Browsing by Subject "IMPACT"

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  • Germini, Giorgia; Peltonen, Leena (2021)
    The aim of the study was to prepare indomethacin nanocrystal-loaded, 3D-printed, fast-dissolving oral polymeric film formulations. Nanocrystals were produced by the wet pearl milling technique, and 3D printing was performed by the semi-solid extrusion method. Hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) was the film-forming polymer, and glycerol the plasticizer. In-depth physicochemical characterization was made, including solid-state determination, particle size and size deviation analysis, film appearance evaluation, determination of weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content uniformity, and disintegration time, and drug release testing. In drug nanocrystal studies, three different stabilizers were tested. Poloxamer F68 produced the smallest and most homogeneous particles, with particle size values of 230 nm and PI values below 0.20, and was selected as a stabilizer for the drug-loaded film studies. In printing studies, the polymer concentration was first optimized with drug-free formulations. The best mechanical film properties were achieved for the films with HPMC concentrations of 2.85% (w/w) and 3.5% (w/w), and these two HPMC levels were selected for further drug-loaded film studies. Besides, in the drug-loaded film printing studies, three different drug levels were tested. With the optimum concentration, films were flexible and homogeneous, disintegrated in 1 to 2.5 min, and released the drug in 2-3 min. Drug nanocrystals remained in the nano size range in the polymer films, particle sizes being in all film formulations from 300 to 500 nm. When the 3D-printed polymer films were compared to traditional film-casted polymer films, the physicochemical behavior and pharmaceutical performance of the films were very similar. As a conclusion, 3D printing of drug nanocrystals in oral polymeric film formulations is a very promising option for the production of immediate-release improved- solubility formulations.
  • Kalinin, Stanislav; Kovalenko, Alexander; Valtari, Annika; Nocentini, Alessio; Gureev, Maxim; Urtti, Arto; Korsakov, Mikhail; Supuran, Claudiu T.; Krasavin, Mikhail (2022)
    Hydrophilic derivatives of an earlier described series of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors have been designed, prepared and profiled against a panel of carbonic anhydrase isoforms, including the glaucoma-related hCA II. For all hydrophilic derivatives, computational prediction of intraocular permeability routes showed the predominance of conjunctival rather than corneal absorption. The potentially reactive primary or secondary amine periphery of these compounds makes them suitable candidates for bioconjugation to polymeric drug carriers. As was shown previously, the most active hCA II inhibitor is efficacious in alleviating intraocular pressure in normotensive rabbits with efficacy matching that of dorzolamide.
  • Bergroth, Claudia; Järv, Olle; Tenkanen, Henrikki; Manninen, Matti; Toivonen, Tuuli (2022)
    In this article, we present temporally dynamic population distribution data from the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland, at the level of 250 m by 250 m statistical grid cells. An hourly population distribution dataset is provided for regular workdays (Mon – Thu), Saturdays and Sundays. The data are based on aggregated mobile phone data collected by the biggest mobile network operator in Finland. Mobile phone data are assigned to statistical grid cells using an advanced dasymetric interpolation method based on ancillary data about land cover, buildings and a time use survey. The dataset is validated by comparing population register data from Statistics Finland for night hours and a daytime workplace registry. The resulting 24-hour population data can be used to reveal the temporal dynamics of the city, and examine population variations relevant to spatial accessibility analyses, crisis management, planning and beyond.
  • Kumar, Prashant; Sharma, Arun; Salo, Jari (2019)
    Key account management (KAM) has played an important role in business, and this study reviews key account management research using bibliometric techniques. This review includes 373 KAM relevant articles published in 68 journals between 1979 and 2016. In our analysis, we extend the discussion on KAM literature by highlighting areas such as the roles of technology and conflict as well as relationship planning and implementation. We discuss the value of co-creation, inter-organizational design elements, and dyad-level performance measures. We examine five distinctive time-periods and find that KAM relevant literature has progressed 1) from selling and relationship-building approaches to key network management, 2) from network innovation to governance, 3) from network-level performance to co-creation of business solutions and values, 4) from product and service performance to incorporating sustainability. Finally, we present the fifth transition based on a network-view of KAM and identify future research aimed at integrating areas such as network-based orientation, applications of organizational theories, organizational innovativeness, network competence for optimal structure and processes, network-based KAM teams, value-sharing mechanisms, co-created value measurement, and value sustenance within networks. We identify areas of future research and expect the adoption and application of key account management concepts to grow across multiple disciplinary fields.
