Browsing by Subject "IMMUNOGENICITY"

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  • Dagan, Ron; Ben-Shimol, Shalom; Simell, Birgit; Greenberg, David; Porat, Nurith; Käyhty, Helena; Givon-Lavi, Noga (2018)
    Background: We compared PCV7 serological response and protection against carriage in infants receiving 3 doses (2, 4, 6 months; 3+0 schedule) to those receiving a booster (12 months; 3+1). Methods: A prospective, randomized controlled study, conducted between 2005 and 2008, before PCVs were implemented in Israel. Healthy infants were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 3+1, 3+0 and 0+2 (control group; 12, 18 months doses). Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were obtained at all visits. Serum serotype-specific IgG concentrations and opsonic activities (OPA) were measured at 2, 7, 13 and 19 months. This study was registered with Current Controlled Trials, Ltd. ISRCTN28445844. Results: Overall, 544 infants were enrolled: 3+1 (n = 178), 3+0 (n = 178) and 0+2 (n = 188). Post-priming (7 months), antibody concentrations were similar in both groups, except for serotype 18C (higher in 3+0). Post-booster (13, 19 months), ELISA and OPA levels were significantly higher in 3+1 than in 3+0 group. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal cultures were positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae in 2673 (543%) visits. Acquisition rates (vaccine and non-vaccine serotypes) were similar for 3+1 and 3+0 groups at 7-30 months and for 0+2 group at 19-30 months. Conclusions: PCV7 booster after 3 priming doses increased substantially IgG concentrations but did not further reduced vaccine-serotype nasopharyngeal acquisition, suggesting that protection from pneumococcal carriage does not depend primarily on serum IgG. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Belik, Milja; Jalkanen, Pinja; Lundberg, Rickard; Reinholm, Arttu; Laine, Larissa; Väisänen, Elina; Skön, Marika; Tahtinen, Paula A.; Ivaska, Lauri; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Häkkinen, Hanni K.; Ortamo, Eeva; Pasternack, Arja; Ritvos, Mikael A.; Naves, Rauno A.; Miettinen, Simo; Sironen, Tarja; Vapalahti, Olli; Ritvos, Olli; Österlund, Pamela; Kantele, Anu; Lempainen, Johanna; Kakkola, Laura; Kolehmainen, Pekka; Julkunen, Ilkka (2022)
    Vaccination shows efficacy in protecting from COVID-19, but regime and dosing optimization is still ongoing. Here the authors show that BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or their combination with ChAdOx1 induces similar antibody responses, and those receiving three doses of BNT162b2 induce neutralizing antibodies against the Omicron variant. Two COVID-19 mRNA (of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273) and two adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 and Janssen) are licensed in Europe, but optimization of regime and dosing is still ongoing. Here we show in health care workers (n = 328) that two doses of BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or a combination of ChAdOx1 adenovirus vector and mRNA vaccines administrated with a long 12-week dose interval induce equally high levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike antibodies and neutralizing antibodies against D614 and Delta variant. By contrast, two doses of BNT162b2 with a short 3-week interval induce 2-3-fold lower titers of neutralizing antibodies than those from the 12-week interval, yet a third BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 booster dose increases the antibody levels 4-fold compared to the levels after the second dose, as well as induces neutralizing antibody against Omicron BA.1 variant. Our data thus indicates that a third COVID-19 mRNA vaccine may induce cross-protective neutralizing antibodies against multiple variants.
  • Koivusaari, Katariina; Syrjälä, Essi; Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Ahonen, Suvi; Åkerlund, Mari; Korhonen, Tuuli E.; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Peltonen, Jaakko; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Knip, Mikael; Alatossava, Tapani; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M (2020)
    Several prospective studies have shown an association between cows’ milk consumption and the risk of islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes. We wanted to study whether processing of milk plays a role. A population-based birth cohort of 6081 children with HLA-DQB1-conferred risk to type 1 diabetes was followed until the age of 15 years. We included 5545 children in the analyses. Food records were completed at the ages of 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years, and diabetes-associated autoantibodies were measured at 3–12-month intervals. For milk products in the food composition database, we used conventional and processing-based classifications. We analysed the data using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. By the age of 6 years, islet autoimmunity developed in 246 children. Consumption of all cows’ milk products together (energy-adjusted hazard ratio 1·06; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·003), non-fermented milk products (1·06; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·10; P = 0·011) and fermented milk products (1·35; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·67; P = 0·005) was associated with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity. The early milk consumption was not associated with the risk beyond 6 years. We observed no clear differences based on milk homogenisation and heat treatment. Our results are consistent with the previous studies, which indicate that high milk consumption may cause islet autoimmunity in children at increased genetic risk. The study did not identify any specific type of milk processing that would clearly stand out as a sole risk factor apart from other milk products.
