Browsing by Subject "IMPACTS"

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  • Harrison, Jesse P.; Chronopoulou, Panagiota-Myrsini; Salonen, Iines S.; Jilbert, Tom; Koho, Karoliina A. (2021)
    Metabarcoding analyses of bacterial and eukaryotic communities have been proposed as efficient tools for environmental impact assessment. It has been unclear, however, to which extent these analyses can provide similar or differing information on the ecological status of the environment. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding to compare eutrophication-induced shifts in sediment bacterial and eukaryotic community structure in relation to a range of porewater, sediment and bottom-water geochemical variables, using data obtained from six stations near a former rainbow trout farm in the Archipelago Sea (Baltic Sea). Shifts in the structure of both community types were correlated with a shared set of variables, including porewater ammonium concentrations and the sediment depth-integrated oxygen consumption rate. Distance-based redundancy analyses showed that variables typically employed in impact assessments, such as bottom water nutrient concentrations, explained less of the variance in community structure than alternative variables (e.g., porewater NH4+ inventories and sediment depth-integrated O2 consumption rates) selected due to their low collinearity (up to 40 vs. 58% of the variance explained, respectively). In monitoring surveys where analyses of both bacterial and eukaryotic communities may be impossible, either 16S or 18S rRNA gene metabarcoding can serve as reliable indicators of wider ecological impacts of eutrophication.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Slotow, Rob; Fink, Christoph; Bauer, Hans; Paker, Craig (2021)
    African lions (Panthera leo) and African savanna (Loxodonta africana) and forest (L. cyclotis) elephants pose threats to people, crops, and livestock, and are themselves threatened with extinction. Here, we map these human-wildlife conflicts across Africa. Eighty-two percent of sites containing lions and elephants are adjacent to areas with considerable human pressure. Areas at severe risk of conflict (defined as high densities of humans, crops, and cattle) comprise 9% of the perimeter of these species' ranges and are found in 18 countries hosting, respectively, similar to 74% and 41% of African lion and elephant populations. Although a variety of alternative conflict-mitigation strategies could be deployed, we focus on assessing the potential of high-quality mitigation fences. Our spatial and economic assessments suggest that investments in the construction and maintenance of strategically located mitigation fences would be a cost-effective strategy to support local communities, protect people from dangerous wildlife, and prevent further declines in lion and elephant populations.
  • D'amato, Dalia; Gaio, Marco; Semenzin, Elena (2020)
    The emergence of politically driven bioeconomy strategies worldwide calls for considering the ecological issues associated with bio-based products. Traditionally, life cycle analysis (LCA) approaches are key tools used to assess impacts through product life cycles, but they present limitations regarding the accounting of multiple ecosystem service-related issues, at both the land-use and supply chain levels. Based on a systematic review of empirical articles, this study provides insights on using LCA assessments to account for ecosystem service-related impacts in the context of bioeconomy activities. We address the following research questions: what is the state of the art of the literature performing LCA assessments of forest-based bioeconomy activities, including the temporal distribution, the geographic areas and products/processes at study, and the approaches and methods used? 2. Which impacts and related midpoints are considered by the reviewed studies and what types of ecosystem service- related information do they bear? Out of over 600 articles found through the Scopus search, 155 were deemed relevant for the review. The literature focuses on North-America and Europe. Most of the articles assessed the environmental impact of lower-value biomass uses. Climate change was assessed in over 90% of the studies, while issues related to ozone, eutrophication, human toxicity, resource depletion, acidification, and environmental toxicity were assessed in 40% to 60% of the studies. While the impact categories accounted for in the reviewed LCA studies bear information relevant to certain provisioning and regulating services, several ecosystem services (especially cultural ones) remain unaccounted for. The implications of our study are relevant for professionals working in the ecosystem services, circular bioeconomy, and/or LCA communities. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Korhonen, Natalia; Hyvärinen, Otto; Kämäräinen, Matti; Richardson, David S.; Järvinen, Heikki; Gregow, Hilppa (2020)
