Browsing by Subject "IMMUNOGLOBULIN-G"

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  • Chen, Tingting; Hedman, Lea; Mattila, Petri S.; Jartti, Laura; Jartti, Tuomas; Ruuskanen, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus (2012)
  • Ronnberg, Bengt; Gustafsson, Ake; Vapalahti, Olli; Emmerich, Petra; Lundkvist, Ake; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Blomberg, Jonas (2017)
    The recent spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and Asia necessitates an increased preparedness for improved maternal and perinatal health and blood safety. However, serological cross-reactions, especially to Dengue virus (DENV), complicate ZIKV antibody serodiagnosis. A novel "pan-Flavi" suspension multiplex immunoassay (PFSMIA) using 25 antigens, whole virus (WV), non-structural protein 1 (NS1), and envelope (E) proteins, from 7 zoonotic flaviviruses for specific detection of ZIKV and DENV IgM and IgG was developed. Patterns of antibody cross-reactivity, avidity, and kinetics were established in 104 sera from returning travelers with known ZIKV and DENV infections. PFSMIA gave IgM- and IgG-sensitivities for both viruses of 96-100%, compared to an immunofluorescence assay. Main IgM cross-reactions were to NS1, for IgG to the E and WV antigens. Infecting virus yielded reactivity to several antigens of the homologous virus, while cross-reactions tended to occur only to a single antigen from heterologous virus(es). A specificity-enhancing computer procedure took into account antibody isotype, number of antibody-reactive antigens per virus, avidity, average degree of cross-reactivity to heterologous flavivirus antigens, and reactivity changes in serial sera. It classified all 50 cases correctly. Applied to sera from 200 pregnant women and 173 blood donors from Sweden, one blood donor was found ZIKV NS1 IgM positive, and another as ZIKV NS1 IgG positive. These samples did not react with other ZIKV antigens and were thereby judged as false-positives. PFSMIA provided sensitive and specific ZIKV and DENV serology, warranting high-throughput serological surveillance and a minimized need for laborious and expensive virus neutralization assays.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Björkman, Stefan; Oropeza-Moe, Marianne; Oliviero, Claudio (2019)
    This review aims to describe changes in production environment, management tools and technology to alleviate problems seen with the present hyperprolific sow model. Successful parturition in the pig includes the possibility to express adequate maternal behaviour, rapid expulsion of piglets, complete expulsion of placenta, elimination of uterine contamination and debris, neonatal activity and colostrum intake. We focus on management of large litters, including maternal behaviour, ease of parturition, colostrum production, piglet quality parameters and intermittent suckling. There are also some interesting developments in technology to assess colostrum and immune state of the piglet. These developments may be utilized to improve the success rate of reproductive management around farrowing, lactation and after weaning. We also discuss new insights in how to examine the health of the mammary gland, uterus and ovaries of hyperprolific sows. Finally, we assess the latest developments on breeding and technology of hyperprolific sows, including artificial insemination (AI), real-time ultrasound of the genital tract and embryo transfer (ET). We conclude that 1) for the sow to produce sufficient colostrum, both the behavioural and physiological needs of the sow need to be met before and after parturition. Furthermore, 2) new ultrasound and biopsy technology can be effectively applied for accurate diagnosis of inflammatory processes of the udder and uterus and timing of AI regarding ovulation to improve insemination efficiency. Finally, 3) developments in cryopreservation of germ cells and embryos appear promising but lack of valid oocyte collection techniques and nonsurgical ET techniques are a bottleneck to commercial ET. These latest developments in management of parturition and reproductive technology are necessary to cope with the increasing challenges associated with very large litter sizes.