  • Engeström, Ritva; Käyhkö, Leena (2021)
    Background: Recent alternative concepts of school knowledge emphasize knowledge creation via networks of learning around real-world phenomena. We studied entrepreneurship education as an example of new epistemic activity which opens institutional boundaries for active engagement with society in learning. Methods: We used a case-study strategy and a methodology informed by the cultural-historical activity theory for investigating an entrepreneurship course of a middle school. We focused on meaning making in object formation of learning of the groups involved in boundary crossing. Meaning making was studied in a context-sensitive way with an analytic tool designed in the study. Findings: Lacking a knowledge system of a disciplinary school subject, the findings show that entrepreneurship becomes constructed in practice epistemologically as a value-free and politically neutral learning object. In light of these findings we discuss the theoretical link between conceptual learning and learning around real-world phenomena. Contribution: In addition to economic activity, globalization and climate change are also presently forming the social realities of school learners. Our study shows that more theoretical and empirical research on intermediate epistemological practices is needed to avoid a risk that teachers are left on their own to sort out the complex epistemic interrelationships.
  • Holmlund, Maria (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd, 2008)
  • Minviel, Jean Joseph; Sipiläinen, Timo (2021)
    This article introduces a dynamic stochastic frontier analysis (SFA) framework with unobserved heterogeneity, persistent and transient inefficiency effects, based on recent advances in the SFA literature. The newly developed dynamic frontier model is applied on a sample of French crop-livestock farms. The estimates provide useful insights for the estimation of the technical efficiency scores as well as for the analysis of the associations of contextual drivers, such as public subsidies and indebtedness, with technical efficiency.
  • Linder, Nina; Turkki, Riku; Walliander, Margarita; Martensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikainen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan (2014)
  • Lång, M.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Siironen, J.; Tanskanen, P.; Ala-Peijari, M.; Koivisto, T.; Djafarzadeh, S.; Bendel, S. (2018)
    BackgroundNormobaric hyperoxia is used to alleviate secondary brain ischaemia in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but clinical evidence is limited and hyperoxia may cause adverse events. MethodsAn open label, randomised controlled pilot study comparing blood concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between two different fractions of inspired oxygen in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation. ResultsWe enrolled 27 patients in the Fi O-2 0.40 group and 38 in the Fi O-2 0.70 group; 19 and 23 patients, respectively, completed biochemical analyses. In baseline, there were no differences between Fi O-2 0.40 and Fi O-2 0.70 groups, respectively, in ROS (64.8 nM [22.6-102.1] vs. 64.9 nM [26.8-96.3], P = 0.80), IL-6 (group 92.4 pg/ml [52.9-171.6] vs. 94.3 pg/ml [54.8-133.1], P = 0.52) or NSE (21.04 ug/l [14.0-30.7] vs. 17.8 ug/l [14.1-23.9], P = 0.35). ROS levels did not differ at Day 1 (24.2 nM [20.6-33.5] vs. 29.2 nM [22.7-69.2], P = 0.10) or at Day 2 (25.4 nM [21.7-37.4] vs. 47.3 nM [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). IL-6 concentrations did not differ at Day 1 (112.7 pg/ml [65.9-168.9) vs. 83.9 pg/ml [51.8-144.3], P = 0.41) or at Day 3 (55.0 pg/ml [34.2-115.6] vs. 49.3 pg/ml [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). NSE levels did not differ at Day 1 (15.9 ug/l [9.0-24.3] vs. 15.3 ug/l [12.2-26.3], P = 0.62). There were no differences between groups in the incidence of pulmonary complications. ConclusionHigher fraction of inspired oxygen did not increase blood concentrations of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation or neurological injury or the incidence of pulmonary complications in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation.
