Browsing by Subject "IMMUNE-RESPONSES"

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  • Luukkainen, Annika; Puan, Kia Joo; Yusof, Nurhashikin; Lee, Bernett; Tan, Kai Sen; Liu, Jing; Yan, Yan; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Renkonen, Risto; Chow, Vincent T.; Rotzschke, Olaf; Wang, De Yun (2018)
    Background: We established an in vitro co-culture model involving H3N2-infection of human nasal epithelium with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to investigate their cross-talk during early H3N2 infection. Methods: Nasal epithelium was differentiated from human nasal epithelial stem/progenitor cells and cultured wtih fresh human PBMC. PBMC and supernatants were harvested after 24 and 48 h of co-culture with H3N2-infected nasal epithelium. We used flow cytometry and Luminex to characterize PBMC subpopulations, their activation and secretion of cytokine and chemokines. Results: H3N2 infection of the nasal epithelium associated with significant increase in interferons (IFN-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-29), pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, BDNF, IL-3) and viral-associated chemokines (IP-10, MCP-3, I-TAC, MIG), detectable already after 24 h. This translates into rapid activation of monocytes, NK-cells and innate T-cells (MAIT and gamma delta T cells), evident with CD38+ and/or CD69+ upregulation. Conclusions: This system may contribute to in vitro mechanistic immunological studies bridging systemic models and possibly enable the development of targeted immunomodulatory therapies.
  • Sillanpaa, Heidi; Skogman, Barbro H.; Sarvas, Heikki; Seppala, Ilkka J. T.; Lahdenne, Pekka (2014)
  • Talja, Ija; Kubo, Anna-Liisa; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Vaha-Makila, Mari; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika; Utt, Meeme; Uibo, Raivo (2014)
  • Windbichler, Katharina; Michalopoulou, Eleni; Palamides, Pia; Pesch, Theresa; Jelinek, Christine; Vapalahti, Olli; Kipar, Anja; Hetzel, Udo; Hepojoki, Jussi (2019)
    Boid Inclusion Body Disease (BIBD) is a potentially fatal disease reported in captive boid snakes worldwide that is caused by reptarenavirus infection. Although the detection of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in blood cells serves as the gold standard for the ante mortem diagnosis of BIBD, the mechanisms underlying IB formation and the pathogenesis of BIBD are unknown. Knowledge on the reptile immune system is sparse compared to the mammalian counterpart, and in particular the response towards reptarenavirus infection is practically unknown. Herein, we investigated a breeding collection of 70 Boa constrictor snakes for BIBD, reptarenavirus viraemia, anti-reptarenavirus IgM and IgY antibodies, and population parameters. Using NGS and RT-PCR on pooled blood samples of snakes with and without BIBD, we could identify three different reptarenavirus S segments in the collection. The examination of individual samples by RT-PCR indicated that the presence of University of Giessen virus (UGV)-like S segment strongly correlates with IB formation. We could also demonstrate a negative correlation between BIBD and the presence of anti-UGV NP IgY antibodies. Further evidence of an association between antibody response and BIBD is the finding that the level of anti-reptarenavirus antibodies measured by ELISA was lower in snakes with BIBD. Furthermore, female snakes had a significantly lower body weight when they had BIBD. Taken together our findings suggest that the detection of the UGV-/S6-like S segment and the presence of anti-reptarenavirus IgY antibodies might serve as a prognostic tool for predicting the development of BIBD.