  • Gudelj, Ivan; Salo, Perttu P.; Trbojevic-Akmacic, Irena; Albers, Malena; Primorac, Dragan; Perola, Markus; Lauc, Gordan (2018)
    Antibodies are known to have an important role in the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases which primarily involves the joints. Most RA patients develop auto antibodies against immunoglobulin G (IgG) and changes in IgG glycosylation have been associated with RA. We undertook this study to determine whether altered IgG glycosylation precedes the disease diagnosis. We studied IgG glycosylation in RA in two prospective cohorts (N = 14,749) by measuring 28 IgG glycan traits in 179 subjects who developed RA within 10-years follow-up and 358 matched controls. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography method based on hydrophilic interactions (HILIC-UPLC) was used to analyse IgG glycans. Future RA diagnosis associated with traits related to lower galactosylation and sialylation of IgG when comparing the cases to the matched controls. In RA cases, these traits did not correlate with the time between being recruited to the study and being diagnosed with RA (median time 4.31 years). The difference in IgG glycosylation was relatively stable and present years before diagnosis. This indicates that long-acting factors affecting IgG glycome composition are among the underlying mechanisms of RA and that decreased galactosylation is a preexisting risk factor involved in the disease development.
  • Peltoniemi, Olli; Oliviero, Claudio; Yun, Jinhyeon; Grahofer, Alexander; Björkman, Stefan (2020)
    This review outlined current management and nutritional strategies arising from the large increase in sow litter size. Breeding goals should be reconsidered, addressing the ever-increasing duration of parturition in this species, which is not sustainable. In addition, attention should be paid to improving the international trade of germ cells and embryos in order to better cope with the challenges of the large litter. Other challenges await, including free farrowing housing and better resilience of sows as they approach farrowing to allow them to cope with the potential heat stress brought about by climate change. Behavioral traits can be useful for diagnosis of abnormal parturition. Sows should be allowed to express nest-building behavior and deviations from normal behavior just before and during the expulsion phase of parturition may indicate problematic cases. In addition, ultrasound technology is very useful, especially during the last third of pregnancy and postpartum, so that the most appropriate actions can be taken with regard to uterine health. Proper feeding management during the last third of pregnancy is crucial for mammary development and appropriate colostrum production. Prevention of constipation through adequate fiber provision and frequent meals prior to the onset of farrowing are important in the hyperprolific sow. Feeding management can be used to promote the immunity of the sow and the newborn. Feeding components, such short-chain fatty acids and yeast derivate, also appears to promote a favorable microbiota of the sow. Neonatal care and management become critical with large litters. The focus should be on situations where the number of piglets is greater than the number of teats. Applications of new technology, e.g. infrared cameras, may be useful in detecting piglets in need of assistance. In addition, such practices as cross fostering and split suckling are necessary when trying to handle the increasing litter size. The on-farm use of a Brix refractometer permits estimation of the quality of colostrum at the individual sow level, thereby allowing the farmer to target actions at specific sows that produce low-quality colostrum.
  • Azevedo, Cláudia; Pinto, Soraia; Benjakul, Sopisa; Nilsen, Jeannette; Santos, Hélder A.; Traverso, Giovanni; Andersen, Jan Terje; Sarmento, Bruno (2021)
    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease with an elevated risk of micro- and macrovascular complications, such as fibrosis. To prevent diabetes-associated fibrosis, the symptomatology of diabetes must be controlled, which is commonly done by subcutaneous injection of antidiabetic peptides. To minimize the pain and distress associated with such injections, there is an urgent need for non-invasive oral transmucosal drug delivery strategies. However, orally administered peptide-based drugs are exposed to harsh conditions in the gastrointestinal tract and poorly cross the selective intestinal epithelium. Thus, targeting of drugs to receptors expressed in epithelial cells, such as the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), may therefore enhance uptake and transport through mucosal barriers. This review compiles how in-depth studies of FcRn biology and engineering of receptor-binding molecules may pave the way for design of new classes of FcRn-targeted nanosystems. Tailored strategies may open new avenues for oral drug delivery and provide better treatment options for diabetes and, consequently, fibrosis prevention.
  • Oliviero, Claudio; Junnikkala, Sami; Peltoniemi, Olli (2019)
    The use of hyperprolific sow lines has increased litter size considerably in the last three decades. Nowadays, in some countries litters can reach up to 18-20 piglets being a major challenge for the sow's physiology during pregnancy, parturition and lactation. The increased number of piglets born per litter prolongs sensibly the duration of farrowing, decreases the piglets' average weight at birth and their vitality, increases the competition for colostrum intake and can affect negatively piglets' survival. This review aims to describe how large litters can affect the immune system of the sow and the piglets and proposes measures to improve this condition.