Browsing by Subject "INBREEDING DEPRESSION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Clark, David W.; Okada, Yukinori; Moore, Kristjan H. S.; Mason, Dan; Pirastu, Nicola; Gandin, Ilaria; Mattsson, Hannele; Barnes, Catriona L. K.; Lin, Kuang; Zhao, Jing Hua; Deelen, Patrick; Rohde, Rebecca; Schurmann, Claudia; Guo, Xiuqing; Giulianini, Franco; Zhang, Weihua; Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Karlsson, Robert; Bao, Yanchun; Bartz, Traci M.; Baumbach, Clemens; Biino, Ginevra; Bixley, Matthew J.; Brumat, Marco; Chai, Jin-Fang; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L.; Dekker, Annelot M.; Eccles, David A.; Van Eijk, Kristel R.; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gao, He; Germain, Marine; Gordon, Scott D.; de Haan, Hugoline G.; Harris, Sarah E.; Hofer, Edith; Huerta-Chagoya, Alicia; Igartua, Catherine; Jansen, Iris E.; Jia, Yucheng; Kacprowski, Tim; Karlsson, Torgny; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Shengchao Alfred; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Mahajan, Anubha; Matsuda, Koichi; Meidtner, Karina; Meng, Weihua; Montasser, May E.; van der Most, Peter J.; Munz, Matthias; Nutile, Teresa; Palviainen, Teemu; Prasad, Gauri; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Priyanka, Tallapragada Divya Sri; Rizzi, Federica; Salvi, Erika; Sapkota, Bishwa R.; Shriner, Daniel; Skotte, Line; Smart, Melissa C.; Smith, Albert Vernon; van der Spek, Ashley; Spracklen, Cassandra N.; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Tajuddin, Salman M.; Trompet, Stella; Turman, Constance; Verweij, Niek; Viberti, Clara; Wang, Lihua; Warren, Helen R.; Wootton, Robyn E.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Yao, Jie; Yousri, Noha A.; Zhao, Wei; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Afaq, Saima; Alberto Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos; Akiyama, Masato; Albert, Matthew L.; Allison, Matthew A.; Alver, Maris; Aung, Tin; Azizi, Fereidoun; Bentley, Amy R.; Boeing, Heiner; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borja, Judith B.; de Borst, Gert J.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Broer, Linda; Campbell, Harry; Chanock, Stephen; Chee, Miao-Li; Chen, Guanjie; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Chen, Zhengming; Chiu, Yen-Feng; Cocca, Massimiliano; Collins, Francis S.; Concas, Maria Pina; Corley, Janie; Cugliari, Giovanni; Van Dam, Rob M.; Damulina, Anna; Daneshpour, Maryam S.; Day, Felix R.; Delgado, Graciela E.; Dhana, Klodian; Doney, Alexander S. F.; Doerr, Marcus; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Dzimiri, Nduna; Ebenesersdottir, S. Sunna; Elliott, Joshua; Elliott, Paul; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Janine F.; Fischer, Krista; Freedman, Barry I.; Girotto, Giorgia; Goel, Anuj; Gogele, Martin; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Graff, Mariaelisa; Granot-Hershkovitz, Einat; Grodstein, Francine; Guarrera, Simonetta; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F.; Guity, Kamran; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Guo, Yu; Hagenaars, Saskia P.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Halevy, Avner; Harris, Tamara B.; Hedayati, Mehdi; van Heel, David A.; Hirata, Makoto; Hofer, Imo; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Huang, Jinyan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Ikram, M. Arfan; Jagadeesan, Anuradha; Jousilahti, Pekka; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Kanai, Masahiro; Kerrison, Nicola D.; Kessler, Thorsten; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khor, Chiea Chuen; de Kleijn, Dominique P. V.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraft, Peter; Kramer, Bernhard K.; Kutalik, Zoltan; Kuusisto, Johanna; Langenberg, Claudia; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Deborah A.; Lee, I-Te; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lerch, Markus M.; Li, Liming; Liu, Jianjun; Loh, Marie; London, Stephanie J.; Loomis, Stephanie; Lu, Yingchang; Luan, Jian'an; Magi, Reedik; Manichaikul, Ani W.; Manunta, Paolo; Masson, Gisli; Matoba, Nana; Mei, Xue W.; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Milani, Lili; Millwood, Iona Y.; Momozawa, Yukihide; Moore, Amy; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Mori, Trevor A.