dispensation for all psychotropic medication types, particularly antidepressants (OR=0.35, CI 95% 0.33-0.36) and anxiolytics (OR=0.42, CI 95% 0.40-0.44), was observed for all migrant groups with the exception of migrants from Germany.ConclusionsIt is likely that the results reflect poorer access to services and indicate a need to improve access and the match between resources, services and the health and social care needs of migrants. Further research is required to identify barriers to accessing primary care and mental health services.
  • Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Vaha, Juha-Pekka; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2019)
    A long-held, but poorly tested, assumption in natural populations is that individuals that disperse into new areas for reproduction are at a disadvantage compared to individuals that reproduce in their natal habitat, underpinning the eco-evolutionary processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation. Here, we capitalize on fine-scale population structure and natural dispersal events to compare the reproductive success of local and dispersing individuals captured on the same spawning ground in four consecutive parent-offspring cohorts of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Parentage analysis conducted on adults and juvenile fish showed that local females and males had 9.6 and 2.9 times higher reproductive success than dispersers, respectively. Our results reveal how higher reproductive success in local spawners compared to dispersers may act in natural populations to drive population divergence and promote local adaptation over microgeographic spatial scales without clear morphological differences between populations.
  • Tiittala, Paula; Kivelä, Pia; Liitsola, Kirsi; Ollgren, Jukka; Pasanen, Sini; Vasankari, Tuula; Ristola, Matti (2018)
    Migrants are disproportionately affected by HIV in many European countries, including Finland. We aimed to compare the HIV-related knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of young asylum seekers to those of the general young adult population. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among 20- to 25-year-old young adults: The TIE study among asylum seekers (n=47) and the World AIDS Day 2014 study among the general population (n=485). Important gaps in HIV KAP were identified especially among the young asylum seekers. For the general young adult population, previous HIV testing was associated with female gender, better HIV knowledge and increased sexual activity. Health education concerning HIV needs to be further enforced among young adults in Finland. Due to poorer HIV knowledge, young asylum seekers might be especially vulnerable to HIV. The asylum process is a window of opportunity for health education and HIV testing.
  • Siikamäki, Heli Marja-Sisko; Kivelä, Pia; Lyytikainen, Outi; Kantele, Anu (2013)
  • Lynch, Robert; Lummaa, Virpi; Panchanathan, Karthik; Middleton, Kevin; Rotkirch, Anna; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; O'Brien, David; Loehr, John (2019)
    Understanding how refugees integrate into host societies has broad implications for researchers interested in intergroup conflict and for governments concerned with promoting social cohesion. Using detailed records tracking the movements and life histories of Finnish evacuees during World War II, we find that evacuees who intermarry are more likely to be educated, work in professional occupations, marry someone higher in social status and remain in the host community. Evacuees who intermarry before the war have fewer children, whereas those who marry into their host community after the war have more children. These results indicate that life-history and assimilation outcomes depend on key differences between pre-war environments—when migrants are living in their own communities—and post-war environments—when migrants are living in the host community. Overall, this suggests that integration involves a trade-off between reproduction and status such that evacuees who integrate gain social status, whereas those who maintain stronger bonds with their natal communities have higher fertility. We discuss these results within the framework of social capital, intergroup conflict and life-history theory and suggest how they can inform our understanding of evolutionary adaptations that affect tribalism.
  • Kalalahti, Mira (2019)
    European countries are being urged to reform their educational systems to enhance the integration of migrant populations. In many respects, migrant-origin pupils still lack equal educational opportunities in Finland despite the targeted practices and support. This article concerns the inter-ethnic interaction taking place in study guidance and counselling in the final year of Finnish comprehensive school. It poses a question 'how do young people construct their educational identities in classroom-level interactions in a multi-ethnic class'? The mixed methods research setting offers two sets of data: selective observation (two events) and life-span interviews (n = 8). The outcomes portray how multi-ethnic school classes open opportunities and supportive bridges for the pupils to contact other ethnicities. Nevertheless, the inter-ethnic interaction was also layered with societal hierarchies which constructed and bounded pupils' ethnic and educational identities. Finally, the article emphasises the opportunities that the locality offers to the schools.