  • Aaltonen, K. J.; Joensuu, J. T.; Pirilä, L.; Kauppi, M.; Uutela, T.; Varjolahti-Lehtinen, T.; Yli-Kerttula, T.; Isomäki, P.; Nordström, D.; Sokka, T. (2017)
    Objective: A systematic review found that an average of 27% of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors discontinue their treatment within 1year. The aim of this study was to assess drug survival on TNF inhibitors among patients with RA.Methods: Patients were identified from the National Register for Biologic Treatment in Finland (ROB-FIN), which is a longitudinal cohort study established to monitor the effectiveness and safety of biologic drugs in rheumatic diseases. Inclusion was limited to TNF-inhibitor treatments started as the patient's first, second, or third biologic treatment between 2004 and 2014. Follow-up was truncated at 36months. The results of a time-dependent Cox proportional hazards model were reported as adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Results: Of the 4200 TNF-inhibitor treatment periods identified from ROB-FIN, 3443 periods from 2687 patients met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-seven per cent of the patients discontinued their treatment within 12months. Infliximab (HR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3-2.5) and certolizumab pegol (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.3) had lower drug survival compared to golimumab. A similar trend was seen with adalimumab (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.90-1.7) and etanercept (HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.87-1.6). Concomitant use of methotrexate (MTX) was associated with improved drug survival (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.64-0.90) in comparison with TNF-inhibitor monotherapy.Conclusions: Golimumab was better in terms of drug survival than infliximab or certolizumab pegol and at least as good as adalimumab and etanercept. Concomitant use of MTX improved drug survival on TNF inhibitors.
  • Patrikoski, Mimmi; Lee, Michelle Hui Ching; Makinen, Laura; Ang, Xiu Min; Mannerström, Bettina; Raghunath, Michael; Miettinen, Susanna (2017)
    Microenvironment plays an important role for stem cell proliferation and differentiation. Macromolecular crowding (MMC) was recently shown to assist stem cells in forming their own matrix microenvironment in vitro. The ability of MMC to support adipose stem cell (ASC) proliferation, metabolism, and multilineage differentiation was studied under different conditions: fetal bovine serum- (FBS-) and human serum- (HS-) based media and xeno- and serum-free (XF/SF) media. Furthermore, the immunophenotype of ASCs under MMC was evaluated. The proliferative capacity of ASCs under MMC was attenuated in each condition. However, osteogenic differentiation was enhanced under MMC, shown by increased deposition of mineralized matrix in FBS and HS cultures. Likewise, significantly greater lipid droplet accumulation and increased collagen IV deposition indicated enhanced adipogenesis under MMC in FBS and HS cultures. In contrast, chondrogenic differentiation was attenuated in ASCs expanded under MMC. The ASC immunophenotype was maintained under MMC with significantly higher expression of CD54. However, MMC impaired metabolic activity and differentiation capacity of ASCs in XF/SF conditions. Both the supportive and inhibitory effects of MMC on ASC are culture condition dependent. In the presence of serum, MMC maintains ASC immunophenotype and enhances adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation at the cost of reduced proliferation.
  • Ylösmäki, Erkko; Malorzo, Cristina; Capasso, Cristian; Honkasalo, Oona; Fusciello, Manlio; Martins, Beatriz; Ylösmäki, Leena; Louna, Antti; Feola, Sara; Paavilainen, Henrik; Peltonen, Karita; Hukkanen, Veijo; Viitala, Tapani; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2018)
    The approval of the first oncolytic virus for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and the compiling evidence that the use of oncolytic viruses can enhance cancer immunotherapies targeted against various immune checkpoint proteins has attracted great interest in the field of cancer virotherapy. We have developed a novel platform for clinically relevant enveloped viruses that can direct the virus-induced immune response against tumor antigens. By physically attaching tumor- specific peptides onto the viral envelope of vaccinia virus and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), we were able to induce a strong T cell-specific immune response toward these tumor antigens. These therapeutic peptides could be attached onto the viral envelope by using a cell-penetrating peptide sequence derived from human immunodeficiency virus Tat N-terminally fused to the tumor-specific peptides or, alternatively, therapeutic peptides could be conjugated with cholesterol for the attachment of the peptides onto the viral envelope. We used two mouse models of melanoma termed B16. OVA and B16-F10 for testing the efficacy of OVA SIINFEKL-peptide-coated viruses and gp100-Trp2-peptide-coated viruses, respectively, and show that by coating the viral envelope with therapeutic peptides, the anti-tumor immunity and the number of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells in the tumor microenvironment can be significantly enhanced.