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Muka, Taulant; Murakami, Yoshinori; Murray, Alison D.; de Mutsert, Renee; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nalls, Mike A.; Nauck, Matthias; Neville, Matt J.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Ong, Ken K.; Orozco, Lorena; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Palsson, Gunnar; Pankow, James S.; Pattaro, Cristian; Pattie, Alison; Polasek, Ozren; Poulter, Neil; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Räikkönen, Katri; Ralhan, Sarju; Rao, Dabeeru C.; van Rheenen, Wouter; Rich, Stephen S.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Robino, Antonietta; van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Ruggiero, Daniela; Saba, Yasaman; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Felicita Sala, Cinzia; Salomaa, Veikko; Sandow, Kevin; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Laura J.; Scott, William R.; Sedaghati-Khayat, Bahareh; Sennblad, Bengt; van Setten, Jessica; Sever, Peter J.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shi, Yuan; Shrestha, Smeeta; Shukla, Sharvari Rahul; Sigurdsson, Jon K.; Sikka, Timo Tonis; Singh, Jai Rup; Smith, Blair H.; Stancakova, Alena; Stanton, Alice; Starr, John M.; Stefansdottir, Lilja; Straker, Leon; Sulem, Patrick; Sveinbjornsson, Gardar; Swertz, Morris A.; Taylor, Adele M.; Taylor, Kent D.; Terzikhan, Natalie; Tham, Yih-Chung; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tillander, Annika; Tracy, Russell P.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Vaccargiu, Simona; Vangipurapu, Jagadish; Veldink, Jan H.; Vitart, Veronique; Volker, Uwe; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Wakil, Salma M.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wander, Gurpreet S.; Wang, Ya Xing; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wild, Sarah; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Zeng, Lingyao; Zhang, Liang; Zhou, Jie; Amin, Najaf; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Becker, Diane M.; Lehne, Benjamin; Bennett, David A.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Bochud, Murielle; Boehnke, Mike; Bouchard, Claude; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Brody, Jennifer A.; Campbell, Archie; Carmi, Shai; Caulfield, Mark J.; Cesarini, David; Chambers, John C.; Chandak, Giriraj Ratan; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ciullo, Marina; Cornelis, Marilyn; Cusi, Daniele; Smith, George Davey; Deary, Ian J.; Dorajoo, Rajkumar; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ellinghaus, David; Erdmann, Jeanette; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Evans, Michele K.; Faul, Jessica D.; Feenstra, Bjarke; Feitosa, Mary; Foisy, Sylvain; Franke, Andre; Friedlander, Yechiel; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Gonzalez, Clicerio; Goyette, Philippe; Grant, Struan F. A.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Groop, Leif; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hakonarson, Hakon; Hamsten, Anders; van der Harst, Pim; Heng, Chew-Kiat; Hicks, Andrew A.; Hochner, Hagit; Huikuri, Heikki; Hunt, Steven C.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; De Jager, Philip L.; Johannesson, Magnus; Johansson, Asa; Jonas, Jost B.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Junttila, Juhani; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Karpe, Fredrik; Kumari, Meena; Laakso, Markku; van der Laan, Sander W.; Lahti, Jari; Laudes, Matthias; Lea, Rodney A.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Lumley, Thomas; Martin, Nicholas G.; Marz, Winfried; Matullo, Giuseppe; McCarthy, Mark I.; Medland, Sarah E.; Merriman, Tony R.; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Brian F.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis; Munroe, Patricia B.; North, Kari E.; Nyholt, Dale R.; O'connell, Jeffery R.; Ober, Carole; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.; Palmas, Walter; Palmer, Colin; Pasterkamp, Gerard G.; Patin, Etienne; Pennell, Craig E.; Perusse, Louis; Peyser, Patricia A.; Pirastu, Mario; Polderman, Tinca J. C.; Porteous, David J.; Posthuma, Danielle; Psaty, Bruce M.; Rioux, John D.