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  • Sundholm, Dage; Berger, Raphael J. F.; Fliegl, Heike (2016)
    Magnetically induced current susceptibilities and current pathways have been calculated for molecules consisting of two pentalene groups annelated with a benzene (1) or naphthalene (2) moiety. Current strength susceptibilities have been obtained by numerically integrating separately the diatropic and paratropic contributions to the current flow passing planes through chosen bonds of the molecules. The current density calculations provide novel and unambiguous current pathways for the unusual molecules with annelated aromatic and antiaromatic hydrocarbon moieties. The calculations show that the benzene and naphthalene moieties annelated with two pentalene units as in molecules 1 and 2, respectively, are unexpectedly antiaromatic sustaining only a local paratropic ring current around the ring, whereas a weak diatropic current flows around the C-H moiety of the benzene ring. For 1 and 2, the individual five-membered rings of the pentalenes are antiaromatic and a slightly weaker semilocal paratropic current flows around the two pentalene rings. Molecules 1 and 2 do not sustain any net global ring current. The naphthalene moiety of the molecule consisting of a naphthalene annelated with two pentalene units (3) does not sustain any strong ring current that is typical for naphthalene. Instead, half of the diatropic current passing the naphthalene moiety forms a zig-zag pattern along the C-C bonds of the naphthalene moiety that are not shared with the pentalene moieties and one third of the current continues around the whole molecule partially cancelling the very strong paratropic semilocal ring current of the pentalenes. For molecule 3, the pentalene moieties and the individual five-membered rings of the pentalenes are more antiaromatic than for 1 and 2. The calculated current patterns elucidate why the compounds with formally [4n + 2] p-electrons have unusual aromatic properties violating the Huckel pi-electron count rule. The current density calculations also provide valuable information for interpreting the measured H-1 NMR spectra.
  • Molina, V.; Rauhalahti, M.; Hurtado, J.; Fliegl, H.; Sundholm, D.; Munoz-Castro, A. (2017)
    [trans-Cu(mu-OH)(mu-dmpz)](6) (1) exhibits six Cu(II) centers effectively coupled through a ligand mediated mechanism leading to a diamagnetic ground state over a wide temperature range. Here we investigate further magneto-structural correlations based on the possible free electron precession along such a copper-based ring-like nanocoil mediated by bridging ligands. We find that in 1, mediated antiferro-magnetic coupling leads to characteristics that induce aromatic ring behavior through evaluation of both induced currents and shielding of cones from a relativistic density functional theory level. According to our gauge calculations including magnetically induced current densities and an induced magnetic field, a sizable ring current strength susceptibility is obtained for the cyclic Cu-N-N-Cu and Cu-O-Cu pathways, allowing a magnetic exchange between the copper centers. Our study suggests that [Cu-6(dmPz)(6)(OH)(6)] consisting of an aromatic ring structure displays aromaticity and superexchange along the Cu-O-Cu and Cu-N-N-Cu backbones, which accounts for 80% and 20% of the overall ring current strength susceptibility, respectively. This reveals the presence of particular aromatic ring characteristics in coordination compounds without a direct metal-metal bond, where several formally paramagnetic centers are antiferromagnetically-coupled through supporting ligands. We envisage that our findings can be extended to other examples depicting ligand-mediated interaction between metal centers.
  • Rauhalahti, M.; Munoz-Castro, A.; Sundholm, D. (2016)
    spherical and cavernous carbocage molecule exhibiting faces with larger ring sizes than regular fullerenes is a suitable species for investigating how molecular magnetic properties depend on the structure of the molecular framework. The studied all-carbon gaudiene (C-72) is a highly symmetrical molecule with three-and four-fold faces formed by twelve membered rings. Here, we attempt to unravel the magnetic response properties of C-72 by performing magnetic shielding and current density calculations with the external magnetic field applied in different directions. The obtained results indicate that the induced current density flows mainly along the chemical bonds that are largely perpendicular to the magnetic field direction. However, the overall current strength for different directions of the magnetic field is nearly isotropic differing by only 10% indicating that C-72 can to some extent be considered to be a spherical aromatic molecule, whose current density and magnetic shielding are ideally completely isotropic. The induced magnetic field is found to exhibit long-range shielding cones in the field direction with a small deshielding region located perpendicularly to the field outside the molecule. The magnetic shielding is isotropic inside the molecular framework of C-72, whereas an orientation-dependent magnetic response appears mainly at the exterior of the molecular cage.
  • Kumar, Chandan; Fliegl, Heike; Sundholm, Dage (2017)
    Magnetically induced ring-current strength susceptibilities and nucleus independent chemical shifts (NICS) have been studied for 15 single-ring aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic molecules. The current densities have been calculated at the density functional theory (DFT), Hartree-Fock (HF) theory, and second-order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) levels using the gauge-including magnetically induced current method (GIMIC). The ring-current strength susceptibilities have been obtained by numerical integration of the current density flowing around the molecular ring. The calculated ring-current strength susceptibilities are almost independent of the level of theory. The relative degree of aromaticity deduced from the magnetic properties has been compared with the ones deduced from hydrogenation enthalpies that are considered to be proportional to aromatic stabilization energies (ASE). For the studied single-ring molecules, GIMIC, NICS, and ASE calculations yield similar trends. The study shows that there is a linear correlation between the magnetic and energetic criteria of aromaticity. The largest uncertainty originates from the accuracy of the energy data, because they are much more dependent on the employed computational level than the calculated magnetic properties. Thus, ring-current strength susceptibilities can be used for assessing the degree of aromaticity.