Browsing by Subject "IN-HOSPITAL MORTALITY"

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  • Forsblom, E.; Kakriainen, A.; Ruotsalainen, E.; Järvinen, A. (2018)
    Background Infectious specialist consultations (ISC) provide ever more evidence for improved outcome in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). Most ISC are formal (bedside). However, the impact of ISC on clinical management and prognosis lacks evaluation in aged patients with SAB. Methods Multicenter retrospective analysis of methicillin-sensitive (MS) SAB. Patients were stratified according to age >= 60 years (sub-analyses for >= 75 years and females) and formal (bedside) ISC given within 7 days of SAB diagnosis. The impact on management and outcome of formal ISC was explored. Statistics were performed with univariate analysis, Cox proportional hazards regression model analysis, including propensity-score adjustment, and graphic Kaplan-Meier interpretation. Results Altogether 617 patients were identified and 520 (84%) had formal ISC. Presence of formal ISC resulted in equivalent clinical management regardless of age over or under 60 years: localization and eradication of infection foci (80 vs. 82% and 34 vs. 36%) and use of anti-staphylococcal antibiotics (65 vs. 61%). Patients aged >= 60 years managed without formal ISC, compared to those with formal ISC, had less infection foci diagnosed (53 vs. 80%, p <0.001). Lack of formal ISC in patients aged >= 60 years resulted in no infection eradication and absence of first-line anti-staphylococcal antibiotics. Formal ISC, compared to absence of formal ISC, lowered mortality at 90 days in patients aged >= 60 years (24 vs. 47%, p = 0.004). In Cox proportional regression, before and after propensity-score adjustment, formal ISC was a strong positive prognostic parameter in patients aged >= 60 years (HR 0.45; p = 0.004 and HR 0.44; p = 0.021), in patients aged >= 75 years (HR 0.18; p = 0.001 and HR 0.11; p = 0.003) and in female patients aged >= 75 years (HR 0.13; p = 0.005). Conclusion Formal ISC ensures proper active clinical management irrespective of age and improve prognosis in aged patients with MS-SAB.
  • Pirneskoski, Jussi; Tamminen, Joonas; Kallonen, Antti; Nurmi, Jouni; Kuisma, Markku; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Hoppu, Sanna (2020)
    Aim of the study: The National Early Warning Score (NEWS) is a validated method for predicting clinical deterioration in hospital wards, but its performance in prehospital settings remains controversial. Modern machine learning models may outperform traditional statistical analyses for predicting short-term mortality. Thus, we aimed to compare the mortality prediction accuracy of NEWS and random forest machine learning using prehospital vital signs. Methods: In this retrospective study, all electronic ambulance mission reports between 2008 and 2015 in a single EMS system were collected. Adult patients (>= 18 years) were included in the analysis. Random forest models with and without blood glucose were compared to the traditional NEWS for predicting one-day mortality. A ten-fold cross-validation method was applied to train and validate the random forest models. Results: A total of 26,458 patients were included in the study of whom 278 (1.0%) died within one day of ambulance mission. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for one-day mortality was 0.836 (95% CI, 0.810-0.860) for NEWS, 0.858 (95% CI, 0.832-0.883) for a random forest trained with NEWS variables only and 0.868 (0.843-0.892) for a random forest trained with NEWS variables and blood glucose. Conclusion: A random forest algorithm trained with NEWS variables was superior to traditional NEWS for predicting one-day mortality in adult prehospital patients, although the risk of selection bias must be acknowledged. The inclusion of blood glucose in the model further improved its predictive performance.