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rotimi, Charles; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Den Ruijter, Hester M.; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Sattar, Naveed; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schulze, Matthias B.; Schunkert, Heribert; Scott, Robert A.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Sim, Xueling; Small, Neil; Smith, Jennifer A.; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Tai, E-Shyong; Teumer, Alexander; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Toniolo, Daniela; Tregouet, David-Alexandre; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Vollenweider, Peter; Wang, Carol A.; Weir, David R.; Whitfield, John B.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wright, John; Yang, Jingyun; Yu, Lei; Zemel, Babette S.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Perola, Markus; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Franceschini, Nora; Franke, Lude; Haley, Chris S.; Hayward, Caroline; Walters, Robin G.; Perry, John R. B.; Esko, Tonu; Helgason, Agnar; Stefansson, Kari; Joshi, Peter K.; Kubo, Michiaki; Wilson, James F. (2019)
    In many species, the offspring of related parents suffer reduced reproductive success, a phenomenon known as inbreeding depression. In humans, the importance of this effect has remained unclear, partly because reproduction between close relatives is both rare and frequently associated with confounding social factors. Here, using genomic inbreeding coefficients (F-ROH) for >1.4 million individuals, we show that F-ROH is significantly associated (p <0.0005) with apparently deleterious changes in 32 out of 100 traits analysed. These changes are associated with runs of homozygosity (ROH), but not with common variant homozygosity, suggesting that genetic variants associated with inbreeding depression are predominantly rare. The effect on fertility is striking: F-ROH equivalent to the offspring of first cousins is associated with a 55% decrease [95% CI 44-66%] in the odds of having children. Finally, the effects of F-ROH are confirmed within full-sibling pairs, where the variation in F-ROH is independent of all environmental confounding.
  • Lemopoulos, Alexandre; Prokkola, Jenni M.; Uusi-Heikkilä, Silva; Vasemägi, Anti; Huusko, Ari; Hyvarinen, Pekka; Koljonen, Marja-Liisa; Koskiniemi, Jarmo; Vainikka, Anssi (2019)
    The conservation and management of endangered species requires information on their genetic diversity, relatedness and population structure. The main genetic markers applied for these questions are microsatellites and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), the latter of which remain the more resource demanding approach in most cases. Here, we compare the performance of two approaches, SNPs obtained by restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and 16 DNA microsatellite loci, for estimating genetic diversity, relatedness and genetic differentiation of three, small, geographically close wild brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations and a regionally used hatchery strain. The genetic differentiation, quantified as F-ST, was similar when measured using 16 microsatellites and 4,876 SNPs. Based on both marker types, each brown trout population represented a distinct gene pool with a low level of interbreeding. Analysis of SNPs identified half- and full-siblings with a higher probability than the analysis based on microsatellites, and SNPs outperformed microsatellites in estimating individual-level multilocus heterozygosity. Overall, the results indicated that moderately polymorphic microsatellites and SNPs from RADseq agreed on estimates of population genetic structure in moderately diverged, small populations, but RADseq outperformed microsatellites for applications that required individual-level genotype information, such as quantifying relatedness and individual-level heterozygosity. The results can be applied to other small populations with low or moderate levels of genetic diversity.
  • Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U. (2014)
  • García-Fernández, Alfredo; Manzano, Pablo; Seoane, Javier; Azcárate, Francisco M.; Iriondo, Jose M.; Peco, Begoña (2019)
    Habitat fragmentation is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity conservation and ecosystem productivity mediated by direct human impact. Its consequences include genetic depauperation, comprising phenomena such as inbreeding depression or reduction in genetic diversity. While the capacity of wild and domestic herbivores to sustain long-distance seed dispersal has been proven, the impact of herbivore corridors in plant population genetics remains to be observed. We conducted this study in the Conquense Drove Road in Spain, where sustained use by livestock over centuries has involved transhumant herds passing twice a year en route to winter and summer pastures. We compared genetic diversity and inbreeding coefficients of Plantago lagopus populations along the drove road with populations in the surrounding agricultural matrix, at varying distances from human settlements. We observed significant differences in coefficients of inbreeding between the drove road and the agricultural matrix, as well as significant trends indicative of higher genetic diversity and population nestedness around human settlements. Trends for higher genetic diversity along drove roads may be present, although they were only marginally significant due to the available sample size. Our results illustrate a functional landscape with human settlements as dispersal hotspots, while the findings along the drove road confirm its role as a pollinator reservoir observed in other studies. Drove roads may possibly also function as linear structures that facilitate long-distance dispersal across the agricultural matrix, while local P. lagopus populations depend rather on short-distance seed dispersal. These results highlight the role of herbivore corridors for conserving the migration capacity of plants, and contribute towards understanding the role of seed dispersal and the spread of invasive species related to human activities.
  • Opedal, Oystein H. (2018)
    Premise of research. Phenotypic traits that consistently mediate species' responses to environmental variation (functional traits) provide a promising approach toward generalizing ecological and evolutionary patterns and thereby gaining insights into the processes generating them. In the plant functional ecology literature, most trait-based studies have focused on traits mediating either resource competition or responses to variation in the abiotic environment, while traits mediating reproductive interactions have often been neglected. Methodology. Here, I discuss the value of herkogamy, the spatial separation of male and female functions in flowers, as a functional trait in plant reproductive biology and review the evidence relevant to the hypothesis that taxa exhibiting greater herkogamy have historically experienced more reliable pollination and more outcrossed mating systems. Pivotal results. A large body of work in the field of plant reproductive biology has identified a set of nearly ubiquitous correlations between average herkogamy and features of plant mating systems, notably, autofertility (seed set in the absence of pollinators) and outcrossing rate. Herkogamy often varies extensively among populations and species, and the adaptive interpretation is that herkogamy exhibits local adaptation to the reliability of the pollination environment. Conclusions. These results underline the value of herkogamy as a functional trait representing variation in mating histories. Many important insights are likely to emerge from studies leveraging herkogamy as an easily measured proxy of plant mating systems, as already demonstrated in comparative studies and studies of reproductive interactions. Greater consideration of herkogamy and other reproductive-function traits in studies of species coexistence may provide a more complete understanding of community assembly processes.
  • Trokovic, Nina; Herczeg, Gabor; Ab Ghani, Nurul Izza; Shikano, Takahito; Merila, Juha (2012)
    Background Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), defined as small random deviations from the ideal bilateral symmetry, has been hypothesized to increase in response to both genetic and environmental stress experienced by a population. We compared levels of FA in 12 bilateral meristic traits (viz. lateral-line system neuromasts and lateral plates), and heterozygosity in 23 microsatellite loci, among four marine (high piscine predation risk) and four pond (zero piscine predation risk) populations of nine-spined sticklebacks (Pungitius pungitius). Results Pond sticklebacks had on average three times higher levels of FA than marine fish and this difference was highly significant. Heterozygosity in microsatellite markers was on average two times lower in pond (HE ≈ 0.3) than in marine (HE ≈ 0.6) populations, and levels of FA and heterozygosity were negatively correlated across populations. However, after controlling for habitat effect on heterozygosity, levels of FA and heterozygosity were uncorrelated. Conclusions The fact that levels of FA in traits likely to be important in the context of predator evasion were elevated in ponds compared to marine populations suggests that relaxed selection for homeostasis in ponds lacking predatory fish may be responsible for the observed habitat difference in levels of FA. This inference also aligns with the observation that the levels of genetic variability across the populations did not explain population differences in levels of FA after correcting for habitat effect. Hence, while differences in strength of selection, rather than in the degree of genetic stress could be argued to explain habitat differences in levels of FA, the hypothesis that increased FA in ponds is caused by genetic stress cannot be rejected.
