Browsing by Subject "IMPULSIVITY"

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  • Elsilä, Lauri V.; Korhonen, Nuppu; Hyytiä, Petri; Korpi, Esa R. (2020)
    While interest in psychedelic drugs in the fields of psychiatry and neuroscience has re-emerged in recent last decades, the general understanding of the effects of these drugs remains deficient. In particular, there are gaps in knowledge on executive functions and goal-directed behaviors both in humans and in commonly used animal models. The effects of acute doses of psychedelic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) on reward-driven decision making were explored using the mouse version of the Iowa Gambling Task. A total of 15 mice were trained to perform in a touch-screen adaptation of the rodent version of the Iowa Gambling Task, after which single acute doses of LSD (0.025, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg), serotonin 2A receptor-selective agonist 25CN-NBOH (1.5 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (2.0 mg/kg), and saline were administered before the trial. 25CN-NBOH and the three lowest doses of LSD showed no statistically significant changes in option selection or in general functioning during the gambling task trials. The highest dose of LSD (0.4 mg/kg) significantly decreased premature responding and increased the omission rate, but had no effect on option selection in comparison with the saline control. Amphetamine significantly decreased the correct responses and premature responding while increasing the omission rate. In conclusion, mice can perform previously learned, reward-driven decision-making tasks while under the acute influence of LSD at a commonly used dose range.
  • Castren, Sari; Grainger, Marjut; Lahti, Tuuli; Alho, Hannu; Salonen, Anne H. (2015)
    Background: Adolescent gambling and substance use are viewed as a public health concern internationally. The early onset age of gambling is a known risk factor for developing gambling problems later in life. The aims of this study are: to evaluate the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity and classification accuracy of the Finnish version of DSM-IV-Multiple Response-Juvenile (DSM-IV-MR-J) criteria measuring at-risk/problem gambling (ARPG); to examine gender differences in gambling participation, ARPG and substance use among first-year junior high school students; and to investigate the association of gambling and gaming (video game playing) participation, substance use and social variables with ARPG. Methods: This study examined 988 adolescents (mean age 13.4 years) at 11 public schools in Finland between October-December 2013. The response rate was 91.6%. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression analysis were used. Results: 'Illegal acts' was the most endorsed and sensitive, but the least specific criteria identifying ARPG. During the past year, 51.6% of the respondents had gambled, 7.9% were identified as at-risk/problem gamblers (DSM-IV-MR-J score >= 2), 8.0% had smoked and 8.9% had been drinking for intoxication, and the first three were significantly more common among boys than girls. The odds ratio of being a male past-year at-risk/problem gambler was 2.27, 5.78 for gambling often or sometimes, 2.42 for video game playing weekly or more often and 6.23 for having peer gamblers. Conclusions: Overall, the Finnish version of the DSM-IV-MR-J had acceptable internal consistency reliability and factorial validity. None of the DSM-IV-MR-J criteria were accurate enough to screen ARPG per se. ARPG past-year prevalence was relatively high with males gambling more than females. ARPG was as common as drinking alcohol for intoxication and smoking. Peer gambling was strongly associated with ARPG. Efficient strategies to minimise the risks of gambling problems, tools for prevention and identification of ARPG among the underage are needed.
  • Baryshnikov, I.; Aaltonen, K.; Koivisto, M.; Naatanen, P.; Karpov, B.; Melartin, T.; Heikkinen, M.; Ketokivi, M.; Joffe, G.; Isometsa, E. (2015)
    Background: Differential diagnosis between bipolar disorder (BD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) is often challenging due to some overlap in symptoms and comorbidity of disorders. We investigated correlations in self-reported symptoms of BD and BPD in screening questionnaires at the levels of both total scores and individual items and explored overlapping dimensions. Methods: The McLean Screening Instrument (MSI) for BPD and the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) for BD were filled in by patients with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders (n = 313) from specialized psychiatric care within a pilot study of the Helsinki University Psychiatric Consortium. Pearson's correlation coefficients between total scores and individual items of the MSI and the MDQ were estimated. Relationships between MDQ and MSI were evaluated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Results: The correlation between total scores of the MDQ and MSI was moderate (r = 0.431, P <0.001). Significant correlations were found between the MSI items of "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' and all MDQ items (P <0.01). In the EFA, the MSI "impulsivity'' and "mood instability'' items had significant cross-loadings (0.348 and 0.298, respectively) with the MDQ factor. The MDQ items of "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' (0.280, 0.210 and 0.386, respectively) cross-loaded on the MSI factor. Conclusions: The MDQ and MSI items of "affective instability'', "impulsivity'', "irritability'', "flight of thoughts'' and "distractibility'' appear to overlap in content. The other scale items are more disorder-specific, and thus, may help to distinguish BD and BPD. (C) 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Pajulahti, Riikka; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Lehto, Reetta; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Elviira; Nissinen, Kaija; Skaffari, Essi; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Roos, Eva; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Ray, Carola (2021)
    Consistently linked with children?s food consumption are food availability and accessibility. However, less is known about potential individual differences among young children in their susceptibility to home food environments. The purpose of the study was to examine whether the association between home food availability and accessibility of sugar-rich foods and drinks (SFD) or fruits and vegetables (FV) and children?s consumption of these foods differ according to their temperament. The study used two cross-sectional datasets collected as part of the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) study: 1) a cross-sectional data of 864 children aged 3?6 years old collected between fall 2015 and spring 2016, and 2) an intervention baseline data of 802 children aged 3?6 collected in fall 2017. Parents reported their children?s temperament, consumption of FV and SFD, and home availability and accessibility of SFD and FV. Examination of whether associations between home availability and accessibility of FV and their consumption differ according to children?s temperament involved using linear regression models. Similar models were used to examine association between home availability and accessibility of SFD and their consumption, and the moderating role of temperament. The association between home accessibility of SFD and their consumption frequency was dependent on the level of children?s negative affectivity. More frequent consumption of SFD was observed with higher home accessibility of SFD. The association was stronger in children with higher scores in negative affectivity. No other interactions were found. Children with higher negative affectivity are possibly more vulnerable to food cues in the home environment than children with lower negative affectivity. Consideration of children?s individual characteristics is necessary in supporting their healthy eating.