    The strength of the stratospheric polar vortex influences the surface weather in the Northern Hemisphere in winter; a weaker (stronger) than average stratospheric polar vortex is connected to negative (positive) Arctic Oscillation (AO) and colder (warmer) than average surface temperatures in northern Europe within weeks or months. This holds the potential for forecasting in that timescale. We investigate here if the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex at the start of the forecast could be used to improve the extended-range temperature forecasts of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) and to find periods with higher prediction skill scores. For this, we developed a stratospheric wind indicator (SWI) based on the strength of the stratospheric polar vortex and the phase of the AO during the following weeks. We demonstrate that there was a statistically significant difference in the observed surface temperature in northern Europe within the 3-6 weeks, depending on the SWI at the start of the forecast. When our new SWI was applied in post-processing the ECMWF's 2-week mean temperature reforecasts for weeks 3-4 and 5-6 in northern Europe during boreal winter, the skill scores of those weeks were slightly improved. This indicates there is some room for improving the extended-range forecasts, if the stratosphere-troposphere links were better captured in the modelling. In addition to this, we found that during the boreal winter, in cases where the polar vortex was weak at the start of the forecast, the mean skill scores of the 3-6 weeks' surface temperature forecasts were higher than average.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Eco-anxiety and climate anxiety are widely discussed in contemporary media and are subjects of growing research interest. However, there is a lack of research about the definitions and variations of these phenomena. This article analyzes various views of eco-anxiety from a wide range of disciplines. Insights from various anxiety theories are used to discuss empirical studies about forms of eco-anxiety. The article points out that uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability seem to be important factors in eco-anxiety. Most forms of eco-anxiety appear to be non-clinical, but cases of “pathological” eco-anxiety are also discussed. Other relevant terms and phenomena are scrutinized, such as ecological grief, solastalgia, and ecological trauma. The relationship between studies on eco-anxiety and research about ecological emotions and affect is probed. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected to fear and worry, but several disciplines include discussion of its character as existential anxiety. Psychosocial and sociological perspectives point out that social dynamics shape forms of eco-anxiety in profound ways. While paralyzing forms of eco-anxiety emerge as a problem, it is noted that eco-anxiety manifests itself also as “practical anxiety”, which leads to gathering of new information and reassessment of behavior options. This variety of forms of eco-anxiety should be taken into account in healthcare and public discussion.
  • Balotari-Chiebao, Fabio; Valkama, Jari; Byholm, Patrik (2021)
    Wind-energy expansion raises concerns over its potential impacts on bird populations. Birds may be affected directly via collision with turbines or indirectly via habitat loss or displacement due to disturbance. Species with long generation times, low reproductive output or high habitat specialisation are more likely to be impacted. Using national-scale breeding bird distributions, we applied a quantitative prioritisation method to assess the vulnerability of species to onshore wind-energy developments in Finland. We assessed 214 species that regularly breed in the country. Each species was assigned a priority score based on a combination of life-history traits, habitat specialisation, exposure to wind energy and conservation status. We found that the priority scores varied markedly between species, allowing a distinction between a minority of high-ranked species and a majority of low-ranked species. High-ranked species included terns (e.g., Sternula albifrons), raptors (e.g., Aquila chrysaetos), gulls (e.g., Larus fuscus), some forest-dwelling passerines (e.g., Poecile montanus) and ducks (e.g., Aythya ferina). Low-ranked species included woodpeckers (e.g., Picus canus) and many passerines. Our results indicate that the priority species are not limited to the more highly regarded large raptors, and that wind-energy impact assessments need to pay special attention to high-ranked species inhabiting coastal areas.
  • Gaultier, Simon; Blomberg, Anna; Ijäs, Asko; Vasko, Ville Veijo Wilhelm; Vesterinen, Eero; Brommer, Jon Egbert; Lilley, Thomas M. (2020)
    Although labeled as environmentally friendly, wind power can have negative impacts on the environment, such as habitat destruction or wildlife fatalities. Considering the distribution and migratory characteristics of European bats, the negative effects of wind power should be addressed on an appropriate scale. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on interactions between wind farms and bats in Europe, and compares it with the situation in the countries of the European boreal biogeographic region. We analyzed data from papers published in international and national scientific journals, focusing on studies conducted in Europe. The issue of the impacts wind power has on bats is clearly overlooked in most of the countries of the European boreal region, with low volumes of research available on the topic. This is probably due to fewer wind farms in the area, making this recent issue a less-prioritized topic. However, the Baltic Sea, and the countries surrounding it, are of extreme importance with regards to bat migration, especially for the Pipistrellus nathusii. Therefore, more research on wind power and bats is needed in this region, as well as more cooperation between all the stakeholders.
