Browsing by Subject "IMMUNE-SYSTEM"

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  • Hänninen, Arno; Toivonen, Raine; Pöysti, Sakari; Belzer, Clara; Plovier, Hubert; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; Emani, Rohini; Cani, Patrice D.; De Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Objective Intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but evidence on its causality and on the role of individual microbiota members is limited. We investigated if different diabetes incidence in two NOD colonies was due to microbiota differences and aimed to identify individual microbiota members with potential significance. Design We profiled intestinal microbiota between two NOD mouse colonies showing high or low diabetes incidence by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and colonised the high-incidence colony with the microbiota of the low-incidence colony. Based on unaltered incidence, we identified a few taxa which were not effectively transferred and thereafter, transferred experimentally one of these to test its potential significance. Results Although the high-incidence colony adopted most microbial taxa present in the low-incidence colony, diabetes incidence remained unaltered. Among the few taxa which were not transferred, Akkermansia muciniphila was identified. As A. muciniphila abundancy is inversely correlated to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies, we transferred A. muciniphila experimentally to the high-incidence colony. A. muciniphila transfer promoted mucus production and increased expression of antimicrobial peptide Reg3., outcompeted Ruminococcus torques from the microbiota, lowered serum endotoxin levels and islet toll-like receptor expression, promoted regulatory immunity and delayed diabetes development. Conclusion Transfer of the whole microbiota may not reduce diabetes incidence despite a major change in gut microbiota, but single symbionts such as A. muciniphila with beneficial metabolic and immune signalling effects may reduce diabetes incidence when administered as a probiotic.
  • Gomez, Marta; Moles, Laura; Espinosa-Martos, Irene; Bustos, Gerardo; de Vos, Willem M.; Fernandez, Leonides; Rodriguez, Juan M.; Fuentes, Susana; Jimenez, Esther (2017)
    An abnormal colonization pattern of the preterm gut may affect immune maturation and exert a long-term influence on the intestinal bacterial composition and host health. However, follow-up studies assessing the evolution of the fecal microbiota of infants that were born preterm are very scarce. In this work, the bacterial compositions of fecal samples, obtained from sixteen 2-year-old infants were evaluated using a phylogenetic microarray; subsequently, the results were compared with those obtained in a previous study from samples of meconium and feces collected from the same infants while they stayed in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). In parallel, the concentration of a wide range of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and immunoglobulins were determined in meconium and fecal samples. Globally, a higher bacterial diversity and a lower interindividual variability were observed in 2-year-olds' feces, when compared to the samples obtained during their first days of life. Hospital-associated fecal bacteria, that were dominant during the NICU stay, seemed to be replaced, two years later, by genera, which are usually predominant in the healthy adult microbiome. The immune profile of the meconium and fecal samples differed, depending on the sampling time, showing different immune maturation statuses of the gut.
  • Skurnik, Mikael (2022)
    Increasing antibiotic resistance numbers force both scientists and politicians to tackle the problem, and preferably without any delay. The application of bacteriophages as precision therapy to treat bacterial infections, phage therapy, has received increasing attention during the last two decades. While it looks like phage therapy is here to stay, there is still a lot to do. Medicine regulatory authorities are working to deliver clear instructions to carry out phage therapy. Physicians need to get more practical experience on treatments with phages. In this opinion article I try to place phage therapy in the context of the health care system and state that the use phages for precision treatments will require a seamless chain of events from the patient to the phage therapy laboratory to allow for the immediate application of phages therapeutically. It is not likely that phages will replace antibiotics, however, they will be valuable in the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant bacteria. Antibiotics will nevertheless remain the main treatment for a majority of infections.
  • Dickson, Laura B.; Jiolle, Davy; Minard, Guillaume; Moltini-Conclois, Isabelle; Volant, Stevenn; Ghozlane, Amine; Bouchier, Christiane; Ayala, Diego; Paupy, Christophe; Moro, Claire Valiente; Lambrechts, Louis (2017)
    Conditions experienced during larval development of holometabolous insects can affect adult traits, but whether differences in the bacterial communities of larval development sites contribute to variation in the ability of insect vectors to transmit human pathogens is unknown. We addressed this question in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, a major arbovirus vector breeding in both sylvatic and domestic habitats in Sub-Saharan Africa. Targeted metagenomics revealed differing bacterial communities in the water of natural breeding sites in Gabon. Experimental exposure to different native bacterial isolates during larval development resulted in significant differences in pupation rate and adult body size but not life span. Larval exposure to an Enterobacteriaceae isolate resulted in decreased antibacterial activity in adult hemolymph and reduced dengue virus dissemination titer. Together, these data provide the proof of concept that larval exposure to different bacteria can drive variation in adult traits underlying vectorial capacity. Our study establishes a functional link between larval ecology, environmental microbes, and adult phenotypic variation in a holo-metabolous insect vector.