  • Aulbach, Matthias Burkard; Knittle, Keegan Phillip; Haukkala, Ari Heikki (2019)
    Dual-process models integrate deliberative and impulsive mental systems and predict dietary behaviours better than deliberative processes alone. Computerised tasks such as the Go/No-Go, Stop-Signal, Approach-Avoidance, and Evaluative Conditioning have been used as interventions to directly alter implicit biases. This meta-analysis examines the effects of these tasks on dietary behaviours, explores potential moderators of effectiveness, and examines implicit bias change as a proposed mechanism. Thirty randomised controlled trials testing implicit bias interventions (47 comparisons) were included in a random-effects meta-analysis, which indicated small cumulative effects on eating-related behavioural outcomes (g = -0.17, CI95 = [-0.29; -0.05], p = .01) and implicit biases (g = -0.18, CI95 = [-0.34; -0.02], p = .02). Task type moderated these effects, with Go/No-Go tasks producing larger effects than other tasks. Effects of interventions on implicit biases were positively related to effects on eating behaviour (B = 0.42, CI95 = [0.02; 0.81], p = .03). Go/No-Go tasks seem to have most potential for altering dietary behaviours through implicit processes. While changes in implicit biases seem related to the effects of these interventions on dietary outcomes, more research should explore whether repeated exposure to implicit bias interventions may have any practical intervention value in real world settings.
  • Tiira, Katriina; Tikkanen, Antti; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Working dogs are used for a range of important operational tasks. Identifying potentially successful working dogs as early as possible is important as rejection rates are high and training is costly. Earlier research has mainly concentrated on personality traits such as boldness, and there is only little knowledge on the possible association between cognitive traits and the actual working dog performance. This study investigated whether motor inhibition, persistence, problem-solving strategies, and spatial problem-solving are associated with explosive detection success in specially trained police dogs. Dogs (N = 24) were tested with a cognitive test battery, and subsequently they participated in an explosive detection test. The explosive searching situation and the location of the test was such that it would reflect as much as possible a real-life situation. Canine handlers also filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog's working behaviour. We found that those dogs that were more successful in explosive detection task had better motor inhibition in a cylinder task compared to dogs with lower success in an explosive search task. Furthermore, we found that dogs that made more errors in the cylinder task were generally more likely to give up searching sooner, as reported by their handlers, and also abandon sooner the problem-solving task in behavioural test. This study suggests that inhibitory control, specifically motor inhibition, may be an important aspect to consider when selecting suitable dogs for explosive detection tasks. Cylinder task is an easy and quick way to assess inhibitory control, although a larger dataset is needed to verify its association with working performance.
  • Terracciano, A.; Esko, T.; Sutin, A. R.; de Moor, M. H. M.; Meirelles, O.; Zhu, G.; Tanaka, T.; Giegling, I.; Nutile, T.; Realo, A.; Allik, J.; Hansell, N. K.; Wright, M. J.; Montgomery, G. W.; Willemsen, G.; Hottenga, J-J; Friedl, M.; Ruggiero, D.; Sorice, R.; Sanna, S.; Cannas, A.; Räikkönen, Katri; Widen, E.; Palotie, A.; Eriksson, J. G.; Cucca, F.; Krueger, R. F.; Lahti, J.; Luciano, M.; Smoller, J. W.; van Duijn, C. M.; Abecasis, G. R.; Boomsma, D. I.; Ciullo, M.; Costa, P. T.; Ferrucci, L.; Martin, N. G.; Metspalu, A.; Rujescu, D.; Schlessinger, D.; Uda, M. (2011)
  • Savolainen, Iina; Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Sirola, Anu; Zych, Izabela; Paek, Hye-Jin (2021)
    The Internet and technologies have increased gambling opportunities globally, normalizing gambling among young individuals. Youth are active Internet users and susceptible to group norms, but little is known about group behavior and norms in online interaction. This study examined if following perceived majority opinions about gambling content (i.e., gambling norms) in online interaction is associated with youth problem gambling. Participants were 15-25-year-old youths in Finland (n = 1200; 50% female), South Korea (n = 1192; 50.42% female), Spain (n = 1212; 48.76% female), and the United States (n = 1212; 50.17% female). The participants took an online survey including a vignette experiment. In the vignette experiment, half of the participants were assigned to an in-group condition. The participants saw simulated gambling-themed social media messages with manipulated majority reactions. Norm conformity online was assessed using a within-person calculation. Norm conformity online was associated with youth problem gambling in all countries. In South Korea, this association was moderated by in-group norm source. The results indicate that young people who engage in problematic gambling may be more susceptible to conforming to perceived gambling norms online, but cultural differences exist. Intervention strategies should utilize educative online programs providing young problem gamblers accurate information about gambling.