Browsing by Subject "INADEQUATE RESPONSE"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Glinatsi, Daniel; Heiberg, Marte S.; Rudin, Anna; Nordstrom, Dan; Haavardsholm, Espen A.; Gudbjornsson, Bjorn; Ostergaard, Mikkel; Uhlig, Till; Grondal, Gerdur; Horslev-Petersen, Kim; van Vollenhoven, Ronald; Hetland, Merete L. (2017)
    Background: New targeted therapies and improved treatment strategies have dramatically improved the outcomes of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is unknown whether different early aggressive interventions can induce stable remission or a low-active disease state that can be maintained with conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (csDMARD) therapy, and whether they differ in efficacy and safety. The Nordic Rheumatic Diseases Strategy Trials And Registries (NORD-STAR) study will assess and compare (1) the proportion of patients who achieve remission in a head-to-head comparison between csDMARD plus glucocorticoid therapy and three different biological DMARD (bDMARD) therapies with different modes of action and (2) two de-escalation strategies in patients who respond to first-line therapy. Methods/design: In a pragmatic, 80-160-week, multicenter, randomized, open-label, assessor-blinded, phase 4 study, 800 patients with early RA (symptom duration less than 24 months) are randomized 1: 1: 1: 1 to one of four different treatment arms: (1) aggressive csDMARD therapy with methotrexate + sulphasalazine + hydroxychloroquine + i. a. glucocorticoids (arm 1A) or methotrexate + prednisolone p.o. (arm 1B), (2) methotrexate + certolizumab-pegol, (3) methotrexate + abatacept, or (4) methotrexate + tocilizumab. The primary clinical endpoint is the proportion of patients reaching Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) remission at week 24. Patients in stable remission over 24 consecutive weeks enter part 2 of the study earliest after 48 weeks. Patients not achieving sustained CDAI remission over 24 consecutive weeks, exit the study after 80 weeks. In part 2, patients are re-randomized to two different de-escalation strategies, either immediate or delayed (after 24 weeks) tapering, followed by cessation of study medication. All patients remain on stable doses of methotrexate. The primary clinical endpoint in part 2 is the proportion of patients in remission (CDAI Discussion: NORD-STAR is the first investigator-initiated, randomized, early RA trial to compare (1) csDMARD and three different bDMARD therapies head to head and (2) two different de-escalation strategies. The trial has the potential to identify which treatment strategy to apply in early RA to achieve the best possible outcomes for both patients and society.
  • Gadina, Massimo; Le, Mimi T.; Schwartz, Daniella M.; Silvennoinen, Olli; Nakayamada, Shingo; Yamaoka, Kunihiro; O'Shea, John J. (2019)
    Cytokines are critical mediators of diverse immune and inflammatory diseases. Targeting cytokines and cytokine receptors with biologics has revolutionized the treatment of many of these diseases, but targeting intracellular signalling with Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (jakinibs) now represents a major new therapeutic advance. We are still in the first decade since these drugs were approved and there is still much to be learned about the mechanisms of action of these drugs and the practical use of these agents. Herein we will review cytokines that do, and just as importantly, do not signal by JAKs, as well as explain how this relates to both efficacy and side effects in various diseases. We will review new, next-generation selective jakinibs, as well as the prospects and challenges ahead in targeting JAKs.
  • T. Virtanen, Anniina; Haikarainen, Teemu; Raivola, Juuli; Silvennoinen, Olli (2019)
    Cytokines, many of which signal through the JAK–STAT (Janus kinase–Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) pathway, play a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Currently three JAK inhibitors have been approved for clinical use in USA and/or Europe: tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ulcerative colitis, baricitinib for rheumatoid arthritis, and ruxolitinib for myeloproliferative neoplasms. The clinical JAK inhibitors target multiple JAKs at high potency and current research has focused on more selective JAK inhibitors, almost a dozen of which currently are being evaluated in clinical trials. In this narrative review, we summarize the status of the pan-JAK and selective JAK inhibitors approved or in clinical trials, and discuss the rationale for selective targeting of JAKs in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
  • Joensuu, Jaana T.; Huoponen, Saara; Aaltonen, Kalle J.; Konttinen, Yrjo T.; Nordstrom, Dan; Blom, Marja (2015)
    Background and Objectives Economic evaluations provide information to aid the optimal utilization of limited healthcare resources. Costs of biologics for Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are remarkably high, which makes these agents an important target for economic evaluations. This systematic review aims to identify existing studies examining the cost-effectiveness of biologics for RA, assess their quality and report their results systematically. Methods A literature search covering Medline, Scopus, Cochrane library, ACP Journal club and Web of Science was performed in March 2013. The cost-utility analyses (CUAs) of one or more available biological drugs for the treatment of RA in adults were included. Two independent investigators systematically collected information and assessed the quality of the studies. To enable the comparison of the results, all costs were converted to 2013 euro. Results Of the 4890 references found in the literature search, 41 CUAs were included in the current systematic review. While considering only direct costs, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (TNFi) ranged from 39,000 to 1 273,000 (sic)/quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained in comparison to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (cDMARDs) in cDMARD naive patients. Among patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs, biologics were associated with ICERs ranging from 12,000 to 708,000 (sic)/QALY. Rituximab was found to be the most cost-effective alternative compared to other biologics among the patients with an insufficient response to TNFi. Conclusions When 35,000 (sic)/QALY is considered as a threshold for the ICER, TNFis do not seem to be cost-effective among cDMARD naive patients and patients with an insufficient response to cDMARDs. With thresholds of 50,000 to 100,000 (sic)/QALY biologics might be cost-effective among patients with an inadequate response to cDMARDs. Standardization of multiattribute utility instruments and a validated standard conversion method for missing utility measures would enable better comparison between CUAs.