  • Virkkala, Raimo; Aalto, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Kuusela, Saija; Leikola, Niko; Luoto, Miska (2020)
    Increased attention is being paid to the ecological drivers and conservation measures which could mitigate climate change-induced pressures for species survival, potentially helping populations to remain in their present-day locations longer. One important buffering mechanism against climate change may be provided by the heterogeneity in topography and consequent local climate conditions. However, the buffering capacity of this topoclimate has so far been insufficiently studied based on empirical survey data across multiple sites and species. Here, we studied whether the fine-grained air temperature variation of protected areas (PAs) affects the population changes of declining northern forest bird species. Importantly to our study, in PAs harmful land use, such as logging, is not allowed, enabling the detection of the effects of temperature buffering, even at relatively moderate levels of topographic variation. Our survey data from 129 PAs located in the boreal zone in Finland show that the density of northern forest species was higher in topographically heterogeneous PAs than in topographically more homogeneous PAs. Moreover, local temperature variation had a significant effect on the density change of northern forest birds from 1981-1999 to 2000-2017, indicating that change in bird density was generally smaller in PAs with higher topographic variation. Thus, we found a clear buffering effect stemming from the local temperature variation of PAs in the population trends of northern forest birds.
  • Valsta, Lauri; Poljatschenko, Victoria (2021)
    The carbon emissions displacement effect of Finnish logs for mechanical wood products by dominant tree species (Scots pine, Pinus sylvestris L.; Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.; Birch, Betula spp.) was assessed by combining information from previous studies of current consumption patterns with displacement factors (DF) for structural construction, non-structural construction, and energy usage. We did not conduct additional life cycle analyses compared to the current literature. Our aim was to identify the factors that most extensively influence the displacement effect and to estimate the overall climate effect of Finnish logs in light of current production levels of mechanical forest industry. The analyses were based on information from both statistics and proprietary sources. Contrary to previous studies, we provide DFs by main tree species in Finland, which has been an unidentified area of research to date. Additionally, we apply a more detailed classification of structural and non-structural wood products. This study did not include effects on the forest carbon sink, as they depend case-wise on forest resources and forest management. According to our results, with current production and consumption trends, the average displacement effects for domestic Scots pine, Norway spruce, and birch logs were 1.28, 1.16, and 1.43 Mg C/Mg C, respectively. The corresponding overall annual displacement effect caused by the current production of sawn wood and wood-based panels was 12.3 Tg CO2 for Finland for the BAU scenario and varied between 8.6 and 16.3 Tg CO2 depending on the wood use scenario.
  • Kaikkonen, Laura; Helle, Inari; Kostamo, Kirsi; Kuikka, Sakari; Törnroos, Anna; Nygård, Henrik; Venesjärvi, Riikka; Uusitalo, Laura (2021)
    Mineral deposits containing commercially exploitable metals are of interest for seabed mineral extraction in both the deep sea and shallow sea areas. However, the development of seafloor mining is underpinned by high uncertainties on the implementation of the activities and their consequences for the environment. To avoid unbridled expansion of maritime activities, the environmental risks of new types of activities should be carefully evaluated prior to permitting them, yet observational data on the impacts is mostly missing. Here, we examine the environmental risks of seabed mining using a causal, probabilistic network approach. Drawing on a series of expert interviews, we outline the cause-effect pathways related to seabed mining activities to inform quantitative risk assessments. The approach consists of (1) iterative model building with experts to identify the causal connections between seabed mining activities and the affected ecosystem components and (2) quantitative probabilistic modeling. We demonstrate the approach in the Baltic Sea, where seabed mining been has tested and the ecosystem is well studied. The model is used to provide estimates of mortality of benthic fauna under alternative mining scenarios, offering a quantitative means to highlight the uncertainties around the impacts of mining. We further outline requirements for operationalizing quantitative risk assessments in data-poor cases, highlighting the importance of a predictive approach to risk identification. The model can be used to support permitting processes by providing a more comprehensive description of the potential environmental impacts of seabed resource use, allowing iterative updating of the model as new information becomes available.