  • Palkola, Nina V.; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Kantele, Jussi M.; Pakarinen, Laura; Puohiniemi, Ritvaleena; Kantele, Anu (2015)
    Background. Mucosal immune mechanisms in the upper and lower respiratory tracts may serve a critical role in preventing pneumonia due to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Streptococcus pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts presumably originating in the lower respiratory tract have recently been found in the circulation in patients with pneumonia. The localization of an immune response can be evaluated by exploring homing receptors on such plasmablasts, yet no data have thus far described homing receptors in pneumonia. Methods. The expression of alpha(4)beta(7), L-selectin, and cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA) on S. pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts was examined in patients with pneumonia (n = 16) and healthy volunteers given pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV; n = 14) or pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV; n = 11). Results. In patients with pneumonia, the proportion of S. pneumoniae-specific plasmablasts expressing L-selectin was high, the proportion expressing alpha(4)beta(7) was moderate, and the proportion expressing CLA was low. The homing receptor alpha(4)beta(7) was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV (P=.000) and PCV (P=.029) groups, L-selectin was expressed more frequently in the PPV group than in the PCV group (P=.014); and CLA was expressed more frequently in the pneumonia group than in the PPV group (P=.001). Conclusions. The homing receptor profile in patients with pneumonia was unique yet it was closer to that in PCV recipients than in PPV recipients. These data suggest greater mucosal localization for immune response in natural infection, which is clinically interesting, especially considering the shortcomings of vaccines in protecting against noninvasive pneumonia.
  • Altizer, Sonia; Becker, Daniel J.; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Forbes, Kristian M.; Gillespie, Thomas R.; Hall, Richard J.; Hawley, Dana M.; Hernandez, Sonia M.; Martin, Lynn B.; Plowright, Raina K.; Satterfield, Dara A.; Streicker, Daniel G. (2018)
    Human-provided resource subsidies for wildlife are diverse, common and have profound consequences for wildlife-pathogen interactions, as demonstrated by papers in this themed issue spanning empirical, theoretical and management perspectives from a range of study systems. Contributions cut across scales of organization, from the within-host dynamics of immune function, to population-level impacts on parasite transmission, to landscape-and regional-scale patterns of infection. In this concluding paper, we identify common threads and key findings from author contributions, including the consequences of resource subsidies for (i) host immunity; (ii) animal aggregation and contact rates; (iii) host movement and landscape-level infection patterns; and (iv) interspecific contacts and cross-species transmission. Exciting avenues for future work include studies that integrate mechanistic modelling and empirical approaches to better explore cross-scale processes, and experimental manipulations of food resources to quantify host and pathogen responses. Work is also needed to examine evolutionary responses to provisioning, and ask how diet-altered changes to the host microbiome influence infection processes. Given the massive public health and conservation implications of anthropogenic resource shifts, we end by underscoring the need for practical recommendations to manage supplemental feeding practices, limit human-wildlife conflicts over shared food resources and reduce cross-species transmission risks, including to humans. This article is part of the theme issue 'Anthropogenic resource subsidies and host-parasite dynamics in wildlife'.