  • Oura, Petteri (2021)
    Background and aims: Declining fertility is a key driver behind the rapid ageing of populations worldwide. Finland has experienced a 25% decline in fertility from 2010 to date and ranks low even on the European and Nordic scales. This study aimed to address the association between sociodemographic indicators and birth rate (i.e., live births relative to total population) in Finland. Methods: Open data on 310 Finnish municipalities were retrieved from the public database of Statistics Finland. Several sociodemographic subdimensions (population structure, education and income, location and living, divorces, car ownership rate, and crime rate), each converted to standard deviation units, were modelled against birth rate at the municipality level using generalized estimating equations. Results: In this dataset, average annual birth rate was 8.8 per 1000 individuals. Birth rate was positively associated with change in population size (rate ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.04—1.08), percentage of <15-year-olds (1.29, 1.22—1.36), percentage of individuals living in their birth municipality (1.05, 1.03—1.08), and percentage of foreign language speakers (1.02, 1.01—1.04). In contrast, birth rate was negatively associated with percentage of ≥65-year-olds (0.90, 0.85—0.96), percentage of unemployed individuals (0.98. 0.95—0.99), income (0.92, 0.88—0.95), and number of individuals living in the same household unit (0.94, 0.90—0.98). Conclusion: The present findings are expected to advance the allocation of resources to areas and subpopulations that have high or low birth rate, and thus contribute to the development of a more family-friendly society. Future studies are encouraged to evaluate the sociodemographic indicators of birth rate in other low fertility countries, and to address the individual-level mechanisms behind the municipality-level associations identified in this study.
  • Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Hemminki, Akseli; Ljungberg, Börje; Hemminki, Otto (2022)
    Survival has improved in bladder cancer but few studies have considered extended periods or covered populations for which medical care is essentially free of charge. We analyzed survival in urothelial cancer (UC, of which vast majority are bladder cancers) in Finland and Sweden over a 50-year period (1967-2016) using data from the NORDCAN database. Finland and Sweden are neighboring countries with largely similar health care systems but higher economic resources and health care expenditure in Sweden. We present results on 1- and 5-year relative survival rates, and additionally provide a novel measure, the difference between 1- and 5-year relative survival, indicating how well survival was maintained between these two periods. Over the 50-year period the median diagnostic age has increased by several years and the incidence in the very old patients has increased vastly. Relative 1- year survival rates increased until early 1990s in both countries, and with minor gains later reaching about 90% in men and 85% in women. Although 5-year survival also developed favorably until early 1990s, subsequent gains were small. Over time, age specific differences in male 1-year survival narrowed but remained wide in 5-year survival. For women, age differences were larger than for men. The limitations of the study were lack of information on treatment and stage. In conclusion, challenges are to improve 5-year survival, to reduce the gender gap and to target specific care to the most common patient group, those of 70 years at diagnosis. The most effective methods to achieve survival gains are to target control of tobacco use, emphasis on early diagnosis with prompt action at hematuria, upfront curative treatment and awareness of high relapse requiring regular cystoscopy follow up.
  • Asikainen, Anastasia (2021)
    While existing literature on third-sector support for ageing migrants shows that social clubs can be a vital source of social support, what remains unclear is how these positive outcomes are attained on an interactional level. Drawing on fieldwork conducted over the course of one year in a meeting place for older Russian-speaking migrants in the capital region of Finland, this paper adopts a processual approach to examine how a sense of groupness is negotiated in the meeting place. The attendees of the meeting place comprise of different nationalities and backgrounds, who mainly share age and Russian language. This heterogeneity creates a situation where the attendees, together with the organisers, negotiate a sense of groupness with the category of ‘Russian-speaking’. I argue that such a sense of groupness is reached by drawing from shared traits of culturality, while excluding aspects that could cause conflicts. The paper further contributes to the literature on groupness by analysing what role atmosphere plays in attaining a sense of groupness, and argues that the notion of atmosphere is important to take into consideration when thinking how different places can support ageing and wellbeing.
  • Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Virtanen, Lotta; Buchert, Ulla; Safarov, Nuriiar; Valkonen, Paula; Hietapakka, Laura; Hörhammer, Iiris Elina; Kujala, Sari; Kouvonen, Anne; Heponiemi, Tarja (2022)
    Background The COVID-19 pandemic has given an unprecedented boost to already increased digital health services, which can place many vulnerable groups at risk of digital exclusion. To improve the likelihood of achieving digital health equity, it is necessary to identify and address the elements that may prevent vulnerable groups from benefiting from digital health services. This study examined the challenges experienced by vulnerable groups in using digital health services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Qualitative descriptive design was utilized. Semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 2020 and May 2021. The participants (N = 74) were older adults, migrants, mental health service users, high users of health services, and the unemployed. Qualitative content analysis with both inductive and deductive approach was used to analyze the data. Challenges related to the use of digital health services were interpreted through digital determinants of health from the Digital Health Equity Framework. Results For most of the participants the access to digital health services was hampered by insufficient digital, and / or local language skills. The lack of support and training, poor health, as well as the lack of strong e-identification or suitable devices also prevented the access. Digital services were not perceived to be applicable for all situations or capable of replacing face-to-face services due to the poor communication in the digital environment. Fears and the lack of trust regarding digital platforms were expressed as well as concerns related to the security of the services. Contact with a health care professional was also considered less personal and more prone to misunderstandings in the digital environment than in face-to-face services. Finally, digital alternatives were not always available as desired by participants, or participants were unaware of existing digital services and their value. Conclusion Several development needs in the implementation of digital health services were identified that could improve equal access to and benefits gained from digital services in the future. While digital health services are increasing, traditional face-to-face services will still need to be offered alongside the digital ones to ensure equal access to services.
  • Skogberg, Natalia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lilja, Eero; Härkänen, Tommi; Koponen, Päivikki (2018)
    Objectives To compare the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in detecting type 2 diabetes among Russian, Somali and Kurdish (born in Iraq/Iran) origin migrants and Finns. Design and participants Cross-sectional study comparing health examination survey data of Russian, Somali and Kurdish origin migrants (n=917) aged 30-64 years who took part in the Migrant Health and Wellbeing Survey with the general Finnish population in the Health 2011 Survey (n=887). Participants were randomly selected from the National Population Register. Setting Six cities in Finland, where a substantial majority of migrants live. Outcome measures Anthropometric measures included objectively measured BMI, WHtR, WC and WHR. Type 2 diabetes was defined based on self-report, laboratory measures of glycated haemoglobin and register data. Test performance was assessed using receiver operating characteristics curves, using area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of accuracy. Results Among Finns, test performance was highest for WC (AUC=0.81, 95% Cl 0.74 to 0.87) and WHtR (AUC=0.81, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.87). Test performance was similar for BMI (AUC=0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.92), WC (AUC=0.79, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) and WHtR (AUC=0.70, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.93) among Russians. WC and WHtR had highest test performance also among Somali (AUC=0.74, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.84 for WC and AUC=0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.85 for WHtR) and Kurds (AUC=0.71, 95% CI 0.61 to 0.81 for WC and AUC=0.70, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.80 for WHtR). Among migrants, WHR had the poorest test performance. Conclusion WC and WHtR performed overall the best across all study groups, however, accuracy of detection was lower particularly among Somali and Kurds. Currently used diabetes risk assessment tools assume a strong association between anthropometrics and diabetes. These tools need to be validated among non-Western populations.
  • Kylkilahti, Eliisa Aune Maria; Autio, Minna Maarit (2018)
    Young consumers hold an iconic position in post-industrial cultures. In spite of youth idealization in consumer culture, we know little of how youth is situated in everyday interactions in service culture. In our study, we focus on age-related power structures in service encounters. We argue that customer service interaction is built on the norm of an adult order; that is, to achieve an appreciated position as a customer, young people are required to act like middle-aged' consumers. To gain recognition, young consumers use resistance tactics: They create co-performing teams together with adults and modify their own performance towards adulthood by masking signs of youth. The findings suggest that young people may also resist the dominant adult order; laughter and smiling express a strategy that re-positions adults into a less powerful position in the service environment. The study shows that young and adult categories in service interaction are constantly under re-negotiation.