  • Guan, Yanlong; Lu, Hongwei; Jiang, Yelin; Tian, Peipei; Qiu, Lihua; Heiskanen, Janne; Pellikka, Petri (2021)
    Variations in climate types are commonly used to describe changes in natural vegetation cover in response to global climate change. However, few attempts have been made to quantify the heterogeneous dynamics of climate types. In this study, based on the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) historical and representative concentration pathway (RCP) runs from 18 global climate models, we used Shannon's Diversity Index (SHDI) and Simpson's Diversity Index (SIDI) to characterise of global climate heterogeneity from a morphological perspective. Our results show that global climate heterogeneity calculated by the SHDI/SIDI indices decreased from 1901 to 2095 at a significance level of 0.01. As radiative forcing intensified from RCP 2.6 to 8.5, the SHDI/SIDI decreased significantly. Furthermore, we observed that the spatial distribution of global climate heterogeneity was significantly reduced, with a pronounced latitudinal trend. Sensitivity analysis indicated that the temperature increase played a more significant role in reducing global climate heterogeneity than precipitation under the three warming scenarios, which is possibly attributed to anthropogenic forcing. Our findings suggest that the dynamics of global climate heterogeneity can be an effective means of quantifying global biodiversity loss.
  • Lei, Ruibo; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Leppäranta, Matti; Wang, Jia; Kaleschke, Lars; Zhang, Zhanhai (2016)
    SSM/I sea ice concentration and CLARA black-sky composite albedo were used to estimate sea ice albedo in the region 70 degrees N-82 degrees N, 130 degrees W-180 degrees W. The long-term trends and seasonal evolutions of ice concentration, composite albedo, and ice albedo were then obtained. In July-August 1982-2009, the linear trend of the composite albedo and the ice albedo was -0.069 and -0.046 units per decade, respectively. During 1 June to 19 August, melting of sea ice resulted in an increase of solar heat input to the ice-ocean system by 282 MJ.m(-2) from 1982 to 2009. However, because of the counter-balancing effects of the loss of sea ice area and the enhanced ice surface melting, the trend of solar heat input to the ice was insignificant. The summer evolution of ice albedo matched the ice surface melting and ponding well at basin scale. The ice albedo showed a large difference between the multiyear and first-year ice because the latter melted completely by the end of a melt season. At the SHEBA geolocations, a distinct change in the ice albedo has occurred since 2007, because most of the multiyear ice has been replaced by first-year ice. A positive polarity in the Arctic Dipole Anomaly could be partly responsible for the rapid loss of summer ice within the study region in the recent years by bringing warmer air masses from the south and advecting more ice toward the north. Both these effects would enhance ice-albedo feedback.
  • Ovaskainen, Otso; Meyke, Evgeniy; Lo, Coong; Tikhonov, Gleb; Delgado, Maria del Mar; Roslin, Tomas; Gurarie, Eliezer; Abadonova, Marina; Abduraimov, Ozodbek; Adrianova, Olga; Akimova, Tatiana; Akkiev, Muzhigit; Ananin, Aleksandr; Andreeva, Elena; Andriychuk, Natalia; Antipin, Maxim; Arzamascev, Konstantin; Babina, Svetlana; Babushkin, Miroslav; Bakin, Oleg; Barabancova, Anna; Basilskaja, Inna; Belova, Nina; Belyaeva, Natalia; Bespalova, Tatjana; Bisikalova, Evgeniya; Bobretsov, Anatoly; Bobrov, Vladimir; Bobrovskyi, Vadim; Bochkareva, Elena; Bogdanov, Gennady; Bolshakov, Vladimir; Bondarchuk, Svetlana; Bukharova, Evgeniya; Butunina, Alena; Buyvolov, Yuri; Buyvolova, Anna; Bykov, Yuri; Chakhireva, Elena; Chashchina, Olga; Cherenkova, Nadezhda; Chistjakov, Sergej; Chuhontseva, Svetlana; Davydov, Evgeniy