  • Sioofy-Khojine, Amir-Babak; Lehtonen, Jussi; Nurminen, Noora; Laitinen, Olli H.; Oikarinen, Sami; Huhtala, Heini; Pakkanen, Outi; Ruokoranta, Tanja; Hankaniemi, Minna M.; Toppari, Jorma; Vähä-Mäkilä, Mari; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Islet autoimmunity usually starts with the appearance of autoantibodies against either insulin (IAA) or GAD65 (GADA). This categorises children with preclinical type 1 diabetes into two immune phenotypes, which differ in their genetic background and may have different aetiology. The aim was to study whether Coxsackievirus group B (CVB) infections, which have been linked to the initiation of islet autoimmunity, are associated with either of these two phenotypes in children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Methods All samples were from children in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study. Individuals are recruited to the DIPP study from the general population of new-born infants who carry defined HLA genotypes associated with susceptibility to type 1 diabetes. Our study cohort included 91 children who developed IAA and 78 children who developed GADA as their first appearing single autoantibody and remained persistently seropositive for islet autoantibodies, along with 181 and 151 individually matched autoantibody negative control children, respectively. Seroconversion to positivity for neutralising antibodies was detected as the surrogate marker of CVB infections in serial follow-up serum samples collected before and at the appearance of islet autoantibodies in each individual. Results CVB1 infections were associated with the appearance of IAA as the first autoantibody (OR 2.4 [95% CI 1.4, 4.2], corrected p = 0.018). CVB5 infection also tended to be associated with the appearance of IAA, however, this did not reach statistical significance (OR 2.3, [0.7, 7.5], p = 0.163); no other CVB types were associated with increased risk of IAA. Children who had signs of a CVB1 infection either alone or prior to infections by other CVBs were at the highest risk for developing IAA (OR 5.3 [95% CI 2.4, 11.7], p <0.001). None of the CVBs were associated with the appearance of GADA. Conclusions/interpretation CVB1 infections may contribute to the initiation of islet autoimmunity being particularly important in the insulin-driven autoimmune process.
  • Garn, Holger; Bahn, Sabine; Baune, Bernhard T.; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bisgaard, Hans; Chatila, Talal A.; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Culmsee, Carsten; Dannlowski, Udo; Gay, Steffen; Gern, James; Haahtela, Tari; Kircher, Tilo; Mueller-Ladner, Ulf; Neurath, Markus F.; Preissner, Klaus T.; Reinhardt, Christoph; Rook, Graham; Russell, Shannon; Schmeck, Bernd; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus; Steinhoff, Ulrich; van Os, Jim; Weiss, Scott; Zemlin, Michael; Renz, Harald (2016)
    Recent research indicates that chronic inflammatory diseases, including allergies and autoimmune and neuropsychiatric diseases, share common pathways of cellular and molecular dysregulation. It was the aim of the International von-Behring-Rontgen Symposium (October 16-18, 2014, in Marburg, Germany) to discuss recent developments in this field. These include a concept of biodiversity; the contribution of urbanization, lifestyle factors, and nutrition (eg, vitamin D); and new mechanisms of metabolic and immune dysregulation, such as extracellular and intracellular RNAs and cellular and mitochondrial stress. Epigenetic mechanisms contribute further to altered gene expression and therefore to the development of chronic inflammation. These novel findings provide the foundation for further development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
  • Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyoty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo (2016)
    The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS on behalf of Institut Pasteur.
  • Peiponen, Kati Susanna; Tirkkonen, Birger Taneli; Junnila, Jouni Juho Tapio; Heinonen, Mari Leena (2018)
    Background: The intracellular bacterium Lawsonia intracellularis is an important pathogen in modern swine production. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine (Enterisol-Ileitis (R)) on the health and production parameters of weaned and finishing pigs in a commercial Finnish 850-sow farm with diagnosed L. intracellularis infection. The herd was free from enzootic pneumonia, swine dysentery, progressive atrophic rhinitis, sarcoptic mange and salmonellosis. Four weekly groups of approximately 500 piglets were included in the study for a total of approximately 2000 piglets. Half of these piglets were vaccinated at 3 weeks of age and the other half served as controls. The study piglets were ear-tagged with individual numbers and colour-coded and were individually weighed at weaning (4 weeks), delivery to the finishing farm (12-14 weeks) and at slaughter. Mortality, symptoms of diseases and medications of the study piglets were registered in the nursery and finishing unit. Feed conversion rate was calculated for the finishing period and lean meat percentage was measured at slaughter. Results: Vaccinated piglets had a higher live weight than unvaccinated piglets at delivery to the finishing unit (+ 1.18 kg, P = 0.002) and at slaughter (+ 3.57 kg, P <0.001). The daily weight gain of vaccinated piglets was better than unvaccinated piglets in the nursery (+ 14.8 g/d, P = 0.013) and in the finishing unit (+ 30.9 g/d, P <0.001). Vaccination had no effect on feed conversion rate or lean meat percentage (P = 0.102). Altogether, 3.9 and 4.6% of the pigs were medicated for different reasons in the vaccinated and control groups, respectively. The return on investment for the vaccination was calculated to be 0.41. Conclusions: Immunisation of piglets with a live attenuated L. intracellularis vaccine resulted in higher meat yield in pig production via significantly higher live weight and average daily weight gain in a Finnish specific pathogen-free setting.
