Browsing by Subject "IMMUNOLOGICAL SYNAPSE"

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  • Imle, Andrea; Abraham, Libin; Tsopoulidis, Nikolaos; Hoflack, Bernard; Saksela, Kalle; Fackler, Oliver T. (2015)
    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef enhances virus replication and contributes to immune evasion in vivo, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely defined. Nef interferes with host cell actin dynamics to restrict T lymphocyte responses to chemokine stimulation and T cell receptor engagement. This relies on the assembly of a labile multiprotein complex including the host kinase PAK2 that Net usurps to phosphorylate and inactivate the actin-severing factor cofilin. Components of the exocyst complex (EXOC), an octameric protein complex involved in vesicular transport and actin remodeling, were recently reported to interact with Nef via the same molecular surface that mediates PAK2 association. Exploring the functional relevance of EXOC in Nef-PAK2 complex assembly/function, we found Nef-EXOC interactions to be specifically mediated by the PAK2 interface of Net to occur in infected human T lymphocytes, and to be conserved among lentiviral Net proteins. In turn, EXOC was dispensable for direct downstream effector functions of Nef-associated PAK2. Surprisingly, PAK2 was essential for Nef-EXOC association, which required a functional Rac1/Cdc42 binding site but not the catalytic activity of PAK2. EXOC was dispensable for Nef functions in vesicular transport but critical for inhibition of actin remodeling and proximal signaling upon T cell receptor engagement. Thus, Nef exploits PAK2 in a stepwise mechanism in which its kinase activity cooperates with an adaptor function for EXOC to inhibit host cell actin dynamics. IMPORTANCE Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Nef contributes to AIDS pathogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. An important aspect of Nef function is to facilitate virus replication by disrupting T lymphocyte actin dynamics in response to stimulation via its association with the host cell kinase PAK2. We report here that the molecular surface of Nef for PAK2 association also mediates interaction of Nef with EXOC and establish that PAK2 provides an essential adaptor function for the subsequent formation of Nef-EXOC complexes. PAK2 and EXOC specifically cooperate in the inhibition of actin dynamics and proximal signaling induced by T cell receptor engagement by Nef. These results establish EXOC as a functionally relevant Nef interaction partner, emphasize the suitability of the PAK2 interaction surface for future therapeutic interference with Nef function, and show that such strategies need to target activity-independent PAK2 functions.
  • Borger, Jessica G.; Morrison, Vicky L.; Filby, Andrew; Garcia, Celine; Uotila, Liisa M.; Simbari, Fabio; Fagerholm, Susanna C.; Zamoyska, Rose (2017)
    TCR stimulation by peptide-MHC complexes on APCs requires precise reorganization of molecules into the area of cellular contact to form an immunological synapse from where T cell signaling is initiated. Caveolin (Cav) 1, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is involved in the regulation of membrane composition, cellular polarity and trafficking, and the organization of signal transduction pathways. The presence of Cav1 protein in T cells was identified only recently, and its function in this context is not well understood. We show that Cav1-knockout CD8 T cells have a reduction in membrane cholesterol and sphingomyelin, and upon TCR triggering they exhibit altered morphology and polarity, with reduced effector function compared with Cav1 wild-type CD8 T cells. In particular, redistribution of the b2 integrin LFA-1 to the immunological synapse is compromised in Cav1-knockout T cells, as is the ability of LFA-1 to form high-avidity interactions with ICAM-1. Our results identify a role for Cav1 in membrane organization and b2 integrin function in primary CD8 T cells.
  • Van Nuffel, Anouk; Arien, Kevin K.; Stove, Veronique; Schindler, Michael; O'Neill, Eduardo; Schmoekel, Jan; Van de Walle, Inge; Naessens, Evelien; Vanderstraeten, Hanne; Van Landeghem, Kathleen; Taghon, Tom; Pulkkinen, Kati; Saksela, Kalle; Garcia, J. Victor; Fackler, Oliver T.; Kirchhoff, Frank; Verhasselt, Bruno (2013)