A.; Demchenko, Viktor; Diadicheva, Elena; Dobrolyubov, Aleksandr; Dostoyevskaya, Ludmila; Drovnina, Svetlana; Drozdova, Zoya; Dubanaev, Akynaly; Dubrovsky, Yuriy; Elsukov, Sergey; Epova, Lidia; Ermakova, Olga; Ermakova, Olga; Esengeldenova, Aleksandra; Evstigneev, Oleg; Fedchenko, Irina; Fedotova, Violetta; Filatova, Tatiana; Gashev, Sergey; Gavrilov, Anatoliy; Gaydysh, Irina; Golovcov, Dmitrij; Goncharova, Nadezhda; Gorbunova, Elena; Gordeeva, Tatyana; Grishchenko, Vitaly; Gromyko, Ludmila; Hohryakov, Vladimir; Hritankov, Alexander; Ignatenko, Elena; Igosheva, Svetlana; Ivanova, Uliya; Ivanova, Natalya; Kalinkin, Yury; Kaygorodova, Evgeniya; Kazansky, Fedor; Kiseleva, Darya; Knorre, Anastasia; Kolpashikov, Leonid; Korobov, Evgenii; Korolyova, Helen; Korotkikh, Natalia; Kosenkov, Gennadiy; Kossenko, Sergey; Kotlugalyamova, Elvira; Kozlovsky, Evgeny; Kozsheechkin, Vladimir; Kozurak, Alla; Kozyr, Irina; Krasnopevtseva, Aleksandra; Kruglikov, Sergey; Kuberskaya, Olga; Kudryavtsev, Aleksey; Kulebyakina, Elena; Kulsha, Yuliia; Kupriyanova, Margarita; Kurbanbagamaev, Murad; Kutenkov, Anatoliy; Kutenkova, Nadezhda; Kuyantseva, Nadezhda; Kuznetsov, Andrey; Larin, Evgeniy; Lebedev, Pavel; Litvinov, Kirill; Luzhkova, Natalia; Mahmudov, Azizbek; Makovkina, Lidiya; Mamontov, Viktor; Mayorova, Svetlana; Megalinskaja, Irina; Meydus, Artur; Minin, Aleksandr; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Motruk, Mykhailo; Myslenkov, Aleksandr; Nasonova, Nina; Nemtseva, Natalia; Nesterova, Irina; Nezdoliy, Tamara; Niroda, Tatyana; Novikova, Tatiana; Panicheva, Darya; Pavlov, Alexey; Pavlova, Klara; Petrenko, Polina; Podolski, Sergei; Polikarpova, Natalja; Polyanskaya, Tatiana; Pospelov, Igor; Pospelova, Elena; Prokhorov, Ilya; Prokosheva, Irina; Puchnina, Lyudmila; Putrashyk, Ivan; Raiskaya, Julia; Rozhkov, Yuri; Rozhkova, Olga; Rudenko, Marina; Rybnikova, Irina; Rykova, Svetlana; Sahnevich, Miroslava; Samoylov, Alexander; Sanko, Valeri; Sapelnikova, Inna; Sazonov, Sergei; Selyunina, Zoya; Shalaeva, Ksenia; Shashkov, Maksim; Shcherbakov, Anatoliy; Shevchyk, Vasyl; Shubin, Sergej; Shujskaja, Elena; Sibgatullin, Rustam; Sikkila, Natalia; Sitnikova, Elena; Sivkov, Andrei; Skok, Nataliya; Skorokhodova, Svetlana; Smirnova, Elena; Sokolova, Galina; Sopin, Vladimir; Spasovski, Yurii; Stepanov, Sergei; Stratiy, Vitaliy; Strekalovskaya, Violetta; Sukhov, Alexander; Suleymanova, Guzalya; Sultangareeva, Lilija; Teleganova, Viktorija; Teplov, Viktor; Teplova, Valentina; Tertitsa, Tatiana; Timoshkin, Vladislav; Tirski, Dmitry; Tolmachev, Andrej; Tomilin, Aleksey; Tselishcheva, Ludmila; Turgunov, Mirabdulla; Tyukh, Yurij; Vladimir, Van; Vargot, Elena; Vasin, Aleksander; Vasina, Aleksandra; Vekliuk, Anatoliy; Vetchinnikova, Lidia; Vinogradov, Vladislav; Volodchenkov, Nikolay; Voloshina, Inna; Xoliqov, Tura; Yablonovska-Grishchenko, Eugenia; Yakovlev, Vladimir; Yakovleva, Marina; Yantser, Oksana; Yarema, Yurij; Zahvatov, Andrey; Zakharov, Valery; Zelenetskiy, Nicolay; Zheltukhin, Anatolii; Zubina, Tatyana; Kurhinen, Juri (2020)
    We present an extensive, large-scale, long-term and multitaxon database on phenological and climatic variation, involving 506,186 observation dates acquired in 471 localities in Russian Federation, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan. The data cover the period 1890-2018, with 96% of the data being from 1960 onwards. The database is rich in plants, birds and climatic events, but also includes insects, amphibians, reptiles and fungi. The database includes multiple events per species, such as the onset days of leaf unfolding and leaf fall for plants, and the days for first spring and last autumn occurrences for birds. The data were acquired using standardized methods by permanent staff of national parks and nature reserves (87% of the data) and members of a phenological observation network (13% of the data). The database is valuable for exploring how species respond in their phenology to climate change. Large-scale analyses of spatial variation in phenological response can help to better predict the consequences of species and community responses to climate change.