  • Saari, H.; Lisitsyna, Ekaterina S.; Rautaniemi, K.; Rojalin, T.; Niemi, L.; Nivaro, O.; Laaksonen, T.; Yliperttula, M.; Vuorimaa-Laukkanen, E. (2018)
    In response to physiological and artificial stimuli, cells generate nano-scale extracellular vesicles (EVs) by encapsulating biomolecules in plasma membrane-derived phospholipid envelopes. These vesicles are released to bodily fluids, hence acting as powerful endogenous mediators in intercellular signaling. EVs provide a compelling alternative for biomarker discovery and targeted drug delivery, but their kinetics and dynamics while interacting with living cells are poorly understood. Here we introduce a novel method, fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) to investigate these interaction attributes. By FLIM, we show distinct cellular uptake mechanisms of different EV subtypes, exosomes and microvesicles, loaded with anti-cancer agent, paclitaxel. We demonstrate differences in intracellular behavior and drug release profiles of paclitaxel-containing EVs. Exosomes seem to deliver the drug mostly by endocytosis while microvesicles enter the cells by both endocytosis and fusion with cell membrane. This research offers a new real-time method to investigate EV kinetics with living cells, and it is a potential advancement to complement the existing techniques. The findings of this study improve the current knowledge in exploiting EVs as next-generation targeted drug delivery systems.
  • Liu, Mengling; Rogers, Linda; Cheng, Qinyi; Shao, Yongzhao; Fernandez-Beros, Maria Elena; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lyon, Helen N.; Gajdos, Zofia K. Z.; Vedantam, Sailaja; Gregersen, Peter; Seldin, Michael F.; Bleck, Bertram; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kuokkanen, Mikko; Laitinen, Tarja; Eriksson, Johan; Lehtimaki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Reibman, Joan (2011)
  • Ruokolainen, Lasse; Lehtimaki, Jenni; Karkman, Antti; Haahtela, Tari; von Hertzen, Leena; Fyhrquist, Nanna (2017)
    The western world has witnessed a rising epidemic of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as allergies and asthma. This epidemic is expected to spread also to the rest of the world, where allergies have to date been practically absent, along with adoption of western lifestyle. In parallel, biological diversity is globally declining. This inspired Ilkka Hanski, together with medical doctors, to formulate the biodiversity hypothesis of allergic disease. This hypothesis proposes that reduced contact with natural environments, including natural microbial diversity, is associated with unhealthy human microbiota, less able to educate the immune system. Contact with beneficial bacteria, particularly early in life, seems to be instrumental to the normal development of immune responses. Changes in lifestyle and diet, destruction of natural environments, and urbanisation threaten our natural exposure to these beneficial bacteria and thus also reduce their impact on our physiology. To ensure a healthy life, we need to preserve biodiversity in the environment and make sure it finds a favourable home in us. In this review, we will focus on the role of commensal microbiota in human health and wellbeing, as well as the interaction between our microbiota and environmental microbiota, highlighting the contribution of Ilkka Hanski.
  • Rahikkala, Antti; Fontana, Flavia; Bauleth-Ramos, Tomás; Rebelo Correia, Alexandra Maria; Kemell, Marianna; Seitsonen, Jani; Mäkilä, Ermei; Sarmento, Bruno; Salonen, Jarno; Ruokolainen, Janne; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A. (2020)
    Erythrocyte-based drug delivery systems have been investigated for their biocompatibility, long circulation time, and capability to transport cargo all around the body, thus presenting enormous potential in medical applications. In this study, we investigated hybrid nanoparticles consisting of nano-sized autologous or allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) membranes encapsulating porous silicon nanoparticles (PSi NPs). These NPs were functionalized with a model cancer antigen TRP2, which was either expressed on the surface of the RBCs by a cell membrane-mimicking block copolymer polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly-2-methyl-2-oxazoline, or attached on the PSi NPs, thus hidden within the encapsulation. When in the presence of peripheral blood immune cells, these NPs resulted in apoptotic cell death of T cells, where the NPs having TRP2 within the encapsulation led to a stronger T cell deletion. The deletion of the T cells did not change the relative proportion of CD4+ and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. Overall, this work shows the combination of nano-sized RBCs, PSi, and antigenic peptides may have use in the treatment of autoimmune diseases.