  • Martikainen, Katja; Koivula, Minna; Uimari, Pekka (2020)
    Inbreeding gives rise to continuous lengths of homozygous genotypes called runs of homozygosity (ROH) that occur when identical haplotypes are inherited from both parents. ROHs are enriched for deleterious recessive alleles and can therefore be linked to inbreeding depression, defined as decreased phenotypic performance of the animals. However, not all ROHs within a region are expected to have harmful effects on the trait of interest. We aimed to identify ROHs that unfavourably affect female fertility and milk production traits in the Finnish Ayrshire population. The estimated effect of ROHs with the highest statistical significance varied between parities from 9 to 17 days longer intervals from calving to first insemination, from 13 to 38 days longer intervals from first to last insemination and from 0.3 to 1.0 more insemination per conception. Similarly, for milk production traits ROHs were associated with a reduction of 208 kg for milk yield, 7 kg for protein yield and 16 kg for fat yield. We also found regions where ROHs displayed unfavourable effects across multiple traits. Our findings can be exploited for more efficient control of inbreeding depression, for example by minimizing the occurrence of unfavourable haplotypes as homozygous state in breeding programmes.y
  • Lohr, Jennifer N.; Haag, Christoph R. (2020)
    Asexual species are thought to suffer more from coevolving parasites than related sexuals. Yet a variety of studies do not find the patterns predicted by theory. Here, to shine light on this conundrum, we investigate one such case of an asexual advantage in the presence of parasites. We follow the frequency dynamics of sexual and asexualDaphnia pulexin a natural pond that was initially dominated by sexuals. Coinciding with an epidemic of a microsporidian parasite infecting both sexuals and asexuals, the pond was rapidly taken over by the initially rare asexuals. With experiments comparing multiple sexual and asexual clones from across the local metapopulation, we confirm that asexuals are less susceptible and also suffer less from the parasite once infected. These results are consistent with the parasite-driven, ecological replacement of dominant sexuals by closely related, but more resistant asexuals, ultimately leading to the extinction of the formerly superior sexual competitor. Our study is one of the clearest examples from nature, backed up by experimental verification, showing a parasite-mediated reversal of competition dynamics. The experiments show that, across the metapopulation, asexuals have an advantage in the presence of parasites. In this metapopulation, asexuals are relatively rare, likely due to their recent invasion. While we cannot rule out other reasons for the observed patterns, the results are consistent with a temporary parasite-mediated advantage of asexuals due to the fact that they are rare, which is an underappreciated aspect of the Red Queen Hypothesis.
  • Vakkari, Pekka; Rusanen, Mari; Heikkinen, Juha; Huotari, Tea; Karkkainen, Katri (2020)
    The genetic structure of populations at the edge of species distribution is important for species adaptation to environmental changes. Small populations may experience non-random mating and differentiation due to genetic drift but larger populations, too, may have low effective size, e.g., due to the within-population structure. We studied spatial population structure of pedunculate oak,Quercus robur, at the northern edge of the species' global distribution, where oak populations are experiencing rapid climatic and anthropogenic changes. Using 12 microsatellite markers, we analyzed genetic differentiation of seven small to medium size populations (census sizes 57-305 reproducing trees) and four populations for within-population genetic structures. Genetic differentiation among seven populations was low (Fst = 0.07). We found a strong spatial genetic structure in each of the four populations. Spatial autocorrelation was significant in all populations and its intensity (Sp) was higher than those reported in more southern oak populations. Significant genetic patchiness was revealed by Bayesian structuring and a high amount of spatially aggregated full and half sibs was detected by sibship reconstruction. Meta-analysis of isoenzyme and SSR data extracted from the (GD)(2)database suggested northwards decreasing trend in the expected heterozygosity and an effective number of alleles, thus supporting the central-marginal hypothesis in oak populations. We suggest that the fragmented distribution and location of Finnish pedunculate oak populations at the species' northern margin facilitate the formation of within-population genetic structures. Information on the existence of spatial genetic structures can help conservation managers to design gene conservation activities and to avoid too strong family structures in the sampling of seeds and cuttings for afforestation and tree improvement purposes.