  • Harris, Vanessa; Ali, Asad; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri; Kazi, Momin; Tate, Jacqueline; Parashar, Umesh; Wiersinga, W. Joost; Giaquinto, Carlo; de Weerth, Carolina; de Vos, Willem M. (2018)
    Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and ninety-five percent of rotavirus deaths occur in Africa and Asia. Rotavirus vaccines (RVV) can dramatically reduce RV deaths, but have low efficacy in low-income settings where they are most needed. The intestinal microbiome may contribute to this decreased RVV efficacy. This pilot study hypothesizes that infants' intestinal microbiota composition correlates with RVV immune responses and that RVV responders have different gut microbiota as compared to non-responders. We conducted a nested, matched case-control study comparing the pre-vaccination intestinal microbiota composition between 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV-responders, 10 6-week old Pakistani RVV non-responders, and 10 healthy Dutch infants. RVV response was defined as an Immunoglobulin A of >= 20 IU/mL following Rotarix (TM)(RV1) vaccination in an infant with aprevaccination IgA RV1 response correlated with a higher relative abundance of bacteria belonging to Clostridium cluster XI and Proteobacteria, including bacteria related to Serratia and Escherichia coli. Remarkably, abundance of these Proteobacteria was also significantly higher in Dutch infants when compared to RV1-non-responders in Pakistan. This small but carefully matched study showed the intestinal microbiota composition to correlate with RV1 seroconversion in Pakistan infants, identifying signatures shared with healthy Dutch infants.
  • Haveri, Anu; Ikonen, Niina; Kantele, Anu; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Savolainen-Kopra, Carita; Julkunen, Ilkka (2019)
    Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses have been circulating throughout the world since the 2009 pandemic. A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) virus was included in seasonal influenza vaccines for seven years altogether, providing a great opportunity to analyse vaccine-induced immunity in relation to the postpandemic evolution of the A(H1N1)pdm09 virus. Serum antibodies against various epidemic strains of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses were measured among health care workers (HCWs) by haemagglutination inhibition and microneutralization tests before and after 2010 and 2012 seasonal influenza vaccinations. We detected high responses of vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies to six distinct genetic groups. Our results indicate antigenic similarity between vaccine and circulating A(H1N1)pdm09 strains, and substantial vaccine-induced immunity against circulating epidemic viruses. (C) 2019 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Harris, Vanessa C.; Armah, George; Fuentes, Susana; Korpela, Katri E.; Parashar, Umesh; Victor, John C.; Tate, Jacqueline; de Weerth, Carolina; Giaquinto, Carlo; Wiersinga, Willem Joost; Lewis, Kristen D. C.; de Vos, Willem M. (2017)
    Background. Rotavirus (RV) is the leading cause of diarrhea-related death in children worldwide and 95% of RV-associated deaths occur in Africa and Asia where RV vaccines (RVVs) have lower efficacy. We hypothesize that differences in intestinal microbiome composition correlate with the decreased RVV efficacy observed in poor settings. Methods. We conducted a nested, case-control study comparing prevaccination, fecal microbiome compositions between 6week old, matched RVV responders and nonresponders in rural Ghana. These infants' microbiomes were then compared with 154 age-matched, healthy Dutch infants' microbiomes, assumed to be RVV responders. Fecal microbiome analysis was performed in all groups using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip. Results. We analyzed findings in 78 Ghanaian infants, including 39 RVV responder and nonresponder pairs. The overall microbiome composition was significantly different between RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.12), and Ghanaian responders were more similar to Dutch infants than nonresponders (P =.002). RVV response correlated with an increased abundance of Streptococcus bovis and a decreased abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum in comparisons between both Ghanaian RVV responders and nonresponders (FDR, 0.008 vs 0.003) and Dutch infants and Ghanaian nonresponders (FDR, 0.002 vs 0.009). Conclusions. The intestinal microbiome composition correlates significantly with RVV immunogenicity and may contribute to the diminished RVV immunogenicity observed in developing countries.