  • Jakkula, Pekka; Reinikainen, Matti; Hästbacka, Johanna; Pettilä, Ville; Loisa, Pekka; Karlsson, Sari; Laru-Sompa, Raili; Bendel, Stepani; Oksanen, Tuomas; Birkelund, Thomas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Toppila, Jussi; Hakkarainen, Antti; Skrifvars, Markus B.; COMACARE Study Grp (2017)
    Background: Arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2), oxygen tension (PaO2), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) are modifiable factors that affect cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen delivery, and potentially the course of brain injury after cardiac arrest. No evidence regarding optimal treatment targets exists. Methods: The Carbon dioxide, Oxygen, and Mean arterial pressure After Cardiac Arrest and REsuscitation (COMACARE) trial is a pilot multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) assessing the feasibility of targeting low-or high-normal PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP in comatose, mechanically ventilated patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), as well as its effect on brain injury markers. Using a 23 factorial design, participants are randomized upon admission to an intensive care unit into one of eight groups with various combinations of PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP target levels for 36 h after admission. The primary outcome is neuron-specific enolase (NSE) serum concentration at 48 h after cardiac arrest. The main feasibility outcome is the between-group differences in PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP during the 36 h after ICU admission. Secondary outcomes include serum concentrations of NSE, S100 protein, and cardiac troponin at 24, 48, and 72 h after cardiac arrest; cerebral oxygenation, measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS); potential differences in epileptic activity, monitored via continuous electroencephalogram (EEG); and neurological outcomes at six months after cardiac arrest. Discussion: The trial began in March 2016 and participant recruitment has begun in all seven study sites as of March 2017. Currently, 115 of the total of 120 patients have been included. When completed, the results of this trial will provide preliminary clinical evidence regarding the feasibility of targeting low-or high-normal PaCO2, PaO2, and MAP values and its effect on developing brain injury, brain oxygenation, and epileptic seizures after cardiac arrest. The results of this trial will be used to evaluate whether a larger RCT on this subject is justified.
  • Ljunggren, Malin; Castren, Maaret; Nordberg, Martin; Kurland, Lisa (2016)
    Background: Vital signs are widely used in emergency departments. Previous studies on the association between vital signs and mortality in emergency departments have been restricted to selected patient populations. We aimed to study the association of vital signs and age with 1-day mortality in patients visiting the emergency department. Methods: This retrospective cohort included patients visiting the emergency department for adults at Sodersjukhuset, Sweden from 4/1/2012 to 4/30/2013. Exclusion criteria were: age <18 years, deceased upon arrival, chief complaint circulatory or respiratory arrest, key data missing and patients who were directed to a certain fast track for conditions demanding little resources. Vital sign data was collected through the Rapid Emergency Triage and Treatment System-Adult (RETTS-A). Descriptive analyses and logistic regression models were used. The main outcome measure was 1-day mortality. Results: The 1-day mortality rate was 0.3 %. 96,512 patients met the study criteria. After adjustments of differences in the other vital signs, comorbidities, gender and age the following vital signs were independently associated with 1-day mortality: oxygen saturation, systolic blood pressure, temperature, level of consciousness, respiratory rate, pulse rate and age. The highest odds ratios was observed when comparing unresponsive to alert patients (OR 31.0, CI 16.9 to 56.8), patients >= 80 years to <50 years (OR 35.9, CI 10.7 to 120.2) and patients with respiratory rates <8/min to 8-25/min (OR 18.1, CI 2.1 to 155.5). Discussion: Most of the vital signs used in the ED are significantly associated with one-day mortality. The more the vital signs deviate from the normal range, the larger are the odds of mortality. We did not find a suitable way to adjust for the inherent influence the triage system and medical treatment has had on mortality. Conclusions: Most deviations of vital signs are associated with 1-day mortality. The same triage level is not associated with the same odds for death with respect to the individual vital sign. Patients that were unresponsive or had low respiratory rates or old age had the highest odds of 1-day mortality.