  • Fountain, Toby Edward Soames; Nieminen, Marko Juhani; Siren, Jukka Pekka; Wong, Swee Chong; Lehtonen, Rainer Juhani; Hanski, Ilkka Aulis (2016)
    Describing the evolutionary dynamics of now extinct populations is challenging, as their genetic composition before extinction is generally unknown. The Glanville fritillary butterfly has a large extant metapopulation in the Åland Islands in Finland, but declined to extinction in the nearby fragmented southwestern (SW) Finnish archipelago in the 20th century. We genotyped museum samples for 222 SNPs across the genome, including SNPs from candidate genes and neutral regions. SW Finnish populations had significantly reduced genetic diversity before extinction, and their allele frequencies gradually diverged from those in contemporary Åland populations over 80 y. We identified 15 outlier loci among candidate SNPs, mostly related to flight, in which allele frequencies have changed more than the neutral expectation. At outlier loci, allele frequencies in SW Finland shifted in the same direction as newly established populations deviated from old local populations in contemporary Åland. Moreover, outlier allele frequencies in SW Finland resemble those in fragmented landscapes as opposed to continuous landscapes in the Baltic region. These results indicate selection for genotypes associated with good colonization capacity in the highly fragmented landscape before the extinction of the populations. Evolutionary response to habitat fragmentation may have enhanced the viability of the populations, but it did not save the species from regional extinction in the face of severe habitat loss and fragmentation. These results highlight a potentially common situation in changing environments: evolutionary changes are not strong enough to fully compensate for the direct adverse effects of environmental change and thereby rescue populations from extinction.
  • Bos, Nick; Pulliainen, Unni; Sundström, Liselotte; Freitak, Dalial (2016)
    Starvation is one of the most common and severe stressors in nature. Not only does it lead to death if not alleviated, it also forces the starved individual to allocate resources only to the most essential processes. This creates energetic trade-offs which can lead to many secondary challenges for the individual. These energetic trade-offs could be exacerbated in inbred individuals, which have been suggested to have a less efficient metabolism. Here, we studied the effect of inbreeding on starvation resistance in a natural population of Formica exsecta ants, with a focus on survival and tissue-specific expression of stress, metabolism and immunity-related genes. Starvation led to large tissue-specific changes in gene expression, but inbreeding had little effect on most of the genes studied. Our results illustrate the importance of studying stress responses in different tissues instead of entire organisms.
  • Jiguet, Frederic; Robert, Alexandre; Lorrilliere, Romain; Hobson, Keith A.; Kardynal, Kevin J.; Arlettaz, Raphael; Bairlein, Franz; Belik, Viktor; Bernardy, Petra; Copete, Jose Luis; Czajkowski, Michel Alexandre; Dale, Svein; Dombrovski, Valery; Ducros, Delphine; Efrat, Ron; Elts, Jaanus; Ferrand, Yves; Marja, Riho; Minkevicius, Simonas; Olsson, Peter; Perez, Marc; Piha, Markus; Rakovic, Marko; Schmaljohann, Heiko; Seimola, Tuomas; Selstam, Gunnar; Siblet, Jean-Philippe; Skierczynski, Michal; Sokolov, Alexandr; Sondell, Jan; Moussy, Caroline (2019)
    In France, illegal hunting of the endangered ortolan bunting Emberiza hortulana has been defended for the sake of tradition and gastronomy. Hunters argued that ortolan buntings trapped in southwest France originate from large and stable populations across the whole of Europe. Yet, the European Commission referred France to the Court of Justice of the European Union (EU) in December 2016 for infringements to legislation (IP/16/4213). To better assess the impact of hunting in France, we combined Pan-European data from archival light loggers, stable isotopes, and genetics to determine the migration strategy of the species across continents. Ortolan buntings migrating through France come from northern and western populations, which are small, fragmented and declining. Population viability modeling further revealed that harvesting in southwest France is far from sustainable and increases extinction risk. These results provide the sufficient scientific evidence for justifying the ban on ortolan harvesting in France.