  • Islam, Mohammad Mahmudul; Pal, Shuvo; Hossain, Mohammad Mosarof; Mozumder, Mohammad Mojibul Hoque; Schneider, Petra (2020)
    By employing empirical and secondary data (qualitative and quantitative), this study demonstrates how social equity (with its three dimensions) can meaningfully address the conservation of the coastal social-ecological system (SES), without losing diverse ecosystem services (ES) in south-east coastal Bangladesh. Based on this proposition, this study assesses the available ES and identifies the drivers responsible for ES changes, arguing for the application of social equity for resource conservation. The findings show that communities along Bangladesh's south-eastern coast use several ES for food, medicine, income, livelihoods, and cultural heritage. However, this valuable ecosystem is currently experiencing numerous threats and stressors of anthropogenic and natural origin. In particular, large-scale development activities, driven by the blue growth agenda, and neoliberalism policy, pose a risk to the local communities by degrading coastal ecosystem services. Escaping this situation for coastal natural resource-dependent communities in Bangladesh will require a transformation in the governance structure. Implementing the Small-Scale Fisheries (SSF) Guidelines that call for initiating policy change to deliver social justice to small-scale fisheries would help to address coastal ecosystem service conservation in Bangladesh.
  • Landreau, Armand; Juhola, Sirkku; Jurgilevich, Alexandra; Räsänen, Aleksi (2021)
    The assessments of future climate risks are common; however, usually, they focus on climate projections without considering social changes. We project heat risks for Finland to evaluate (1) what kind of differences there are in heat vulnerability projections with different scenarios and scales, and (2) how the use of socio-economic scenarios influences heat risk assessments. We project a vulnerability index with seven indicators downscaled to the postal code area scale for 2050. Three different scenario sets for vulnerability are tested: one with five global Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) scenarios; the second with three European SSPs (EUSSPs) with data at the sub-national scale (NUTS2); and the last with the EUSSPs but aggregated data at the national scale. We construct projections of heat risk utilizing climatic heat hazard data for three different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and vulnerability and exposure data for five global SSPs up to 2100. In the vulnerability projections, each scenario in each dataset shows a decrease in vulnerability compared to current values, and the differences between the three scenario sets are small. There are evident differences both in the spatial patterns and in the temporal trends when comparing the risk projections with constant vulnerability to the projections with dynamic vulnerability. Heat hazard increases notably in RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, but a decrease of vulnerability especially in SSP1 and SSP5 alleviates risks. We show that projections of vulnerability have a considerable impact on future heat-related risk and emphasize that future risk assessments should include the combination of long-term climatic and socio-economic projections.