  • Nelskylä, Annika; Nurmi, Jouni; Jousi, Milla; Schramko, Alexey; Mervaala, Eero; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Skrifvars, Markus (2017)
    Background and aim: We hypothesised that the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen maintains cerebral oxygenation and ameliorates the disturbance of cardiac mitochondrial respiration during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was induced electrically in anaesthetised healthy adult pigs and left untreated for seven minutes followed by randomisation to manual ventilation with 50% or 100% oxygen and mechanical chest compressions (LUCAS (R)). Defibrillation was performed at thirteen minutes and repeated if necessary every two minutes with 1 mg intravenous adrenaline. Cerebral oxygenation was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy (rSO(2), INVOS (TM) 5100C Cerebral Oximeter) and with a probe (NEUROVENT-PTO, RAUMEDIC) in the frontal brain cortex (PbO2). Heart biopsies were obtained 20 min after the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) with an analysis of mitochondrial respiration (OROBOROS Instruments Corp., Innsbruck, Austria), and compared to four control animals without VF and CPR. Brain rSO(2) and PbO2 were log transformed and analysed with a mixed linear model and mitochondrial respiration with an analysis of variance. Results: Of the twenty pigs, one had a breach of protocol and was excluded, leaving nine pigs in the 50% group and ten in the 100% group. Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in six pigs in the 50% group and eight in the 100% group. The rSO(2) (p = 0.007) was lower with FiO(2) 50%, but the PbO2 was not (p = 0.93). After ROSC there were significant interactions between time and FiO(2) regarding both rSO(2) (p = 0.001) and PbO2 (p = 0.004). Compared to the controls, mitochondrial respiration was decreased, with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) levels of 57 (17) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) compared to 92 (23) pmol s(-1) mg(-1) (p = 0.008), but there was no difference between different oxygen fractions (p = 0.79). Conclusions: The use of 50% oxygen during CPR results in lower cerebral oximetry values compared to 100% oxygen but there is no difference in brain tissue oxygen. Cardiac arrest disturbs cardiac mitochondrial respiration, but it is not alleviated with the use of 50% compared to 100% oxygen (Ethical and hospital approvals ESAVI/1077/04.10.07/2016 and HUS/215/2016, 7 30.3.2016, Funding Helsinki University and others). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • EURODEM Study Grp; Harjola, Pia; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Barletta, Cinzia; Tolonen, Jukka; Palomäki, Ari; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Laribi, Said; Kokkonen, Liisa; Valli, Juha; Kiljunen, Minna (2022)
    Background Acute heart failure patients are often encountered in emergency departments (ED) from 11% to 57% using emergency medical services (EMS). Our aim was to evaluate the association of EMS use with acute heart failure patients' ED management and short-term outcomes. Methods This was a sub-analysis of a European EURODEM study. Data on patients presenting with dyspnoea were collected prospectively from European EDs. Patients with ED diagnosis of acute heart failure were categorized into two groups: those using EMS and those self-presenting (non- EMS). The independent association between EMS use and 30-day mortality was evaluated with logistic regression. Results Of the 500 acute heart failure patients, with information about the arrival mode to the ED, 309 (61.8%) arrived by EMS. These patients were older (median age 80 vs. 75 years, p < 0.001), more often female (56.4% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.002) and had more dementia (18.7% vs. 7.2%, p < 0.001). On admission, EMS patients had more often confusion (14.2% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.001) and higher respiratory rate (24/min vs. 21/min, p = 0.014; respiratory rate > 30/min in 17.1% patients vs. 7.5%, p = 0.005). The only difference in ED management appeared in the use of ventilatory support: 78.3% of EMS patients vs. 67.5% of non- EMS patients received supplementary oxygen (p = 0.007), and non-invasive ventilation was administered to 12.5% of EMS patients vs. 4.2% non- EMS patients (p = 0.002). EMS patients were more often hospitalized (82.4% vs. 65.9%, p < 0.001), had higher in-hospital mortality (8.7% vs. 3.1%, p = 0.014) and 30-day mortality (14.3% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001). The use of EMS was an independent predictor of 30-day mortality (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.11-5.81, p = 0.027). Conclusion Most acute heart failure patients arrive at ED by EMS. These patients suffer from more severe respiratory distress and receive more often ventilatory support. EMS use is an independent predictor of 30-day mortality.
  • Helve, Salla; Viikila, Juho; Laine, Mika; Lilleberg, Jyrki; Tierala, Ilkka; Nieminen, Tuomo (2014)