  • Seibold, Petra; Schmezer, Peter; Behrens, Sabine; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Fagerholm, Rainer; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnaes, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Jager, Agnes; Seynaeve, Caroline; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Dunning, Alison M.; Rhenius, Valerie; Shah, Mitul; Kabisch, Maria; Torres, Diana; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Hamann, Ute; Schildkraut, Joellen M.; Purrington, Kristen S.; Couch, Fergus J.; Hall, Per; Pharoah, Paul; Easton, Doug F.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Popanda, Odilia (2015)
    Background: Personalized therapy considering clinical and genetic patient characteristics will further improve breast cancer survival. Two widely used treatments, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, can induce oxidative DNA damage and, if not repaired, cell death. Since base excision repair (BER) activity is specific for oxidative DNA damage, we hypothesized that germline genetic variation in this pathway will affect breast cancer-specific survival depending on treatment. Methods: We assessed in 1,408 postmenopausal breast cancer patients from the German MARIE study whether cancer specific survival after adjuvant chemotherapy, anthracycline chemotherapy, and radiotherapy is modulated by 127 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 BER genes. For SNPs with interaction terms showing p <0.1 (likelihood ratio test) using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses, replication in 6,392 patients from nine studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) was performed. Results: rs878156 in PARP2 showed a differential effect by chemotherapy (p = 0.093) and was replicated in BCAC studies (p = 0.009; combined analysis p = 0.002). Compared to non-carriers, carriers of the variant G allele (minor allele frequency = 0.07) showed better survival after chemotherapy (combined allelic hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75, 95 % 0.53-1.07) and poorer survival when not treated with chemotherapy (HR = 1.42, 95 % 1.08-1.85). A similar effect modification by rs878156 was observed for anthracycline-based chemotherapy in both MARIE and BCAC, with improved survival in carriers (combined allelic HR = 0.73, 95 % CI 0.40-1.32). None of the SNPs showed significant differential effects by radiotherapy. Conclusions: Our data suggest for the first time that a SNP in PARP2, rs878156, may together with other genetic variants modulate cancer specific survival in breast cancer patients depending on chemotherapy. These germline SNPs could contribute towards the design of predictive tests for breast cancer patients.
  • Moilanen, Atte; Kujala, Heini; Mikkonen, Ninni (2020)
    Biodiversity offsetting is a tool to balance ecological damage caused by human activity with new benefits created elsewhere. Offsetting is implemented by protecting, restoring or managing sufficiently large areas of habitat. While there are concerns about the true feasibility of offsetting, they are becoming a common policy tool world-wide. Operationally uncomplicated, quantitative approaches to spatial analysis of offsets are rare and their use is often restricted by the availability of suitable spatial data. We describe a practical method for offsets that builds upon two layers of relatively easily sourced spatial data, a balanced spatial priority ranking and a weighted range size rarity map. Together with (a) spatial information about impact and offset areas, and (b) extra parameters for the effectiveness of avoided loss and the amount of leakage expected, we can evaluate whether the proposed offset exchange represents a credible no net loss or net positive impact with an upward trade. The priority ranking and range size rarity maps can be produced in various ways, most notably using existing conservation planning tools. Here we used the standard outputs of the Zonation spatial prioritization software. We illustrate the method and associated visualization in the context of offsetting of boreal forests in Finland, where forests experience high and increasing pressures from forestry and bioenergy sectors. The example is timely as there is political demand for the uptake of biodiversity offset policies in Finland, and boreal forests are the most common biotope. The methods described here are applicable to biomes around the world. The described tools are made available as r scripts that utilize standard Zonation outputs, thus providing direct linkage to any past or future Zonation applications. As a limitation, the present methods only apply to avoided loss offsets.