  • Ropponen, Jussi O.; Keränen, Mikko A.; Raissadati, Alireza; Nykänen, Antti I.; Krebs, Rainer; Lemstrom, Karl B.; Tikkanen, Jussi M. (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation is characterized by chronic airway inflammation leading to the obliteration of small airways. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a master regulator of cellular responses to hypoxia and inflammation. The Von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL) drives the degradation of oxygen-sensitive subunit HIF-1 alpha that controls the activity of HIF-1. We investigated the effect of myeloid cell targeted gene deletion of HIF-1 alpha or its negative regulator pVHL on the development of obliterative airway disease (OAD) in the recipients of tracheal allografts, a mouse model for obliterative bronchiolitis after lung transplantation. METHODS: Tracheal allografts were heterotopically transplanted from BALB/c donor mice to fully major histocompatibility complex mismatched recipient mice with HIF-1 alpha or VHL gene deletion in myeloid cells. The recipients were left non-immunosuppressed or received tacrolimus daily. Histologic, immunohistochemical, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses were performed at 3, 10, and 30 days. RESULTS: In the absence of immunosuppression, myeloid cell-specific VHL deficiency of the recipient mice improved epithelial recovery, decreased inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased regulatory forkhead box P3 messenger RNA expression, and reduced OAD development in tracheal allografts. In the presence of tacrolimus immunosuppression, loss of HIF-1 alpha activity in myeloid cells of the recipient by HIF-1 alpha gene deletion accelerated OAD development in mouse tracheal allografts. CONCLUSIONS: Activity of the HIF-pathway affects the development of allograft rejection, and our results suggest that myeloid cell-specific VHL-deficiency that potentially increases HIF-activity decreases allograft inflammation and the subsequent development of OAD in mouse tracheal allografts. (C) 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. All rights reserved.
  • Ylösmäki, Erkko; Fusciello, Manlio; Martins, Beatriz; Feola, Sara; Hamdan, Firas; Chiaro, Jacopo; Ylösmäki, Leena; Vaughan, Matthew J.; Viitala, Tapani; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Background Intratumoral BCG therapy, one of the earliest immunotherapies, can lead to infiltration of immune cells into a treated tumor. However, an increase in the number of BCG-induced tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment could lead to enhanced therapeutic effects. Methods Here, we have developed a novel cancer vaccine platform based on BCG that can broaden BCG-induced immune responses to include tumor antigens. By physically attaching tumor-specific peptides onto the mycobacterial outer membrane, we were able to induce strong systemic and intratumoral T cell-specific immune responses toward the attached tumor antigens. These therapeutic peptides can be efficiently attached to the mycobacterial outer membrane using a poly-lysine sequence N-terminally fused to the tumor-specific peptides. Results Using two mouse models of melanoma and a mouse model of colorectal cancer, we observed that the antitumor immune responses of BCG could be improved by coating the BCG with tumor-specific peptides. In addition, by combining this novel cancer vaccine platform with anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, the number of responders to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy was markedly increased. Conclusions This study shows that intratumoral BCG immunotherapy can be improved by coating the bacteria with modified tumor-specific peptides. In addition, this improved BCG immunotherapy can be combined with ICI therapy to obtain enhanced tumor growth control. These results warrant clinical testing of this novel cancer vaccine platform.