  • Danielsson, Rebecca; Lucas, Jane; Dahlberg, Josef; Ramin, Mohammad; Agenas, Sigrid; Bayat, Ali-Reza; Tapio, Ilma; Hammer, Tobin; Roslin, Tomas (2019)
    The use of antibiotics in livestock production may trigger ecosystem disservices, including increased emissions of greenhouse gases. To evaluate this, we conducted two separate animal experiments, administering two widely used antibiotic compounds (benzylpenicillin and tetracycline) to dairy cows over a 4- or 5-day period locally and/or systemically. We then recorded enteric methane production, total gas production from dung decomposing under aerobic versus anaerobic conditions, prokaryotic community composition in rumen and dung, and accompanying changes in nutrient intake, rumen fermentation, and digestibility resulting from antibiotic administration. The focal antibiotics had no detectable effect on gas emissions from enteric fermentation or dung in aerobic conditions, while they decreased total gas production from anaerobic dung. Microbiome-level effects of benzylpenicillin proved markedly different from those previously recorded for tetracycline in dung, and did not differ by the mode of administration (local or systemic). Antibiotic effects on gas production differed substantially between dung maintained under aerobic versus anaerobic conditions and between compounds. These findings demonstrate compound- and context-dependent impacts of antibiotics on methane emissions and underlying processes, and highlight the need for a global synthesis of data on agricultural antibiotic use before understanding their climatic impacts.
  • Luoma, S.; Okkonen, J.; Korkka-Niemi, K.; Hendriksson, N.; Backman, B. (2015)
    The groundwater in a shallow, unconfined, low-lying coastal aquifer in Santala, southern Finland, was chemically characterised by integrating multivariate statistical approaches, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), based on the stable isotopes delta H-2 and delta O-18, hydrogeochemistry and field monitoring data. PCA and HCA yielded similar results and classified groundwater samples into six distinct groups that revealed the factors controlling temporal and spatial variations in the groundwater geochemistry, such as the geology, anthropogenic sources from human activities, climate and surface water. High temporal variation in groundwater chemistry directly corresponded to precipitation. With an increase in precipitation, KMnO4 consumption, EC, alkalinity and Ca concentrations also increased in most wells, while Fe, Al, Mn and SO4 were occasionally increased during spring after the snowmelt under specific geological conditions. The continued increase in NO3 and metal concentrations in groundwater indicates the potential contamination risk to the aquifer. Stable isotopes of delta O-18 and delta H-2 indicate groundwater recharge directly from meteoric water, with an insignificant contribution from lake water, and no seawater intrusion into the aquifer. Groundwater geochemistry suggests that local seawater intrusion is temporarily able to take place in the sulfate reduction zone along the freshwater and seawater mixed zone in the low-lying coastal area, but the contribution of seawater was found to be very low. The influence of lake water could be observed from higher levels of KMnO4 consumption in wells near the lake. The integration of PCA and HCA with conventional classification of groundwater types, as well as with the hydrogeochemical data, provided useful tools to identify the vulnerable groundwater areas representing the impacts of both natural and human activities on water quality and the understanding of complex groundwater flow system for the aquifer vulnerability assessment and groundwater management in the future.
  • Antao, Laura H.; Pöyry, Juha; Leinonen, Reima; Roslin, Tomas (2020)
    Aim Biodiversity is currently undergoing rapid restructuring across the globe. However, the nature of biodiversity change is not well understood, as community-level changes may hide differential responses in individual population trajectories. Here, we quantify spatio-temporal community and stability dynamics using a long-term high-quality moth monitoring dataset. Location Finland, Northern Europe. Time period 1993-2012. Major taxa studied Nocturnal moths (Lepidoptera). Methods We quantified patterns of change in species richness, total abundance, dominance and temporal variability at different organizational levels over a 20 year period and along a latitudinal gradient of 1,100 km. We used mixed-effects and linear models to quantify temporal trends for the different community and stability metrics and to test for latitudinal (or longitudinal) effects. Results We found contrasting patterns for different community metrics, and strong latitudinal patterns. While total moth abundance has declined, species richness has simultaneously increased over the study period, but with rates accelerating with latitude. In addition, we revealed a latitudinal pattern in temporal variability-the northernmost locations exhibited higher variability over time, as quantified by both metrics of richness and aggregated species population trends. Main conclusions When combined, our findings likely reflect an influx of species expanding their ranges poleward in response to warming. The overall decline in abundance and the latitudinal effect on temporal variability highlight potentially severe consequences of global change for community structure and integrity across high-latitude regions. Importantly, our results underscore that increases in species richness may be paralleled by a loss of individuals, which in turn might affect higher trophic levels. Our findings suggest that the ongoing global species redistribution is affecting both community structure and stability over time, leading to compounded and partly opposing effects of global change depending on which biodiversity dimension we focus on.
  • Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D.; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Sunde, Peter; Aunins, Ainars; Balmer, Dawn E.; Calvi, Gianpiero; Chodkiewicz, Tomasz; Chylarecki, Przemek; Escandell, Virginia; Foppen, Ruud; Gamero, Anna; Hristov, Iordan; Husby, Magne; Jiguet, Frederic; Kmecl, Primoz; Kalas, John A.; Lewis, Lesley J.; Lindstrom, Ake; Moshoj, Charlotte; Nellis, Renno; Paquet, Jean-Y; Portolou, Danae; Ridzon, Jozef; Schmid, Hans; Skorpilova, Jana; Szabo, Zoltan D.; Szep, Tibor; Teufelbauer, Norbert; Trautmann, Sven; van Turnhout, Chris; Vermouzek, Zdenek; Vorisek, Petr; Weiserbs, Anne (2019)
    The greatest loss of biodiversity in the EU has occurred on agricultural land. The Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is one of the many numerous and widespread European farmland breeding bird species showing major population declines linked to European agricultural intensification. Here we present results based on monitoring data collected since 1975 in 24 countries to examine the influence of changing extent of grassland and cattle abundance (based on results of earlier studies showing the importance of lowland cattle grazed grassland for the species), wintering provenance and temperature on national breeding population trends of Starlings across Europe. Positive Starling population trends in Central-East Europe contrast with negative trends in North and West Europe. Based on this indicative approach, we found some support for the importance of cattle stock and no support for grassland, temperature or wintering provenance to explain Starling population trends in Europe. However, we acknowledge such a European-wide analysis may conceal regional differences in responses and suggest that currently accessible national land use datamight be insufficient to describe the detailed current changes in animal husbandry and grassland management that may be responsible for changes in food availability and hence breeding Starling abundance and their differences across Europe. Reviewing results from local studies relating Starling population trends to local agricultural change offer contradictory results, suggesting complex interacting processes at work. We recommend combining national datasets on demography, land-use/agricultural practices and from autecological research to better explain the reasons for contrasting Starling trends across Europe, to enable us to predict how changing agriculture will affect Starlings and potentially suggest mitigation measures to restore local populations where possible.
  • Iordan, Cristina-Maria; Hu, Xiangping; Arvesen, Anders; Kauppi, Pekka; Cherubini, Francesco (2018)
    Background: Forests and forest products can significantly contribute to climate change mitigation by stabilizing and even potentially decreasing the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere. Harvested wood products (HWP) represent a common widespread and cost-efficient opportunity for negative emissions. After harvest, a significant fraction of the wood remains stored in HWPs for a period that can vary from some months to many decades, whereas atmospheric carbon (C) is immediately sequestered by vegetation re-growth. This temporal mismatch between oxidation of HWPs and C uptake by vegetation generates a net sink that lasts over time. The role of temporary carbon storage in forest products has been analysed and debated in the scientific literature, but detailed bottomup studies mapping the fate of harvested materials and quantifying the associated emission profiles at national scales are rare. In this work, we quantify the net CO2 emissions and the temporary carbon storage in forest products in Norway, Sweden and Finland for the period 1960-2015, and investigate their correlation. We use a Chi square probability distribution to model the oxidation rate of C over time in HWPs, taking into consideration specific half-lives of each category of products. We model the forest regrowth and estimate the time-distributed C removal. We also integrate the specific HWP flows with an emission inventory database to quantify the associated life-cycle emissions of fossil CO2, CH4 and N2O. Results: We find that assuming an instantaneous oxidation of HWPs would overestimate emissions of about 1.18 billion t CO2 (cumulative values for the three countries over the period 1960-2015).We also find that about 40 years after 1960, the starting year of our analysis, are sufficient to detect signs of negative emissions. The total amount of net CO2 emissions achieved in 2015 are about -3.8 million t CO2, -27.9 t CO2 and -43.6 t CO2 in Norway, Sweden, and Finland, respectively. Conclusion: We argue for a more explicit accounting of the actual emission rates from HWPs in carbon balance studies and climate impact analysis of forestry systems and products, and a more transparent inclusion of the potential of HWP as negative emissions in perspective studies and scenarios. Simply assuming that all harvested carbon is instantaneously oxidized can lead to large biases and ultimately overlook the benefits of negative emissions of HWPs.