  • Kontio, Mia; Palmu, Arto A.; Syrjanen, Ritva K.; Lahdenkari, Mika; Ruokokoski, Esa; Davidkin, Irja; Vaarala, Outi; Melin, Merit (2016)
    Background. Measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccinations have been offered to Finnish children at 14-18 months and 6 years of age. In May 2011, the recommended age for the first vaccine dose was lowered to 12 months because of the European measles epidemic. Methods. Fingertip capillary blood samples were collected from 3-year-old Finnish children vaccinated once with MMR vaccine at 11-19 months of age. The immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to all 3 MMR antigens were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neutralizing antibodies and the avidity of antibodies were measured for measles virus. Results. From April through October 2013, 187 children were enrolled. Equally high proportions of the samples were seropositive for measles virus, mumps virus, or rubella virus antibodies, and there were no significant differences in the IgG antibody concentrations in children vaccinated at 11-13 months of age, compared with those vaccinated at 17-19 months of age. However, among children vaccinated at 11-13 months of age, boys had lower antibody concentrations than girls. Neutralizing measles virus antibody titers were above the threshold for protective immunity in all 78 samples analyzed. The measles virus antibody avidity indexes were high for all children. Conclusions. MMR induces similar antibody responses in 12-month-old children as compared to 18-month-old children, but in boys increasing age appears to improve the antibody responses.
  • Wang, Yafei; Huang, Jiayun; Gong, Lin; Yu, Dongsheng; An, Chenrui; Bunpetch, Varitsara; Dai, Jun; Huang, He; Zou, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Hongwei; Liu, Hua (2019)
    Summary A low surface expression level of human leukocyte antigen class I(HLA-I) ensures the mesenchymal stem cells’(MSCs) escape from the allogeneic recipients’ immunological surveillance. Here, we discovered that both transcriptional and synthesis levels of HLA-I in MSCs increased continuously after IFN-γ treatment, while interestingly, their surface HLA-I expression was downregulated after reaching an HLA-I surface expression peak. Microarray data indicated the post-transcriptional process plays an important role in downregulation of surface HLA-I. Further studies identified that IFN-γ-treated MSCs accelerated HLA-I endocytosis through a Clathrin–independent Dynamin-dependent endocytosis pathway. Furthermore, the cells which have self-downregulated surface HLA-I expression elicit a weaker immune response than they previously could. Thus, uncovering the plasticity of MSCs in the regulation of HLA-I surface expression would reveal insights into the membrane-transportation events leading to the maintenance of low surface HLA-I expression, providing more evidence for selecting and optimizing low immunogenic MSCs to improve the therapeutic efficiency.
  • Kantele, Anu; Rombo, Lars; Vene, Sirkka; Kundi, Michael; Lindquist, Lars; Erra, Elina O. (2022)
    Background: TBE vaccination failures among those past middle age have raised concern about immune response declining with age. We investigated immunogenicity of the TBE-vaccine FSME-Immun among those aged 50+ years using the standard three-dose primary series and alternative four-dose schedules. Methods: In this single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled trial, 200 TBE-naive Swedish adults were given primary TBE vaccination with FSME-Immun. Those aged 50+ years (n = 150) were randomized to receive the standard three-dose (days 0-30-360) or one of two four-dose series (0-7-21-360; 0-30- 90-360). For participants < 50 years (n = 50) the standard three-dose schedule was used. Titres of neu-tralizing antibodies were determined on days 0, 60, 120, 360, and 400. The main outcome was the log titre of TBE virus-specific neutralizing antibodies on day 400. Results: The three-dose schedule yielded lower antibody titres among those aged 50+ years than the younger participants on day 400 (geometric mean titre 41 versus 74, p < 0.05). The older group showed higher titres for the four-dose 0-7-21-360 than the standard three-dose schedule both on day 400 (103 versus 41, p < 0.01; primary end point) and at the other testing points (days 60,120, 360). Using the other four-dose schedule (0-30-90-360), no such difference was observed on day 400 (63 versus 41, NS). Conclusion: Immune response to the TBE vaccine declined with age. A four-dose schedule (0-7-21-360) may benefit those aged 50 years or older. This study is registered at, NCT01361776. (c) 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://