  • Holopainen, Sari; Cehovska, Marketa; Jaatinen, Kim; Laaksonen, Toni; Linden, Andreas; Nummi, Petri; Piha, Markus; Pöysä, Hannu; Toivanen, Tero; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2022)
    Certain species experience rapid population increases in human-modified and -affected environments. Conservation actions and increased wintertime food availability have led to a population increase of several large herbivorous waterbird species. In Northern Europe, this trend is opposite to the overall decrease of several smaller waterbird species. We examined whether the recovery of a flagship species, the whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus), and the spreading of the nonnative Canada goose (Branta canadensis), cause asymmetric competition with other sympatric waterbirds at their breeding sites. We used data from the national Finnish waterbird surveys collected in the late 1980s and early 2020 s at 942 sites, to assess the site-level effects of large herbivore occurrence on other waterbird species, while considering their trophic overlap. We hypothesised that there could be competitive effects of large herbivorous on smaller species, especially those with similar foraging niches. We however found that other waterbird populations have decreased less at sites occupied by whooper swans since the 1980 s. Canada goose site occupation was not associated with the abundance of other waterbirds. Thereby, our findings are not consistent with the suggestion that population increases of large herbivore species lead to asymmetric competition on the breeding wetlands. The whooper swan may potentially act as an indicator of habitat quality and further on as a flagship umbrella species with multidisciplinary conservation benefits, of which may accrue benefits also to other waterbirds exhibiting declining population trends. Our findings underline the importance of considering species interactions when designing and implementing management actions in conservation strategies.
  • Kuusinen, Nea; Juola, Jussi; Karki, Bijay; Stenroos, Soili; Rautiainen, Miina (2020)
    Lichens dominate a significant part of the Earth's land surface, and are valuable bioindicators of various environmental changes. In the northern hemisphere, the largest lichen biomass is in the woodlands and heathlands of the boreal zone and in tundra. Despite the global coverage of lichens, there has been only limited research on their spectral properties in the context of remote sensing of the environment. In this paper, we report spectral properties of 12 common boreal lichen species. Measurements of reflectance spectra were made in laboratory conditions with a standard spectrometer (350-2500 nm) and a novel mobile hyperspectral camera (400-1000 nm) which was used in a multiangular setting. Our results show that interspecific differences in reflectance spectra were the most pronounced in the ultraviolet and visible spectral range, and that dry samples always had higher reflectance than fresh (moist) samples in the shortwave infrared region. All study species had higher reflectance in the backward scattering direction compared to nadir or forward scattering directions. Our results also reveal, for the first time, that there is large intraspecific variation in reflectance of lichen species. This emphasizes the importance of measuring several replicates of each species when analyzing lichen spectra. In addition, we used the data in a spectral clustering analysis to study the spectral similarity between samples and species, and how these similarities could be linked to different physical traits or phylogenetic closeness of the species. Overall, our results suggest that spectra of some lichen species with large ground coverage can be used for species identification from high spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. On the other hand, for lichen species growing as small assemblages, mobile hyperspectral cameras may offer a solution for in-situ species identification. The spectral library collected in this study is available in the SPECCHIO Spectral Information System.
  • Genome Aggregation Database Prod T; Genome Aggregation Database Consor; Collins, Ryan L.; Brand, Harrison; Karczewski, Konrad J.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Färkkilä, Martti; Groop, Leif; Holi, Matti M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Palotie, Aarno; Ripatti, Samuli; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Wessman, Maija; Kallela, Mikko (2020)
    Structural variants (SVs) rearrange large segments of DNA(1) and can have profound consequences in evolution and human disease(2,3). As national biobanks, disease-association studies, and clinical genetic testing have grown increasingly reliant on genome sequencing, population references such as the Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD)(4) have become integral in the interpretation of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs)(5). However, there are no reference maps of SVs from high-coverage genome sequencing comparable to those for SNVs. Here we present a reference of sequence-resolved SVs constructed from 14,891 genomes across diverse global populations (54% non-European) in gnomAD. We discovered a rich and complex landscape of 433,371 SVs, from which we estimate that SVs are responsible for 25-29% of all rare protein-truncating events per genome. We found strong correlations between natural selection against damaging SNVs and rare SVs that disrupt or duplicate protein-coding sequence, which suggests that genes that are highly intolerant to loss-of-function are also sensitive to increased dosage(6). We also uncovered modest selection against noncoding SVs in cis-regulatory elements, although selection against protein-truncating SVs was stronger than all noncoding effects. Finally, we identified very large (over one megabase), rare SVs in 3.9% of samples, and estimate that 0.13% of individuals may carry an SV that meets the existing criteria for clinically important incidental findings(7). This SV resource is freely distributed via the gnomAD browser(8) and will have broad utility in population genetics, disease-association studies, and diagnostic screening.