  • Ruokolainen, L.; von Hertzen, L.; Fyhrquist, N.; Laatikainen, T.; Lehtomaki, J.; Auvinen, P.; Karvonen, A. M.; Hyvarinen, A.; Tillmann, V.; Niemela, O.; Knip, M.; Haahtela, T.; Pekkanen, J.; Hanski, I. (2015)
  • Muszer, Magdalena; Noszczynska, Magdalena; Kasperkiewicz, Katarzyna; Skurnik, Mikael (2015)
    The microorganisms that inhabit humans are very diverse on different body sites and tracts. Each specific niche contains a unique composition of the microorganisms that are important for a balanced human physiology. Microbial cells outnumber human cells by tenfold and they function as an invisible organ that is called the microbiome. Excessive use of antibiotics and unhealthy diets pose a serious danger to the composition of the microbiome. An imbalance in the microbial community may cause pathological conditions of the digestive system such as obesity, cancer and inflammatory bowel disease; of the skin such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and acne and of the cardiovascular system such as atherosclerosis. An unbalanced microbiome has also been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and multiple sclerosis. While the microbiome has a strong impact on the development of the host immune system, it is suspected that it can also be the cause of certain autoimmune diseases, including diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis. Despite the enormous progress in the field, the interactions between the human body and its microbiome still remain largely unknown. A better characterization of the interactions may allow for a deeper understanding of human disease states and help to elucidate a possible association between the composition of the microbiome and certain pathologies. This review focuses on general findings that are related to the area and provides no detailed information about the case of study. The aim is to give some initial insight on the studies of the microbiome and its connection with human health.
  • Kaislasuo, Janina; Simpson, Samantha; Petersen, Jesper F; Peng, Gang; Aldo, Paulomi; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Paidas, Michale; Pal, Lubna; Guller, Seth; Mor, Gil (2020)
    Abstract Problem Embryo implantation and placentation require a careful immunological balance. Cytokines such as IL-10 and TNFα have been implicated as markers of dysregulation, but have only been studied at a single time point or after a pregnancy lost. Our objective was to determine normative patterns of serum levels of IL-10 and TNFα and their ratio throughout the first trimester in healthy pregnancies, and to determine if this pattern differs from pregnancy loss. Methods Two prospective longitudinal cohorts of gravidae including in vitro fertilization (IVF) and naturally conceived pregnancies with serial blood draws. Cytokines were assayed using SimplePlex. In the IVF cohort we monitored from the implantation day up to 6 weeks of gestation; whereas in the naturally conceived cohort, sample collection began at 4 weeks and throughout the whole first trimester. Results IL-10 concentrations in normal pregnancies were significantly higher than in pregnancies ending in a loss starting at 6-8 weeks of gestation while TNFα concentrations were significantly lower in normal than in pregnancies ending in a loss starting at 3-5 of gestation weeks. The IL-10 to TNFα ratio in normal pregnancies was significantly higher from 4 to 9 weeks compared to pregnancies that were lost (t-test, p
  • Laanto, Elina; Hoikkala, Ville; Ravantti, Janne; Sundberg, Lotta-Riina (2017)
    Antagonistic coevolution of parasite infectivity and host resistance may alter the biological functionality of species, yet these dynamics in nature are still poorly understood. Here we show the molecular details of a long-term phage-bacterium arms race in the environment. Bacteria (Flavobacterium columnare) are generally resistant to phages from the past and susceptible to phages isolated in years after bacterial isolation. Bacterial resistance selects for increased phage infectivity and host range, which is also associated with expansion of phage genome size. We identified two CRISPR loci in the bacterial host: a type II-C locus and a type VI-B locus. While maintaining a core set of conserved spacers, phage-matching spacers appear in the variable ends of both loci over time. The spacers mostly target the terminal end of the phage genomes, which also exhibit the most variation across time, resulting in arms-race-like changes in the protospacers of the coevolving phage population.
  • Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J.; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi (2014)
  • Khatun, Masuma; Sorjamaa, Anna; Kangasniemi, Marika; Sutinen, Meeri; Saio, Tuuia; Liakka, Annikki; Lehenkari, Petri; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Chen, Joseph C.; Lehtonen, Siri; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2017)
    Objective Intrinsic inflammatory characteristics play a pivotal role in stem cell recruitment and homing through migration where the subsequent change in niche has been shown to alter these characteristics. The bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (bmMSCs) have been demonstrated to migrate to the endometrium contributing to the stem cell reservoir and regeneration of endometrial tissue. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the inflammation-driven migration and cytokine secretion profile of human bmMSCs to endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs) and endometrial fibroblasts (eSFs). Materials and methods The bmMSCs were isolated from bone marrow aspirates through culturing, whereas eMSCs and eSFs were FACS-isolated. All cell types were tested for their surface marker, proliferation profiles and migration properties towards serum and inflammatory attractants. The cytokine/chemokine secretion profile of 35 targets was analysed in each cell type at basal level along with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced state. Results Both stem cell types, bmMSCs and eMSCs, presented with similar stem cell surface marker profiles as well as possessed high proliferation and migration potential compared to eSFs. In multiplex assays, the secretion of 16 cytokine targets was detected and LPS stimulation expanded the cytokine secretion pattern by triggering the secretion of several targets. The bmMSCs exhibited higher cytokine secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)A, stromal cell-derived factor-1 alpha (SDF)-1 alpha, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), IL-6, interferon-gamma inducible protein (IP)-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) 1 alpha and RANTES compared to eMSCs and/or eSFs after stimulation with LPS. The basal IL-8 secretion was higher in both endometrial cell types compared to bmMSCs. Conclusion Our results highlight that similar to bmMSCs, the eMSCs possess high migration activity while the differentiation process towards stromal fibroblasts seemed to result in loss of stem cell surface markers, minimal migration activity and a subtler cytokine profile likely contributing to normal endometrial function
  • Hemilä, Harri; Virtamo, Jarmo; Albanes, Demetrius; Kaprio, Jaakko (2003)
  • van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Sallinen, Mikael; Virkkala, Jussi; Lindholm, Harri; Hirvonen, Ari; Hublin, Christer; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Harma, Mikko (2018)
    Purpose Sleep restriction is increasingly common and associated with the development of health problems. We investigated how the neuroendocrine stress systems respond to prolonged sleep restriction and subsequent recovery sleep in healthy young men. Methods After two baseline (BL) nights of 8 h time in bed (TIB), TIB was restricted to 4 h per night for five nights (sleep restriction, SR, n = 15), followed by three recovery nights (REC) of 8 h TIB, representing a busy workweek and a recovery weekend. The control group (n = 8) had 8 h TIB throughout the experiment. A variety of autonomic cardiovascular parameters, together with salivary neuropeptide Y (NPY) and cortisol levels, were assessed. Results In the control group, none of the parameters changed. In the experimental group, heart rate increased from 60 +/- 1.8 beats per minute (bpm) at BL, to 63 +/- 1.1 bpm after SR and further to 65 +/- 1.8 bpm after REC. In addition, whole day low-frequency to-high frequency (LF/HF) power ratio of heart rate variability increased from 4.6 +/- 0.4 at BL to 6.0 +/- 0.6 after SR. Other parameters, including salivary NPY and cortisol levels, remained unaffected. Conclusions Increased heart rate and LF/HF power ratio are early signs of an increased sympathetic activity after prolonged sleep restriction. To reliably interpret the clinical significance of these early signs of physiological stress, a follow-up study would be needed to evaluate if the stress responses escalate and lead to more unfavourable reactions, such as elevated blood pressure and a subsequent elevated risk for cardiovascular health problems.
  • Korpela, Katri; Salonen, Anne; Vepsäläinen, Outi; Suomalainen, Marjo; Kolmeder, Carolin; Varjosalo, Markku; Miettinen, Sini; Kukkonen, Kaarina; Savilahti, Erkki; Kuitunen, Mikael; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    BackgroundInfants born by caesarean section or receiving antibiotics are at increased risk of developing metabolic, inflammatory and immunological diseases, potentially due to disruption of normal gut microbiota at a critical developmental time window. We investigated whether probiotic supplementation could ameliorate the effects of antibiotic use or caesarean birth on infant microbiota in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. Mothers were given a multispecies probiotic, consisting of Bifidobacterium breve Bb99 (Bp99 2x10(8) cfu) Propionibacterium freundenreichii subsp. shermanii JS (2x10(9)cfu), Lactobacillus rhamnosus Lc705 (5x10(9) cfu) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (5x10(9) cfu) (N=168 breastfed and 31 formula-fed), or placebo supplement (N=201 breastfed and 22 formula-fed) during pregnancy, and the infants were given the same supplement. Faecal samples of the infants were collected at 3months and analyzed using taxonomic, metagenomic and metaproteomic approaches.ResultsThe probiotic supplement had a strong overall impact on the microbiota composition, but the effect depended on the infant's diet. Only breastfed infants showed the expected increase in bifidobacteria and reduction in Proteobacteria and Clostridia. In the placebo group, both birth mode and antibiotic use were significantly associated with altered microbiota composition and function, particularly reduced Bifidobacterium abundance. In the probiotic group, the effects of antibiotics and birth mode were either completely eliminated or reduced.ConclusionsThe results indicate that it is possible to correct undesired changes in microbiota composition and function caused by antibiotic treatments or caesarean birth by supplementing infants with a probiotic mixture together with at least partial breastfeeding.Trial NCT00298337. Registered March 2, 2006.