  • Bousquet, J.; Anto, J. M.; Akdis, M.; Auffray, C.; Keil, T.; Momas, I.; Postma, D. S.; Valenta, R.; Wickman, M.; Cambon-Thomsen, A.; Haahtela, T.; Lambrecht, B. N.; Carlsen, K. C. Lodrup; Koppelman, G. H.; Sunyer, J.; Zuberbier, T.; Annesi-Maesano, I.; Arno, A.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; De Carlo, G.; Forastiere, F.; Heinrich, J.; Kowalski, M. L.; Maier, D.; Melen, E.; Palkonen, S.; Smit, H. A.; Standl, M.; Wright, J.; Asarnoj, A.; Benet, M.; Ballardini, N.; Garcia-Aymerich, J.; Gehring, U.; Guerra, S.; Hohman, C.; Kull, I.; Lupinek, C.; Pinart, M.; Skrindo, I.; Westman, M.; Smagghe, D.; Akdis, C.; Albang, R.; Anastasova, V.; Anderson, N.; Bachert, C.; Ballereau, S.; Ballester, F.; Basagana, X.; Bedbrook, A.; Bergstrom, A.; von Berg, A.; Brunekreef, B.; Burte, E.; Carlsen, K. H.; Chatzi, L.; Coquet, J. M.; Curin, M.; Demoly, P.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M. P.; Gerhard, B.; Hammad, H.; von Hertzen, L.; Hovland, V.; Jacquemin, B.; Just, J.; Keller, T.; Kerkhof, M.; Kiss, R.; Kogevinas, M.; Koletzko, S.; Lau, S.; Lehmann, I.; Lemonnier, N.; McEachan, R.; Mäkelä, M.; Mestres, J.; Minina, E.; Mowinckel, P.; Nadif, R.; Nawijn, M.; Oddie, S.; Pellet, J.; Pin, I.; Porta, D.; Ranciere, F.; Rial-Sebbag, A.; Saeys, Y.; Schuijs, M. J.; Siroux, V.; Tischer, C. G.; Torrent, M.; Varraso, R.; De Vocht, J.; Wenger, K.; Wieser, S.; Xu, C. (2016)
    MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy; EU FP7-CP-IP; Project No: 261357; 2010-2015) has proposed an innovative approach to develop early indicators for the prediction, diagnosis, prevention and targets for therapy. MeDALL has linked epidemiological, clinical and basic research using a stepwise, large-scale and integrative approach: MeDALL data of precisely phenotyped children followed in 14 birth cohorts spread across Europe were combined with systems biology (omics, IgE measurement using microarrays) and environmental data. Multimorbidity in the same child is more common than expected by chance alone, suggesting that these diseases share causal mechanisms irrespective of IgE sensitization. IgE sensitization should be considered differently in monosensitized and polysensitized individuals. Allergic multimorbidities and IgE polysensitization are often associated with the persistence or severity of allergic diseases. Environmental exposures are relevant for the development of allergy-related diseases. To complement the population-based studies in children, MeDALL included mechanistic experimental animal studies and in vitro studies in humans. The integration of multimorbidities and polysensitization has resulted in a new classification framework of allergic diseases that could help to improve the understanding of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of allergy as well as to better manage allergic diseases. Ethics and gender were considered. MeDALL has deployed translational activities within the EU agenda.
  • Schmidt, Marcus; Weyer-Elberich, Veronika; Hengstler, Jan G.; Heimes, Anne-Sophie; Almstedt, Katrin; Gerhold-Ay, Aslihan; Lebrecht, Antje; Battista, Marco J.; Hasenburg, Annette; Sahin, Ugur; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Fountzilas, George; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Joensuu, Heikki (2018)
    Background: The clinical importance of tumor-infiltrating cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) T cells is incompletely understood in early breast cancer. We investigated the clinical significance of CD4, forkhead box P3 (FOXP3), and B cell attracting chemokine leukocyte chemoattractant-ligand (C-X-C motif) 13 (CXCL13) in early breast cancer. Methods: The study is based on the patient population of the randomized FinHer trial, where 1010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to adjuvant chemotherapy containing either docetaxel or vinorelbine, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive patients were also allocated to trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Breast cancer CD4, FOXP3, and CXCL13 contents were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and their influence on distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was examined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates in the entire cohort and in selected molecular subgroups. Interactions between variables were analyzed using Cox regression. The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subset of the HE10/97 randomized trial was used for confirmation. Results: High CXCL13 was associated with favorable DDFS in univariable analysis, and independently in multivariable analysis (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.67, P Conclusions: The results provide a high level of evidence that humoral immunity influences the survival outcomes of patients with early breast cancer, in particular of those with TNBC.
