Browsing by Subject "IN-UTERO"

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  • Malm, Heli; Artama, Miia; Brown, Alan S.; Gissler, Mika; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomaki, Susanna; McKeague, Ian; Sourander, Andre (2012)
  • Psychiat Genomics Consortium; Czamara, Darina; Eraslan, Goekcen; Page, Christian M.; Lahti, Jari; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Laivuori, Hannele; Villa, Pia M.; Reynolds, Rebecca M.; Nystad, Wenche; Håberg, Siri E.; London, Stephanie J.; O'Donnell, Kieran J.; Garg, Elika; Meaney, Michael J.; Entringer, Sonja; Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Buss, Claudia; Jones, Meaghan J.; Lin, David T. S.; MacIsaac, Julie L.; Kobor, Michael S.; Koen, Nastassja; Zar, Heather J.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Dalvie, Shareefa; Stein, Dan J.; Kondofersky, Ivan; Mueller, Nikola S.; Theis, Fabian J.; Raikkonen, Katri; Binder, Elisabeth B. (2019)
    Epigenetic processes, including DNA methylation (DNAm), are among the mechanisms allowing integration of genetic and environmental factors to shape cellular function. While many studies have investigated either environmental or genetic contributions to DNAm, few have assessed their integrated effects. Here we examine the relative contributions of prenatal environmental factors and genotype on DNA methylation in neonatal blood at variably methylated regions (VMRs) in 4 independent cohorts (overall n = 2365). We use Akaike's information criterion to test which factors best explain variability of methylation in the cohort-specific VMRs: several prenatal environmental factors (E), genotypes in cis (G), or their additive (G + E) or interaction (GxE) effects. Genetic and environmental factors in combination best explain DNAm at the majority of VMRs. The CpGs best explained by either G, G + E or GxE are functionally distinct. The enrichment of genetic variants from GxE models in GWAS for complex disorders supports their importance for disease risk.
  • Lehikoinen, Anni; Orden, Maija-Riitta; Heinonen, Seppo Tapani; Voutilainen, Raimo (2016)
    AimMaternal alcohol abuse is poorly recognised and causes developmental problems. This study explored the foetal central nervous systems (CNS), head circumference and psychomotor development of children exposed to drugs or alcohol during pregnancy up to 2.5years of age. MethodsWe recruited 23 pregnant women referred to Kuopio University Hospital, Finland, by their family doctor because of drug or alcohol abuse, and 22 control mothers. Foetal CNS parameters were measured by three-dimensional ultrasonography at the mean gestational age of 20weeks and the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scales (GMDS), and anthropometric measurements were carried out at the mean ages of one and 2.5years. ResultsThe exposed foetuses had decreased biparietal and occipito-frontal distances and head circumferences, but unchanged cerebellar volume at 20weeks, and decreased head circumferences and length and height at birth, one and 2.5years of age. They scored lower than the controls on the GMDS general quotient and the hearing, language and locomotor subscales at 2.5years of age. ConclusionMaternal alcohol or drug exposure was associated with decreased head size from mid-pregnancy to childhood and reduced development at 2.5years. Foetal head circumference at mid-pregnancy was a useful indicator of substance abuse affecting theCNS.
  • Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Luukkainen, Annika T.; Xu, Baizhuang; Lampi, Jussi; Auvinen, Juha; Dhaygude, Kishor; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pekkanen, Juha (2020)
    Rationale: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure increases asthma risk in children. There is limited knowledge of prenatal ETS for adult-onset asthma. Objectives: To determine the association between prenatal ETS and adult onset asthma. Measurements and main results: The questionnaire and clinical data of 5200 people, free of physician-diagnosed asthma by 31 years of age, who were included in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study was used. The association of maternal smoking during the last 3 months of pregnancy with onset of physician-diagnosed asthma and with lung function in adult offspring was studied using adjusted multivariate regression analyses. The cumulative incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma between the ages of 31 and 46 years was 5.1% among men and 8.8% among women. Gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma among offspring (adjusted OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.04-2.29), namely among offspring who reported either past non-diagnosed asthma (OR 9.63, 95% CI 2.28-40.67) or past cough with wheeze (3.21, 95% CI 1.71-6.05). A significant association was detected between gestational smoke exposure and the offspring's forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio at 31 years of age. In offspring with the haplotype rs11702779-AA of RUNX1, gestational smoke exposure was associated with adult-onset asthma (5.53, 95% CI 2.11-14.52, adjusted p-value for interaction 0.10). Conclusion: Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the cumulative incidence of asthma in offspring between the ages of 31 and 46 years. The association was accentuated in offspring who at age 31, reported having past respiratory problems and/or who had haplotype rs11702779-AA. A reduction in FEV1/FVC ratio was also observed at age 31 years in offspring with gestational smoke exposure. These results could reflect the early vulnerability of offspring's airways to ETS and its putative long-term effects.