  • Haq, Ehsan ul; Braud, Tristan; Kwon, Young D.; Hui, Pan (2020)
    Computational Politics is the study of computational methods to analyze and moderate users' behaviors related to political activities such as election campaign persuasion, political affiliation, and opinion mining. With the rapid development and ease of access to the Internet, Information Communication Technologies (ICT) have given rise to massive numbers of users joining online communities and the digitization of political practices such as debates. These communities and digitized data contain both explicit and latent information about users and their behaviors related to politics and social movements. For researchers, it is essential to utilize data from these sources to develop and design systems that not only provide solutions to computational politics but also help other businesses, such as marketers, to increase users' participation and interactions. In this survey, we attempt to categorize main areas in computational politics and summarize the prominent studies in one place to better understand computational politics across different and multidimensional platforms. e.g., online social networks, online forums, and political debates. We then conclude this study by highlighting future research directions, opportunities, and challenges.
  • Puntila-Dodd, Riikka; Loisa, Olli; Riipinen, Katariina; Fowler, Amy E. (2019)
    Non-indigenous species (NIS) can alter food web structure and function in many ways. While the predatory and competitive roles of NIS in aquatic environments are commonly studied, their role as a prey item for native predators is often overlooked. As the northern Baltic Sea lacks native crabs, the omnivorous estuarine Harris mud crab (Rhithropanopeus harrisii) is a novel invader to the system and provides an opportunity to observe how the species enters the prey field of predatory fish. In fall 2013, 1185 stomachs from 17 fish species were dissected and analyzed for the presence of R. harrisii. Fishermen had previously reported finding crabs mostly in the stomachs of perch (Perca fluviatilis), a frequent catch in recreational and commercial fisheries, but our study also found large numbers of crabs in four-horned sculpins (Myoxocephalus quadricornis) and small numbers in other species’ stomachs (Rutilus rutilus, Leuciscus ide, Gymnocephalus cernuus, and Blicca bjoerkna). In the study area occupied by R. harrisii, four-horned sculpins were the most frequent predator, with 83% having at least one crab in their stomach. In comparison, 7% of perch and roach had consumed R. harrisii. Most crabs eaten were 10–12 mm (carapace width), despite broader size range available (1–26 mm). Predation on R. harrisii in this system may be limited by the predators’ gape size (i.e., physical feeding restriction). These results highlight the need to understand the role of novel invasive species as prey items for native species, ultimately increase understanding of whether native predators can control NIS populations.
  • Chawade, Aakash; Armoniene, Rita; Berg, Gunilla; Brazauskas, Gintaras; Frostgard, Gunilla; Geleta, Mulatu; Gorash, Andrii; Henriksson, Tina; Himanen, Kristiina; Ingver, Anne; Johansson, Eva; Jorgensen, Lise Nistrup; Koppel, Mati; Koppel, Reine; Makela, Pirjo; Ortiz, Rodomiro; Podyma, Wieslaw; Roitsch, Thomas; Ronis, Antanas; Svensson, Jan T.; Vallenback, Pernilla; Weih, Martin (2018)
    The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish water bodies in the world. Eutrophication is a major concern in the Baltic Sea due to the leakage of nutrients to the sea with agriculture being the primary source. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown crop in the countries surrounding the Baltic Sea and thus promoting sustainable agriculture practices for wheat cultivation will have a major impact on reducing pollution in the Baltic Sea. This approach requires identifying and addressing key challenges for sustainable wheat production in the region. Implementing new technologies for climate-friendly breeding and digital farming across all surrounding countries should promote sustainable intensification of agriculture in the region. In this review, we highlight major challenges for wheat cultivation in the Baltic Sea region and discuss various solutions integrating transnational collaboration for pre-breeding and technology sharing to accelerate development of low input wheat cultivars with improved host plant resistance to pathogen and enhanced adaptability to the changing climate.