  • Schmidt, Marcus; Edlund, Karolina; Hengstler, Jan G.; Heimes, Anne-Sophie; Almstedt, Katrin; Lebrecht, Antje; Krajnak, Slavomir; Battista, Marco J.; Brenner, Walburgis; Hasenburg, Annette; Rahnenfuehrer, Joerg; Gehrmann, Mathias; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Joensuu, Heikki (2021)
    Simple Summary We examined the relevance of immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC), an important part of the humoral immune system, in early breast cancer. To our knowledge, our results confirm for the first time previous retrospective findings of a cancer recurrence protective role of IGKC in a large cohort of early breast cancer patients who were treated in the prospective, randomized FinHer clinical trial. We show that an increased amount of IGKC in the tumor is linked to longer distant metastasis-free survival, especially in patients whose breast cancer does not express hormone receptors or human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. This type of breast cancer often has poor prognosis. Since an improved outcome is associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating IGKC expressing immune cells, this may be a further argument for the use of immunotherapies in these patients. We studied the prognostic impact of tumor immunoglobulin kappa C (IGKC) mRNA expression as a marker of the humoral immune system in the FinHer trial patient population, where 1010 patients with early breast cancer were randomly allocated to either docetaxel-containing or vinorelbine-containing adjuvant chemotherapy. HER2-positive patients were additionally allocated to either trastuzumab or no trastuzumab. Hormone receptor-positive patients received tamoxifen. IGKC was evaluated in 909 tumors using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and the influence on distant disease-free survival (DDFS) was examined using univariable and multivariable Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates. Interactions were analyzed using Cox regression. IGKC expression, included as continuous variable, was independently associated with DDFS in a multivariable analysis also including age, molecular subtype, grade, and pT and pN stage (HR 0.930, 95% CI 0.870-0.995, p = 0.034). An independent association with DDFS was also found in a subset analysis of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (HR 0.843, 95% CI 0.724-0.983, p = 0.029), but not in luminal (HR 0.957, 95% CI 0.867-1.056, p = 0.383) or HER2-positive (HR 0.933, 95% CI 0.826-1.055, p = 0.271) cancers. No significant interaction between IGKC and chemotherapy or trastuzumab administration was detected (P-interaction = 0.855 and 0.684, respectively). These results show that humoral immunity beneficially influences the DDFS of patients with early TNBC.
  • Åberg, Fredrik; Savikko, Johanna; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Mäkisalo, Heikki (2018)
    In an intestinal transplant patient under triple immunosuppression therapy with tacrolimus levels > 10 ng/L, a 2-day oral immunoglobulin therapy given as treatment for chronic norovirus infection was temporally closely associated with the development of severe steroid-resistant acute graft rejection, thus suggesting that oral immunoglobulin might be able to promote a rejection response.
  • Hakanen, Emma; Lehtimäki, Jenni; Salmela, Elina; Tiira, Katriina; Anturaniemi, Johanna; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Ruokolainen, Lasse; Lohi, Hannes (2018)
    Our companion-animals, dogs, suffer increasingly from non-communicable diseases, analogous to those common in humans, such as allergic manifestations. In humans, living in rural environments is associated with lower risk of allergic diseases. Our aim was to explore whether a similar pattern can be found in dogs, using a nation-wide survey in Finland (n = 5722). We characterised the land-use around dog's home at the time of birth as well as around its current home, and described several lifestyle factors. The severity of owner-reported allergic symptoms in dogs was estimated with a comprehensive set of questions, developed by experts of canine dermatology. Also, the prevalence of diagnosed allergies in dog owners was recorded. The results indicate that allergic symptoms are more prevalent in urban environments both in dog owners and in dogs (accounting the effect of dog breed). Several factors related to rural living, such as bigger family size and regular contact with farm animals and other pets, were also protective against allergic symptoms in dogs. Interestingly, allergic dogs were more likely to have allergic owners than healthy dogs were. Therefore, we suggest that the mutual presence of allergic symptoms in both species indicates common underlying causal factors of allergic diseases.