  • Koponen, Anne M.; Nissinen, Niina-Maria; Gissler, Mika; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna (2020)
    Both prenatal substance exposure (PSE, alcohol/drugs) and experiences during the first years of life have powerful effects on brain development. However, only a few studies have investigated the combined effect of PSE and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on mental and behavioral disorders among exposed adolescents and adults. This longitudinal register-based cohort study 1) compared the nature and extent of diagnosed mental and behavioral disorders among youth with PSE and matched unexposed controls, and 2) investigated the influence of PSE, health in infancy and ACEs (maternal risk factors and out-of-home care, OHC) on diagnoses of mental and behavioral disorders. The data consisted of 615 exposed youth aged 15-24 years and 1787 matched unexposed controls. Data from hospital medical records and nine registers were merged for the analysis. Descriptive analysis methods and Cox regression were used. The results showed that the prevalence of mental and behavioral disorders was twice as high among exposed compared with controls. The highest levels of mental and behavioral disorders and ACEs were found among exposed with at least one OHC episode. The difference in the risk of mental and behavioral disorders between exposed and controls diminished after controlling for the effect of ACEs. Low birth weight, maternal risk factors, and OHC were the strongest predictors of mental and behavioral disorders. The results suggest that PSE alone does not explain poorer mental health among exposed youth. Risk factors accumulate, and low birth weight and ACEs are strongly associated with increased risk of mental and behavioral disorders.
  • Schreier, Nadja; Moltchanova, Elena; Forsen, Tom; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G. (2013)
  • Husso, Aleksi; Lietaer, Leen; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Grönthal, Thomas; Govaere, Jan; Van Soom, Ann; Iivanainen, Antti; Opsomer, Geert; Niku, Mikael (2021)
    The development of a healthy intestinal immune system requires early microbial exposure. However, it remains unclear whether microbial exposure already begins at the prenatal stage. Analysis of such low microbial biomass environments are challenging due to contamination issues. The aims of the current study were to assess the bacterial load and characterize the bacterial composition of the amniotic fluid and meconium of full-term calves, leading to a better knowledge of prenatal bacterial seeding of the fetal intestine. Amniotic fluid and rectal meconium samples were collected during and immediately after elective cesarean section, performed in 25 Belgian Blue cow-calf couples. The samples were analyzed by qPCR, bacterial culture using GAM agar and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. To minimize the effects of contaminants, we included multiple technical controls and stringently filtered the 16S rRNA gene sequencing data to exclude putative contaminant sequences. The meconium samples contained a significantly higher amount of bacterial DNA than the negative controls and 5 of 24 samples contained culturable bacteria. In the amniotic fluid, the amount of bacterial DNA was not significantly different from the negative controls and all samples were culture negative. Bacterial sequences were identified in both sample types and were primarily of phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria, with some individual variation. We conclude that most calves encounter in utero maternal-fetal transmission of bacterial DNA, but the amount of bacterial DNA is low and viable bacteria are rare.
  • Alipour, Mohammad Jaber; Jalanka, Jonna; Pessa-Morikawa, Tiina; Kokkonen, Tuomo; Satokari, Reetta; Hynönen, Ulla; Iivanainen, Antti; Niku, Mikael (2018)
    Recent research suggests that the microbial colonization of the mammalian intestine may begin before birth, but the observations are controversial due to challenges in the reliable sampling and analysis of low-abundance microbiota. We studied the perinatal microbiota of calves by sampling them immediately at birth and during the first postnatal week. The large size of the bovine newborns allows sampling directly from rectum using contamination-shielded swabs. Our 16S rDNA data, purged of potential contaminant sequences shared with negative controls, indicates the existence of a diverse low-abundance microbiota in the newborn rectal meconium and mucosa. The newborn rectal microbiota was composed of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The microbial profile resembled dam oral rather than fecal or vaginal vestibular microbiota, but included typical intestinal taxa. During the first postnatal day, the rectum was invaded by Escherichia/Shigella and Clostridia, and the diversity collapsed. By 7 days, diversity was again increasing. In terms of relative abundance, Proteobacteria were replaced by Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria, including Faecalibacterium, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Butyricicoccus and Bifidobacterium. Our observations suggest that mammals are seeded before birth with a diverse microbiota, but the microbiota changes rapidly in the early postnatal life.