  • Marjonen, Heidi; Marttila, Minttu; Paajanen, Teemu; Vornanen, Marleena; Brunfeldt, Minna; Joensuu, Anni; Halmesvaara, Otto; Aro, Kimmo; Alanne-Kinnunen, Mervi; Jousilahti, Pekka; Borodulin, Katja; Koskinen, Seppo; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Lindström, Jaana; Laine, Merja K.; Auro, Kirsi; Kääriäinen, Helena; Perola, Markus; Kristiansson, Kati (2021)
    We present a method for communicating personalized genetic risk information to citizens and their physicians using a secure web portal. We apply the method for 3,177 Finnish individuals in the P5 Study where estimates of genetic and absolute risk, based on genetic and clinical risk factors, of future disease are reported to study participants, allowing individuals to participate in managing their own health. Our method facilitates using polygenic risk score as a personalized tool to estimate a person's future disease risk while offering a way for health care professionals to utilize the polygenic risk scores as a preventive tool in patient care.
  • Canaani, Jonathan; Savani, Bipin N.; Labopin, Myriam; Michallet, Mauricette; Craddock, Charles; Socie, Gerard; Volin, Liisa; Maertens, Johan A.; Crawley, Charles; Blaise, Didier; Ljungman, Per T.; Cornelissen, Jan; Russell, Nigel; Baron, Frederic; Gorin, Norbert; Esteve, Jordi; Ciceri, Fabio; Schmid, Christoph; Giebel, Sebastian; Mohty, Mohamad; Nagler, Arnon (2017)
    ABO incompatibility is commonly observed in stem cell transplantation and its impact in this setting has been extensively investigated. HLA-mismatched unrelated donors (MMURD) are often used as an alternative stem cell source but are associated with increased transplant related complications. Whether ABO incompatibility affects outcome in MMURD transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients is unknown. We evaluated 1,013 AML patients who underwent MMURD transplantation between 2005 and 2014. Engraftment rates were comparable between ABO matched and mismatched patients, as were relapse incidence [34%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 28-39; for ABO matched vs. 36%; 95% CI, 32-40; for ABO mismatched; P=.32], and nonrelapse mortality (28%; 95% CI, 23-33; for ABO matched vs. 25%; 95% CI, 21-29; for ABO mismatched; P=.2). Three year survival was 40% for ABO matched and 43% for ABO mismatched patients (P=.35), Leukemia free survival rates were also comparable between groups (37%; 95% CI, 32-43; for ABO matched vs. 38%; 95% CI, 33-42; for ABO mismatched; P=.87). Incidence of grade II-IV acute graft versus host disease was marginally lower in patients with major ABO mismatching (Hazard ratio of 0.7, 95% CI, 0.5-1; P=.049]. ABO incompatibility probably has no significant clinical implications in MMURD transplantation.
  • Petaja, Liisa; Vaara, Suvi; Liuhanen, Sasu; Suojaranta-Ylinen, Raili; Mildh, Leena; Nisula, Sara; Korhonen, Anna-Maija; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Salmenpera, Markku; Pettila, Ville (2017)
    Objectives: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs frequently after cardiac surgery and is associated with increased mortality. The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for diagnosing AKI include creatinine and urine output values. However, the value of the latter is debated. The authors aimed to evaluate the incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery and the independent association of KDIGO criteria, especially the urine output criterion, and 2.5-year mortality. Design: Prospective, observational, cohort study. Setting: Single-center study in a university hospital. Participants: The study comprised 638 cardiac surgical patients from September 1, 2011, to June 20, 2012. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: Hourly urine output, daily plasma creatinine, risk factors for AKI, and variables for EuroSCORE II were recorded. AKI occurred in 183 (28.7%) patients. Patients with AKI diagnosed using only urine output had higher 2.5-year mortality than did patients without AKI (9/53 [17.0%] v 23/455 [5.1%], p = 0.001). AKI was associated with mortality (hazard ratios [95% confidence intervals]: 3.3 [1.8-6.1] for KDIGO I; 5.8 [2.7-12.1] for KDIGO 2; and 7.9 [3.5-17.6]) for KDIGO 3. KDIGO stages and AKI diagnosed using urine output were associated with mortality even after adjusting for mortality risk assessed using EuroSCORE II and risk factors for AKI. Conclusions: AKI diagnosed using only the urine output criterion without fulfilling the creatinine criterion and all stages of AKI were associated with long-term mortality. Preoperatively assessed mortality risk using EuroSCORE II did not predict this AKI-associated mortality. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.