  • Tuppurainen, E. S. M.; Venter, E. H.; Shisler, J. L.; Gari, G.; Mekonnen, G. A.; Juleff, N.; Lyons, N. A.; De Clercq, K.; Upton, C.; Bowden, T. R.; Babiuk, S.; Babiuk, L. A. (2017)
    Lumpy skin disease, sheeppox and goatpox are high-impact diseases of domestic ruminants with a devastating effect on cattle, sheep and goat farming industries in endemic regions. In this article, we review the current geographical distribution, economic impact of an outbreak, epidemiology, transmission and immunity of capripoxvirus. The special focus of the article is to scrutinize the use of currently available vaccines to investigate the resource needs and challenges that will have to be overcome to improve disease control and eradication, and progress on the development of safer and more effective vaccines. In addition, field evaluation of the efficacy of the vaccines and the genomic database available for poxviruses are discussed.
  • Kontio, Mia; Palmu, Arto A.; Syrjanen, Ritva K.; Lahdenkari, Mika; Ruokokoski, Esa; Davidkin, Irja; Vaarala, Outi; Melin, Merit (2016)
    Background. Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations have been offered to Finnish children at 14-18 months and 6 years of age. In May 2011, the recommended age for the first vaccine dose was lowered to 12 months because of the European measles epidemic. Methods. Fingertip capillary blood samples were collected from 3-year-old Finnish children vaccinated once with MMR vaccine at 11-19 months of age. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to all 3 MMR antigens were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutralizing antibodies and the avidity of antibodies were measured for measles virus. Results. From April through October 2013, 187 children were enrolled. Equally high proportions of the samples were seropositive for measles virus, mumps virus, or rubella virus antibodies, and there were no significant differences in the IgG antibody concentrations in children vaccinated at 11-13 months of age, compared with those vaccinated at 17-19 months of age. However, among children vaccinated at 11-13 months of age, boys had lower antibody concentrations than girls. Neutralizing measles virus antibody titers were above the threshold for protective immunity in all 78 samples analyzed. The measles virus antibody avidity indexes were high for all children. Conclusions. MMR induces similar antibody responses in 12-month-old children as compared to 18-month-old children, but in boys increasing age appears to improve the antibody responses.
  • Tytgat, Hanne L. P.; de Vos, Willem M. (2016)
    Tremendous progress has been made on mapping the mainly bacterial members of the human intestinal microbiota. Knowledge on what is out there, or rather what is inside, needs to be complemented with insight on how these bacteria interact with their biotic environment. Bacterial glycoconjugates, that is, the collection of all glycan-modified molecules, are ideal modulators of such interactions. Their enormous versatility and diversity results in a species-specific glycan barcode, providing a range of ligands for host interaction. Recent reports on the functional importance of glycosylation of important bacterial ligands in beneficial and pathogenic species underpin this. Glycoconjugates, and glycoproteins in particular, are an underappreciated, potentially crucial, factor in understanding bacteria-host interactions of old friends and foes.
  • D'Elios, Mario Milco; Vallese, Francesca; Capitani, Nagaja; Benagiano, Marisa; Bernardini, Maria Lina; Rossi, Mirko; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro; Baldari, Cosima Tatiana; Zanotti, Giuseppe; de Bernard, Marina; Codolo, Gaia (2017)
    Recent studies have shown that certain specific microbial infections participate in atherosclerosis by inducing inflammation and immune reactions, but how the pathogens implicated in this pathology trigger the host responses remains unknown. In this study we show that Helicobacter cinaedi (Hc) is a human pathogen linked to atherosclerosis development since at least 27% of sera from atherosclerotic patients specifically recognize a protein of the Hc proteome, that we named Cinaedi Atherosclerosis Inflammatory Protein (CAIP) (n = 71). CAIP appears to be implicated in this pathology because atheromatous plaques isolated from atherosclerotic patients are enriched in CAIP-specific T cells (10%) which, in turn, we show to drive a Th1 inflammation, an immunopathological response typically associated to atherosclerosis. Recombinant CAIP promotes the differentiation and maintenance of the pro-inflammatory profile of human macrophages and triggers the formation of foam cells, which are a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study identifies CAIP as a relevant factor in atherosclerosis inflammation linked to Hc infection and suggests that preventing and eradicating Hc infection could reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis.